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>. M50.I 

. * 


r - 

Mr. RAY'S Travels. 

Vol. L 

^/*^' >;«:>.; f-g 

-^ *« • ♦ 




Germany Jtaly and France, 

With curious Obfervations, 


Physiological, &ci 



Found Qxmtaneoufly growing in thole Part& and 

their VIRTUES. 

By the late Reverend and Learned 


To which is added. 

An Account of the Travels of 


Through great Part of 5 FA IN. 

Correfled and Improv'd, and adom'd with Copper-Plates. 

VOL. I. 


Printed for J. Wabhee, D. Midwinter ^ A. Bettejwtrth and C. ITttcb, 
W. Imrft^ R. Rtbinfin, J. fTtlfirdy A. Ward, J. and P. Knap- 
ttHy T. Ln^man., O. Payne, tV. Sbrtfflnrey J. and R. Ten/oaf 
T. TVoodman, R. Chandler, and J. JVellingm. 



c I 

4> * 





\Hen I bad travelled over the 
greatefi part, of England in 
fearcb of plants^ andfufficientty 
informed tnyfelf wkat Jorts my 
won count fy natural y produced ; I 
grew dejiraus to fee what variety 
foreign coufHries of a different Jot I and tempe-^ 
rature of air might afford. For which rea^ 
fin I was taJUy induced to accompany Fran- 
cis Willughby Efq., Philip Skippon Efq. and 
Nathanael Bacon Gent^, in a voyage beyond 
the feas. The fuccefs whereof^ as to the num^ 
her of plants founds exceeding Jny expeSlation 
I thought it flight not be amififor the fatii^ 
faaim of the curious^ and air^^ion of tbpj( 
wb^ may hereafter travel the fame places with 
the like defign^ to publifh a Catalogue of • all 
not native- of England that.X had objerv^d. 
But confideriHg thi paucity of thofi who, de^ 
light in Jludfes andjnquiri^f of this nature^ 
J have added a narrative ^f oer whole voyage^ 
wthJdmeQhicrvztitiM Topogra^pHical, Mp^ 
nU Natural, &c. . made by fnyfetf and the 
forementioned gentlemen. 1 Jhall fay nothing to 
recommend tbem^ but only that what I write 



as of mine own knowledge is punSlually and 
in all circumfiances true^ at lea/l according 
to my apprehenjion and judgment^ I not giv* 
ingmyf elf that liberty which many travellers are 
wont to take^ ahd the commbri proverb feems 
to allow them: - 

/ might have been more large concerning 
France biit ihatwi were fi^uftrdteidlnourje^n 
of making the Oratid tour (as they there daUit) 
being driven out thence by fA^ French King'i 
declaration, commanding ^// /ire Englifh t9 
withdraw ihemjehes and their ' effeSis out of 
his dominions within two months time. And 
fhfit country being near us^ much travelled in 
-and well known to tbofe of our nhtion^ and 
there being many Itineraries and Defcriptims 
if it extant in prints I thought it tefs heed^ 
ful to write much concerning it. i 
- As for Spain, it being a couktry out of 
the ordinary roadrf travellers^ dUdihofitbat 
idve viewed it giving others little eficmragt^ 
ment to follow thHr exantple^* but rather con^ 
demning thimfehies fi^ their cumjkyy as bav- 
ing found nothing- there which mjgbt anfwer 
their trouble and expence^ that the, reader thay 
inow fonie thing of it without the hazard and 
ibarge of travelling in it, 1 have' added an 
Account of Mr. Francis Willti^by'i i)oyage 
through a griat part of it AHd this is aU 
that I thought needful to Acquaint the reader 
^ith by way of preface. 

.« 4 * 






Through Part of the 


April 18, 1663, 
ilE paJTed over in the packet-boat Uom C^lmi 
rj Dovtr to Calais, a town formerly held 
ii by the En^ijh about 210 years, viz. 
U fr oni4he 21. of King Edward III. 
31 when it was taken, till the laft year 
11 bf Queen Mary, when it was loft. 
H Since that time, Anno 1596. it was ta- 
ken by the Sfianiardi under Arch-dulce'.^M/rf in three 
days time, OAly lliecadle held out fevcn or eight. And 
hit, of all, jfnm 1598. it was re{K>rcd to the French 
upon the trcatv at Vei-vin, who now liold it. It is advan.' 
tazMxifly rtniate for defence, and now very ftrongly forti> 
fted after the niodern fafhion with an Impenetralile wall 
anii balti^ins of earth, a deep trench full of water to the 
landwaid^ and a latge citadel. The qew wall and cita- 
t^l wcfe built abo^t 44 years fmce. Th(i old Hope-wall 
B and 

a Observations topographical^ 

and ditch are ftill remainingt but inclofed within the 
iiewr. The town for bignefi exceeds Dntir^ and ieein'd 
to us frequent and full offcofit. It hath a large iquare 
Piazza or market-place, wherein are tnro great mar- 
kets weekly kept, the one on Tuefdays^ the other on 
Saturdays. The government is by a Mayor and four 
Efchevins chofen annually by the burgefles or free* 

Cranjt' From Calais^ April ai. we travelled to Dunkirk j by 

lit^' the way taking a view of Gravding^ a town neither 
large nor well bifilt, and, at our being there, but thinly 
inhabited ; yet; (^ands it in fo low and p]a(hy a level, 
and is environed with ib many out-works and great 
ditches of water, that one would think it were by force 
inexpugnable, and wonder that in fo (hort time it 
ihould be conftraised to furrender to the EngU/h and 
/r^;K-A beficging of it, Jnmi6%%. Before we came into 
the town we pafled over five draw-bridges. 

DunkirL Dunkirk is one of the four port-towns of Flandirs^ 
about the bigne(s of Cambridge^ according to our efti- 
mation ; wcllbuilt and populous, ilrongly fortified all 
about where it is capable : only toward the Downs or 
fandy hills on the fouthweft-fide of the town, though 
there hath been much coft beftowed in raifmg forts, 
yet w*ere they almofl filled up and fpoiled with (and 
driven in by the force of ftermy winds, againft which it 
will be very hard to fccure any fort that (hall be ther6 

Vieupert. From Dunkirk y j>^ril 2^, we rode along the fea-coaft 
to OJlsndy diverting at Nieuportj to refrcfh ourfelvcs and 
get a fight of the town. This is another of the ports 
x)f Flanders,^ and a place of good ftrcngth. It hath a 
long and fccure haven, but fcarce capable of fhips of 
any great burthen, a handfome key, broad and flrait 
flrcets. The hcufes generally but IbW-built, and of 
timber. The inhabitants maintain themfelves chiefly 
by fifhing. 

OJ!end, OJtend is another of the port-towns of Flanders j a 

place very confidcrabfc as well for its flrength as the 
convenience of its harbour, which is of good capacity, 
fafe from winds, wdl defended, and deep enough to 
receive (hips of great burtlien. The buildings of the 

2, town 


Morale and Phyjological. ^ 

town are not tall, but handfbme and uniform ; the 
ftreets regular, weU paved, exa<E)Jy level and ftrait. And 
it is no wonder th^ (hould be io, the prefent town 
having been contrived and fet out all at once. For when 
it was furrender'd up to Arch-duke Albert^ after that 
£iinous fiege of three years, the Spaniards found nothing 
tbere but great heaps of earth and rubbifli, fcarce one 
.boufe of the old building remaining. This town is 
010ft regularly and exaAly fortified, fo that it fcemed to 
tfs one of the ftrongeft pieces in all the Low-Cotmtries. 

The fourth, by fome efteemed the fifth port-town ofS^s* 
Fland€rsy which hath the largeft and moft capacious 
harbour of .all the iieft, viz, Sluysj fubjed to the States 
of the United Provinces, we (aw not. 

April 24. We took places in the pailage-boat for 
Bruges^ and at a league and halPs end came to a lock 
or fluice, where we fliifted our boat. Thefe locks or 
Softegm (as the Italians fignificantly call them) are ufually 
placed at a great declivity of any channel or fall of 
water, and ierve to fuftain or keep up the water ^as 
the Italian name imports) to make a river navigable 
which either wants water or hath too ftcep a defcent. 
There are of them in England (as we have been inform- 
ed) upon Guildford river in Surrey^ and have been for- 
merly upon the Trent. They are ufually thus contri- 
ved : Firft, there are placed a pair of folding-doors or 
flood-gates crois the channel to ftop the water de- 
scending : then, a competent fpace being left to receive 
boats and lighters, t^c, another fingle gate : in each of 
thefo gates, toward the bottom, is made a hole or win- 
dow, fittttl with a convenient fliut or wicket {Portelh 
the Italians call it) to open and (hut as occafion requires. 
When a veflel c^mes down dream to the Soflegm^ firft 
they open the Portellg of the foremoft gates, and let the 
water into the ioclofod fpace, which will neceflarily rife 
there till it come to be equal with the level of that above 
the gates ; then they {hut the Portelloy and, the ftream , 
making no reftftahce, eafily draw back the gates, and re- 
ceive in the boat. Which done, they open the Porielh 
of tlic lower gates, whereupon the ftream above prefcntly 
drives tP and keeps faft the foremoft gates, and the wa- 
ter in the ingfefod fpace finks till it be even with that in 

' B a the 

4 Observations %^p^raphical^ 

the channel bek>w ; and then th^y open the gate itielf, 
and let the boat out. When a boat goes up ftream, they 
firft open the lowcrmoft gate, and receive it into the 
middle or inclofed fpace ; then withdraw or fct open the 
Portelh in the uppermoft gates, lettmg in tjie water 
till it come to bo equal with the level of that above the 
gates ; and laflly draw back the gates themfelves, and 
let out the boat. N, B, That both upper and lower gates 
open againft the ftrcam, and are driven to and kept (hut 
by It i and that the leaves of the upper gates lie not iti 
the fame plain when (liut, but make an obtufe angle, 
the better to rcfift the force of the v^ter. 
$tugn. Bruges ^ fo called from the multitude of bridges th^r^- 

in, is four leagues diftant from Oftendy a large city and 
well built, many of the houfes being four or five, and 
feme fix ftories high. It is of a round' figure, 'well 
walled and intrenched, hath been formerly one of the chief 
martntowns in Europe ; and though it be at prefent lefs 
thin what it was for trade, riches, and number of peo- 
ple, yet it is no mean, poor, or inconfiderable place, but 
in fo good condition, that it may well challenge place 
among the cities of the i^nd rate in Europe, It is 
now an epifcopal fee, and hath be^n noted for handfbme 
women. Here we firft obferved the cuftom mention'd 
by Erafmus in his CoUcquies^ of faftening a fmall piece of 
white linnen to the ring or rapper of the door of that 
.^ houfc where a woman lies in. A. Forte praterietis bifs. 

adei vldi corntcem obduSiam Candida linteo : demirahar quid 
ejpt caufa. Fa. Adeone hofpes es in hacRepuh, ut ignores hoc 
effif/fnholum puerperiiin adibus ? ErafnK CoUoqu, Puerpera. 
vVc faw the manner of railing up water for the ufe of 
the citizens by a chain whereon are faftened cylindrical 
iron buckets, This chain is round in form of a brace- 
let, neck- lace, or wheel-band, ?ind put over a large Axis 
deeply furrowed, from which it hangs down into a well 
of water, and being turned about by the Axis^ the de- 
fcending buckets have theirmou^s (lownward, and take 
up water as they pafs through the Well ; which (ai*- 
cending ^ ith their mouths upward, but a little inclining 
from the chain outward) they bring up to the Axi^^ to 
which fp foon as they are come, by reafenof their pbfition 
they mull needs turn it out into a trough placed under the 



«*,• .. 


Moral, and PhyJiologicaL 

jfxis^ by which it is conveyed to a ciftern, and thence 
by pipes to private houles* This kind of machine is ge- 
nerally ufed in Itafyy Spaing and France for raifing up wa^ 
ter, to watCf their gardens in fummer-time. The deep 
furrows in the Axis are to catch hold of the buckets, that 
the chain flip not back by realbn of the weight of the af-^ 
cending buckets. In this city are no more than (even 
parifh-churcbes, but of monafteries or religious houfes 
(as ther call them) good (lore, 60 according to Gchitz. In 
the cnurch of Noflre-dami^ or St. Mary^ lies the body of 
Charles the Hardy, duke of Burgundyy and lord of moft 
of the Netherlands^ under a ftately monument with a 
Frisub inicriptioaupon it, which tells us, that he was (lain 
in the battle of ^^nry, 1476. and his body brought from 
Nancy hither by . hi& great grand-child Charles V. 
Emperor, and that K. Philip IL eredled to him that 
jnonument. We faw in this town one JohnTatesyZ 
man of a gigantick ftature,born at SchoorJxven in Holland : 
one of a middle ftature might well ftand under his arm« 
pit) from his middle finger's end to his elbow was 25 
inches and a half, the length of his hand to his wrift 1 1 
inches, his middle finger 7 inches. He was well fhaped, 
and all his limbs proportionable to his height. He was 
afterwards (^as we heard) brought over into England to 
be (hown. 

Near this city ( as Boetius de Boot, who was na- 
tive thereof, relates ) digging ten or twenty ells deep 
in the earth, they iind whole woods of trees, in 
which the trunks, boughs, and leaves do fo exact- 
ly appear, that one . may cafily diilingui(h the feve- 
ral Kinds of them, ^nd very plainly difcern the fe« 
ries of leaves which have fallen yearly, Thefe fub- 
terraneous woods are found' in. tholQ places which 
500 years ago were fea, and afterwards either left 
and thrown up by tlie fea, or ^ined' from it,, the 
tides bang kept off by walls and fences. But be- 
fore the fore-mentioned term pf 500 years, there 
is no meoiory that thefe places. were part of the 
continent. And yet feeing the tops of thefe trees 
do for the moft part lie eaftward, becaufe ( as is pro- 
bable) they were thrown down by weftern winds^ 
which on this coaft are moft boifterous and violent. 

B 3 it 

6 Observations Tcpograpbical. 

it will ncceflarily follow that, lA the moft antient 
times and before all memory of man; thefe places were 
firm-land, and without the limits of tlie lea.' ' 

The defcriber of Amfteriam tells us, 'that m Fri^-' 
land and Gronlnglandy there are great nurfibers of 
thefe under-ground trees, found and digged up' itl' 
mofles and fenny grounds ^h^fe they dig fM*' 
turves. In England alfo there arc found of them 
plentifully in many places, the wood, whereof they 
ufually call Mofs-TVood^ becaufe it is * for the mbu 
part digged up in the mofles, or moorifci boggy' 
fens and levels where they get turves ; though 
fometimes it ber found in firmer grounds, and fome-' 
times in the fides of mounuins. The queflion ii. 
How thefe trees came to be burled fb deep under* 
ground ? To which we may probably . arifwer. That 
many ages ago before all records of antiquity, yea^* 
before primitive fame or tradition itfelf, thefe pla-' 
ces were part of the firm land, and covered with 
wood ; afterwards being undermined and overwhelmed 
by the violence of the (ea, they continual fo long 
under vi'atcr, till the rivers brought down earth 
and mud enough to cover the trees, fill up 
thefe fhallows, and reflore them to the firm land 
again. In like manner upon the coafl of Suffolk a- 
bout Dunwich^ the fea doth now, and hath for ma- 
ny years pail very much incroached upon the land, 
undermining and overwelming by degrees a great 
deal of high ground ; infomuch that antient writ- 
ings make mention of a wood, a mile and half to 
the eaft of Dunwu'hy which is at prefcnt fo far 
within the lea. Now, if in fuccceding aees (as 
likely enough it is ) the fea fhall by degrees be filled 
up, either by its own working, or by earth brought 
down by land-floods ftill fubfiding to the bottom, 
and growing up over the tops of thefe trees, and fo 
this ipace again added to the firm land ; the men that 
fhall then live in thofe parts ( if the world fo long 
laft) will;*tt's likely, dig up thefe trees, and as much 
woildcr how they caitie ^there, as wt do at the prc- 
ffeht mofi-wood'.' '. , 


Motai, and PhyJiologicaL 

And now that I am fpeaking of filling up and dt- 
terrating (to borrow that word of the Italiam) the 
skirts and borders of the fea, I (hall take leave to 
add by the bye^ that to me it Icems very probable, that 
all the Low-Countries have been in this manner gain* 
cd from the fea. 'Pot Varentm in his Geography 
tells us, that, finking a well in Amfhrdam^ at near 
■n hundred fbot deep, they met with a bed or floor 
of iand and cockle-ihells; whence it is evident that 
of old time the bottom of the fea lay fb deep, and that 
that hundred fbot thicknefs of earth above the (and 
arafe from the lediments of the waters of thofe great 
rivers, which there emptied themfelves into the fea, 
and in times of floods brought down with them a- 
bundance of earth from the upper grounds : which 
yet is a flrange thing, confidering tlie novity of the 
world, the age whereof, according to the ufual ac^ 
count, is not yet 5600 < years. That the rain doth 
continually warn down earth from the mountains, and 
attetrate or add part of the fea to the firm land, 
is manifefl from the Lagune or flats about Venice \ 
the Camarg or ifle of the river ^ofhe about Aix in 
Prcvencey in which we were told that the watch- 
tower had, in the memory of fome men, been re- 
moved forward three times, fo much had been there 
gained from the (ea ; and many places in our land : 
only it is a received tradition, and may perhaps be 
true, that what the fea lofes in one place it gets in 
another. That the height of the mountains, at lead 
thofe which confifl not of firm rocks, doth continu- 
ally diiDinifh, is I think very likely, not to fay cer- 
tain. I have been credibly informed, that whereas 
the fleeple of Cratch in th« Peak of Derh^lre^ in the 
memory of ibme old msx\. yet living, could not 
have been feen from a certain hill lying between Hop^ 
tm and Wirhworth^ now not only the flecple, but 
a great part of the body of the church may from 
thence be feen : which without doubt comes to pafs 
by the finking of a hill between the church and place 
of view. Hence it would follow, that in procefi of 
time (but it would be many thouCinds of years 

B 4 fifft,- 

firft) all the hills and mountains fexccpt the rocky) 
.would by floods and (hots of rain be quite walhed 
away, and the whqle earth levelled. 

But to return to the trees. One material excep- 
tion againft our folution ftill remains, and that is, that 
a great many of thefe fubterraneous trees digg'd up in 
England are thought to be firs, whereas that kind of 
tree doth not at prefent, and confequently we have 
reaibn to believe never did, grow wild in this king- 
dom. To which 1 anfwer, that this exception would 
indeed much puzzle me, were it certain and manifeft, 
that this is iir-vi^ood, which is fo generally reputed from 
its grain^ inflammability, and other qualities. But 
fince it doth not clearly appear to me fo to be, I {hall 
refpite my anfwer, till I be fully fati^fied concerning it. 

Count. From Bruges^ Jpril 27. we went by boat to Gaunty 

the greateft city of Flanders ; whence the Emperor 
Charles V. who was born,tere, was wont to boaft, 
that he could put Paris into ms Gantj in which word 
there is an equivoque. Cant in French (ignifying a 
glove. Yet is the wall too great for the buildings, 
inclofing much void ground. In this city, as in Bru- 
gesj arc 7 parifh churches, and, according to Golnltz^ 
about 55 religious houfesi We afcended the tower,, 
called BelUforty about four hundred fteps high, and faw 
the famous bell, called Rolandy not fo great as we ima- 
gined. This city is well built, well waU'd, and 
trench'd about, and the inhabitants .to us itemed very 
bufy and induftrious. 

j^ja^ From Gaunty April 30. We travelled to Brttffils^ 

about thirty Englfft) miles diftant, paffing through Aoljly 
a fortified town of fome note. , 

Bru/Tcis. Bruffeh is the capital city of Brahanty where the 
Spanijh governo|: of thefe p^'ovlnces, who^ was then 
the marquefs of Caraceney ufually refides. It is well 
built, large, and populous. The ftreets are broad \ the 
ftadt-houfc. a fair and uniform buifding. The. com- 
mon people here, and alio at Antwerpy^Lwainy Mech^ 
liny and other cities of Brahanty (as Hath- been noted 
by others ) ^nake ,iifc of dogs to draw little carts and 
wheel-barrows laden with commodities about the 
flreets. ' But for the advantage they make of them,' 
' '' • ' fctting 

■ ■ Moral, and Pb^kgicaT, . 

fetting afide the nuintaining of an old cuftom, I think 
they might as well empl^ their own arms and {houl- 
detsi In the gallery by the Hding-place, b an echo^ 
which refleSs the -vcnce fifteen times as we were af- 
fiired : we obferved about ten <Uftin£t refledions, 
the wind hindering us as to the reft. At this time 
it happened Ludffviais de Bilit to be in town, whom 
we vifitcd, and law five bodies, which he had with 
him, embalmed and preferved after his newly invent- 
ed manner, entire with j^ their entraib and bow- 
ds. He was then going to the univerTity of Livain, 
with whom he had made an agreement for difco- 
very of his art, and reading puUick anatomy lec- 

Our next remove ( May 2. ) was to Levaiuy a lai«e £, 
city* but ndthcr well built not well kept, only the 
fladt-houlc is a ftately ftniffaire, and makes a lair fhow 
at a diftance. The wall is erf" great extent more 
in circuit than that of Gaunt by three rods, taking 
in much void ground. The colleges are in num- 
ber 43, the names whereof together with their foun- 
ders are exhibited in the enfuing catabgue which we 
there found fHiblilhed in print. 

lo Observations Topographical^ 



y///»^ Univerfitatis Lovani" 
enjis Collegia ac Padagogia 
j^nno Saiutiscio.iochiv, 

MAgnum^/ Majus Theolc^taiitt) in viaquam Pra^^ 
poftti vacant^ omnium Academic Cottegiorum primum 
maximumque eft ; ereSfum in bomrem S, Sfiritits^ Anno 
Dcm. 1442. Univerftiatts decimthfexto,^ per Ludffvicum Rye^ 
iiumy Patricium Lruanienjem^ ac Principum Brabanti^ 
^aftorem : quod extenuiius exordiis (ut pleraq; alia) vtf- 
riorum donationibus ita excrevity tit in aliiid eidtm adharens^ 
2. quod hujus comparatione Minus dicitur^ Anno 1562. divi^ 
fum fuirit, Mirum^ quam 

Humili, verum felicibus, ortu. 

Creverit aufpiciis Academia magna LovanL 

3. Juris Utriufq; vulgo &ccalaureorum, S. Tvoni dicatum^ 
in via nova^ Anno 1483. per Robertum a Lacu Qandenjem 
inchoatum^ ac ab aliit auStum. 

4. 5. Donatiani, in via Felina^ Anm 1484. Juris utri- 
vfq\ Jiudiojis fundatunty ita di£fumy quia primus Fundator 
Antonius Haveron^ decretorum Do^for^ £3* Maximiliam L 
Conftliariusy Prapofttus fuit adS. Donatiani Brugis: pne^ 
cipuum agnofcit fautorem Joannem Carondektumj ibidem 
Prapofstumy atque Archiepijcopum Panormitanum. 

5. Standonicum, in via rratoridy a Joanne Stancdoncfy 
Mcchlinienfij DoSlore Sorbcnico^ (qui bf alias patiperum 

fchclarium demos Parijsisy Cameraciy Valencenis fcf Mech- 
linia condidit) in magnum Eccl/Jia bonuhy Anno 1490* 
pauperibus fundatum, 

6. Atrebatcnfe, in via Pra:poJitiy a Nicolao Rutherio^ pa- 
trid iMxemburgenfty 13 Atrcbatisrum EpifcopOy magnified 


Morale and Phyjiological. i r 

d§mo atf\ ^tbfta dme^ AnM 1505. in htmnm S. Nicolai 

Winkelitnum, in viA cava^ au&orem agtufcit ab Anno 7. 
'5^5* ftumem WhAeUumy C^mfnvatms Acaiemci N9^ 
tarium : itemqi Joafmem hujus fiL DoSionm Mtiicumy qui 
Jum^ fonrifyy hndj circ4i An, 1554* ix veto fatrisj (Jl 
^mrqiu^ Id accidity Jim Ugitimi pr$le decedirtt) in ufum 
CMmi ftudiafrtum J, V. impendii. 

Houtcrbeum, in viiVaaarid^ AnM 151 1. pir Htn- 8. 
riam ii Hmtterk^ Mtgifif^^mim^ D. Pitri^ Kc ScUlar- 
cham ae Milittm iSmfilfmitanumj Afim 1643. rauva" 


Buflidbnum, vu^ariter Trilingue, fioi Lingua He- 9. 
braUa^ Graca^ Latina in eo doeeantur : juxtafirum pifca^ 
rium^ auilorem habet fSeronymum BuJRdium^ Luxemburgi^ 
i fid ctgnominis pag9 mundttm^ Prapofitum Arienfem ac 
Prancifci Archiepjfc, Bifimtifd fratreni^ Arnio 15 17. 

Pontificium, in vii Fratmi^ erexit Adritmus VL VU lo. 
trajeiiinus, Pmt. Max, ante Adrianus Fbrmtinus diShts^ 
^d Midy dim hie in D, Petri Decanus effky The^kgisfui 
tuiiUt S, Augujlim deftinmfity bt p^ftta PonHfix canjlrmavit 
Anm 1522. 

Sabaudise, in via Nummaria^ Anna 1548. abEuftachio ix« 
Cbaf^s^ Sabaud»j AnnefpaanfiJ. U. DoSfwe ac Canlo V. 
a Con/iiiis^ (ftc, in gratiam fiUrum populariumy nt & aliud 
in patrid in honorem S, Enfiachiij magnifice extruGum ^ 

S, Anns, in via Pneptfiti^ NicJaus G^Utj Bcvinienfis^ 12. 
Dionantmjis Pntpofitusj Ann§ 1553. /5<«/tfwV. 
' Diuiliaiiutn) inanguh vulgi CuaiOtrnj a MuhaeU Dm- 13* 
<//#, $riund0 ex VsUftinchmie terriimi CafieUnfis^ J, U, Da- 
itmrt^ Pfff, (sT Uc ad D, Pitrum Dicano^ qui obut Anno 

Van-dale, in via Prapefitiy ftfuitwra magn^ctmiij fcf 14. 

jik Principum <krrumy confiruxit Petrus Van-dale Ant- 
uerpiannsy J. U. Doihr (sT Dec^mus AhJUmus^ Anno 1565. 

Vigihnuin, ftod etiam Frifenum^ in via S. ^ntiniy 15. 
Anno 1568. a viglh ab Aytta Zuichem^ jf^'^' Prapojito 
Gandavenjiy CsT apud Belgas privati U»ntUii Proffide^' 
p9pk/aritus fuis ac Gandavenjibus am Ofnpid dote adifi^ 



12 Observations Topogi^apbical^ 

J 6. Praemonftratcnle, in via Prapofiti^ frimerdia fua debet 

Carob vander Linden Parcenfij Mgidio Hepis Averhodienfi^ 
& MichaeU Maleno Ninevienji AUiatibusi Anno 157 1. .^'- 
buspoftea acceffmmt GrinAergenJisy Antuerfiinji$^ Tonge^t^. 
en/is & HeiUffemenJis. 

ij^ Cnuicndonck, ad viam Judaicam ineaepit Anm 1574. 

AiUfore Marcillo a Cranendenckj Taxandroy Twigthrenfi 
D.Jac(d>i hie Canon, in honorem qrnnque Vulninrum Cbrifti^ 

.0 Divxi, in monte Capella^ ut vocanty Au£for eft Greg. 

DivausJSruxellenJisy qui Namurci^ Roma ex JvULeo rediens^ 
ad beneficii merceiiem H iiineris qmetem i vita deceffit^An^ 
m 1576, Mtatisfiue 22. 

BrugelianQm, unicum Mediconm^in xm nova^ a Petro 
^' Brt^elio Syhioducenfi Med. DoSfore ac Profeffirej Anno 

2Q^ Seminarium R^ium, in via Preepojiti^ a Philippo IL 

Hifpaniarum Rege ac Belgarnm Principe^ de Acadenid (sT 

aliii titulis bene meritOy procurante Joanne VendeviUio^ Anm 

1579- ^ . . ^ . 

Pelfianum, in via Pradicatorum^ munijlcentia joamus 

Pels a Recklinchujia^ Weftphati^ hide Univerfiiati ab aHisy 

An. 1574. fids conterraneis fundatum H concinni reneva^, 

tum^ An. 1622. 

22. Montenfe, in via tiovd^ Joan, de Bievenej Montenftsj 

J. C/. D. ac Pr^effbr^ moriens reliquit^ Anno 1596. 

2^^, Semiiuritun Leodienfe, in via monetali^ S. Lamberto 

facrum, aufpiciis SereniJJimi Ele£ioris Emefti Ducis Ba^ 

variity EpifcopiLeodienfisyf^c. An. 1605. Opus H dote 

^Jlru^ura Aufforefuo dignum. 

. S. Willebrordi quod vulgo Sylvaeducenfe, in via novd^ 

> jam ab annls plus minus 20. initium habuit^ confirmatum 
eft ibzy. morte Fundatoris fid Nicolai Zoefii Jmorsfortii 
Epijc. Syhaduc, 

^^ mjranum^/ Bayorum, in via cavd^ exordia prima ac- 

^* cepit d magno Theologo Michaele du-Bay^ Hanmne^ Meli- 
nenfty D. Petri hie DecanOy quid iUud erigere caeperat ad^ 
Led^an D. Auguftm dicatum : iranjlulit deinde ad eum ubi 
nunc vffitur locum pracipuus ejus Fundator Jacobus du-Bay 
efratre mpoSy ftmiliterque S. Th. Doctor & Decanus D. 
Petri : hujus denique nepo^ Mgidius S. Th. Do^or tf Pro- 
feJjhryAnno ibl/^.folemniteraperuit^ eedificiis i^ dote tnag^ , 
mfici auxit^ 


Morale and Pbyjiohgical 13 

Divae Pulcherue, mfiro Boario^fundatum bonis aufpicits oJb. 
iij Anm i6i6. per £vijianim cujufdam Fundatims 
Vmverfitatis Coknienfisj fnagna quotidie incrementa fumt 
pid mubarwn liber aUtaU. 

Ordinis Teutonic!, ad viam lapideani exordiebatur Ed-- 2J. 
m$nius Huyn ab AnJlenraedt Ord. Teut. Eques CsT Com-- 
mendaiar Prtvinciaas Balruia yunatama^ &r. Atmo 

Caiioniooruin Rq;ularium S. Juguftini^ in via lapided 28. 
jnxta S. yacobum. 161 8. procurantibus Antonio van 
Borgbim Priore in Viridt-ValUj {tf yoanne Ptterfim Beth- 
lAemiticojuxta Levanium^ 

Mylianum vulgo Luxemburgenfet in via vaccaridj sg, 
Au&ore yoamu MyUo Luxemburgenji y, U, DoSiorCy qui in- 
gentem picunia fumnum moritns in hunc finem reliquerat^ 
tandem JlabiUtum Lovami vigefimo teriio a morte Fundato^ 
ris Anno^ fcilicetDom. ibvj, 

Hibemicum, in vid quet Bakelanica vocatur^ AuHori- 30. 
tote Apyielkd per facram de propag, Ftdei Congregationem 
Jludio & deie EugefavJ^aithai Arcbiepifc. Dublinenjisj 
An. 1623, inchoatum.. 

Alnenie, in via ^mntiniand^ per Edmundum youuent 31, 
Chymacenfemj Alka Ord» Cifterc. Ahbatem^ pro Mona- 
cbis ejufilem Ccenobii Anno 1626. faUcibus aufpiciis adi- 

Floreffienfe, in Bahlamcdj Anrio 1626. exordia fud 32; 
aecepii a yoanne Reberti Floreffienfi Otd. Pramonjf. Pra- 
fuUy iuppriore Generali ac Circariarum Floreffia faf /Zc?;?- 
driet ficario, 

Joan. Malderi, in via Af art inland y' Epifcopi Antuer* 3J. 
fienfis^ Anito 1633. coemptis in eum ufum eedibus d V. M 
Ludomo Tempelio, Pralore Urbis Jjovanienjis. 

Franc. Hovii^ LonderzelU S. T. L, Pajloris ad S. IFal- 34. 
bnrgim Antuerpim^ in Monte Jiliceoy cut Fundator infcribi 
tw&r/V Pamnx>nium Chrifti. ObtitAn. 1633. ^^'^' ^^^ 

NGnimorum, pro Religiofis Ord. S. Frakcifci de Paula^ 35. 
Anno 1639. 

Beggardorum, pro Religiofis fui Ordinis j Anno 1640. 36. 

Collegium S. Michaelisfundatum per R, (^ ErudltiJJi- 37, 
mum D. Laurentium Zoenium Sacra TheoL Licent, Infig" 
nit Ecclefia CoUegratet S. Petri Lovanii Canonicum ^ Sa* 


j6 Observations Topographical^ 

are abfent from lefhires are puni(hed a ftiver, whiob 
is fomewhat more than a penny. EngUJh. For evcrjr 
time they mifs a publick exercife in hw or phyfick, 
they pay three ftivers j if they be to excrcife them- 
felves, and mifs, they are mul^d twenty ftivers. Th^ 
ftudents are not allowed to wear fwords about the 
ilreets. - 

The profeflbrs of each pedagogy chufe yearly 12 of 
the beft fcholars who are of two years ftanding, 
Thefe 48 are publicldy examined, and out of them 
about 12 ufually chofen to buries or exhibitions. The 
burfes iignify their diet, chamber, and a greatqr of 
lefi ftipend, according as the burfes are. It is very 
creditable to be chofen to a burfe. He tha^is the 
firft of the chofen hath a bell rung for him in his college 
48 hours together without inteoniffion. When they are 
thus chofen, they may go into what college they will 
and ftudy what they pleale. They are commonly prefer- 
red to profe(Ibr{hips, and afterwards to canons pla- 
ces. The degrees here conferred are BatcheloTy Licenti- 
ate, and DoSfor, In Divimty after two years ftand'mg 
they may be Baccalaurei currentesyzher another year 5tf t- 
calaurei forma ti. Seven years after this they may bei.i- 
centiates in divinity. They are feldcim created Dolors till 
they attain to 50 years of age, unless they be very emi- 
nent for learning. Every Batcbehr is called Do^j/JtrmiS : 
A Licentiate in medicine Peritijftmusy in law, CmfultiJJi" 
musy in divinity Extmius : DoSfors of medicine and law 
arc ClariJ/iniiy of divinity Eximi Domini^ l^ Magiftri nof- 
tri. When any one goes out Licentiate^ there is a 
treatment made, to which all the dolors and the 
opponents are invited, and have gloves given them. 
The graduate is attended from the fchools with drums 
and trumpets. At his lodging a bell is hung up 
and rung for 24 hours togctlier. He hath liberty to 
chufe a coat of arms, and is immediately reputed a 

The men of mbft note for learning in this uni- 
verfity at prefent ( 1663.) arc GutifikviuSy Aiedi- 
cin^t dsr Math>feos Profcjfor, Vopifcus Fortunatus PUmr 
piusj Medians 'ProfeJJor primriuSy called Fortunatus^ 
becjufe he was. cut out of bis (nother's womb, as we 

' ' ' we*e 

•A «_^ 

Moraly and PbyJiohgicnU . tj 

were informed. Dv;Ux^ Med. Doffw, Stnmchlusy Thfj- 
tfgia DoSfoTy an Irijh-man^ PontanuSy* Theologia Dk- 
t9rj dean of S. Peier\ and Cenjir Librorum. Bradhy^ 
an Irt/h-man^ jft^ris Canonici VoAor, Loyens^ y^^ris 
Canonici Db^cn GuUnx was profeflbr of philofophy 
here, but is now turned Proteftantj and lives at Ley^^ 
dtn : Fan Verve^ TheoL Profeffbr primarius^ The pub- 
lick fchoob are old, mean, and homely. 

May 4. We walked out of Lovain about half a 
inile to fee the duke of ArefchotS palace, and the Celif- 
ttms doifter adjoining. We found, among the corn 
by the way-fides as we wetit, plentifully growing 
Caryefiyllus arvenjii umbeUiferm. J. B, and AlfinefolVu Plants a*> 
bederacas Ruta modo dlvjfis Lob. both in flower/ At bout Lo» 
this city we firft obferved ftorks, women-porters, and **'^'** 
Ibldiers begging on horfe-back. 

From Lovatn^ May 5. We travelled to Mechlin^ MukHn^ 
Malines the Prench call it, a very elegant and well built 
city, exceeding our expe£lation both for beauty and 
greatnds. It is the feat of an archbifiiop, and with 
a /mall feri^itolry of nine villages about it makes 
one of the Seventeen provinces, called the lordfhip of 
Mechlin. The cathedral church is dedicated to St. 
Rumtald, Many manufadures exercifed here of the 
moft gainful fbrt, as making of linnen-cloth, cafting 
of great attillery and bells ; and which we efpeci- 
sdly took notice of tanning, there being two or three 
whole ilreets of tanners* 

Hence May 5. We boated to Antwerp^ a city for J^twerf, 
ftrength and b^uty comparable to any of its bignefs 
in Europe. For the latter^ in my opinion, it much 
exceb FUrence^ with which it is wont to be put in 
competition. And for the former, it is encompafled 
with a wall of earth fsiced with free-flone, of that 
thickneis that there are feveral rows of trees and 
broad walks upon it; and with a ditch of water of 
a very great depth and breadth, excepting on that fide 
the nver Scheld wafhes it : io that, conlidering alfo 
the advantage of its fituation in ai low and level coun* 
trr, it feemed to me the Qrongcft city in ajl*the 
Netherlands. The citadel firft built by the duke of 
Aiva,^ and afterwards repaired by the prince of Parmd, 

C ^f 

i8 Observations Topographical. 

of a pentagonal figure, ferves as well to bridle as 
defend the town. The houfes of Antwerp arc for 
the moit part of brick, fome few wooden ones of the 
antient building here and there remaining, which the 
owners arc not fuflered to repair. The chapel of 
the Jifuites college is very rich and, fumptuous. The 
fteeple of S. Mary*% church Is (b curioufly built and 
carved, that the Emperor Charles V. fas we were told) 
was wont to fay, that it deferved to be kept In a 
cafe and fliewn only upon holy-days. The Exchange 
or Burfe was the pattern after which our old Rajal 
Exchange was built, but in all refpe£b inferior to it, 
the copy excelling the original. The Stadthwfe is 
a magnificent flrudure. Several other publick build- 
ings there are that dcferveto be viewed, moft of which 
are reprefented in the adjoined map. Planiius^s print- 
Ing-houle, mentioned by Golnitz and others, is for a 
thing of that nature the befl we have any where feen. 
This city for trading and wealth is much decayed 
fince the Low-Ccuniry wars. In the garden of one 
Francifcus van Steerbeck tl prieft, we faw many rare 
plants : among others we took more cfpecial notice 
of Lentifcusy Pijlaciay Spiraa Theophrajlij Barba Jovis 
frutex^ Cerafus nana^ Amygdala: nanoy Althaa mantis 
Olbii in Gallo-provinciay Morus fru^u alboy yafminum 
hcderaceumy Lycium^ Rofa fine fpmisy Capparis leguminofa 
Jive FabagOy Convoluvlus heptaphyllusy Acanthus aculeatuSy 
Efula rara Fenetoium^ PetrofeUnum Macedonicumy Dau- 
cus Creticus veruSy Convolvulus Althaa foUoy T'hapfta la^ 
tifoliay Ephemerum MaUhioUy Piftolochia Virginianay Py^ 
rethrum verum Auricula urji folio W JlTre Bcraginisy 
Sandalida CreticOy SabdariffiC fpecieSy Telephium Icgiti- 
mum Antiquorumy GnaphaTium Americanum fiore lutco 
plenoy Spartum marinumy Lauras AUxandrinay Abfinthi- 
um arborofcenSy Lilium /fUobrogum majuiy Geranium tu- 
herofumy Hellebori aibi . tres /pedes feu poiius varietates^ 
Centaurium majus Helenii folio £5f Scolymi folioy Coral" 
loidesy Urtica fatua Virginianay Campanula Damafcena 
la^efcens fiore purpureo l^ alio, 
Lillo, May 15. We took 'boat for Middleburgh \ at IaUo 

a fort upon the Scheldy three leagues below Ant^ 
werp^ belonging to the States of Holland y our boat 

2 was 


» Moral, and PhvfiologicaL 19 

vas feardi'd. as arc all veflbls going to and from Ant- 
werp. The wind syid tide favouring us, we reach'd 
ACddlAttrg^ 1>efore fun-fet, having made in all this 
day abcui 54 EngUJh miles. Upon the flats we paf- 
fed over» at. a good diftance from us, we law feveral 
fea-calves upon the fands. 

Mmieburgh is the capital city of Zealand^ large, MdJU- 
well built, having fpacious ftreets, populous, full oHurgb. 
wealthy merchants, and well fortified, as are ge- 
nerally all cities and towns of any account in the u- 
nited Netherlands. It is Ctuate near the middle of the 
ille fFalacbriay whence do doubt it took its name, 
and not from * MetelluSy quafi MeteUi Burgunij as fome 
have fondly imagined. From that fide the ifland re- 
ipeding Antwerp is an artificial channel cut up to the 
town, capable of fhips of good burthen, which come 
into the town, the faid channel paffing through and 
making havens in three or four of the ftreets. There 
arc (as we were informed) about twenty churches of all 
hrts in this city, the Lutherans j French^ Anabaptjjfs, 
and yews being here tolerated and allowed places of 
publick wor(hip. At the ftadthoufe we obferved two 
eagles kept, which we were told the citizens were ob- 
liged to by their charter, by which they have great 
immunities granted them by the Emperor, as freedom 
from arrefts any where but in their own city, ^c. 

May 16. We walked out to Flujhing about twoW^/Vjg'. 
miles and an half diftant from Middleburgh \ a town 
once cautionary to the Englijb, though not fo large 
nor fo well built as Middleburgh^ and having narrow 
ftreets, yet very confidcrable for its ftrength and riches, 
the opportunity of its fituatiou and conveniency of its 
harbour, fliips of good burthen coming up into fe- 
veral ftroets of the town in artificial channels, and ly^ 
ing there fecure from wind and weather, 

Alay 19. We took another walk to Vere^ called ^^^'^ 
by the Dutch Ter-Vere^ or Camp-Verej fome three miles 
diftant from Middleburgh to the northward : a town 
for bigneis inferior to Flujhingy well fortified, having 
two bir harbours for (hips with broad wharfs or keys 
within the walls. We returned back through Armuy^ 
dtn, a fmalltown CQiififting of one ftreet, yet intrench'd 

C 2 ' about* 

20 Observations Topographical^ 

about. Here hath been formerly a good trade driveil* 
By the ivay we obferved the fea-banks to be faced with 
a kind of nutting of rufhes or flags ftaked down as 
high as the tide ufually arifes, to dc&nd them from be- 
ing waihed away by the wateri 
Btrgen op May 20. We went by boat from ADddleburgh to 
Kothi, Bergen op vanniy paf&ng by Ramnukensj a ftrong fort 
at the entrance of the channel leading to MiddlAwrglu 
Bergen is a place of very ereat ftrength» befides the 
" wall and trench, being fortified with half moons, horn- 
works, &fr. famous for tbe^ notable rcfiftance it made 
firft to the duke of Pamuij and afterwards to the mar- 
quefs Spinola befieging of it, Anm i6a2. At our be- 
ing there it was held with a fhong garriibn, confifting 
of twelve companies of foot, two whereof were En^ 
glijhy and two troops of horle, befide four companies 
of townfinen. 
Jreda. May 21. We travelled to Breia^ eight hours diflant 

from Bergen^ for fo they reckon or meafure their way 
in thefe countries, by tlie time they (pend in paffii^ 
it. This town is confiderable for its bignefs, weu 
built and populous } of great ftrength, being encompafled 
with very thick walls and mounts of earth and two 
trenches full of water, the one broad and deep : at 
our entrance in wepaJIed through two ports, and over 
five draw-bridges.' It belongs to the Prince of Orange^ 
who hath a caftle and a fair palace in the town. Here 
are maintained in garrilbn for defence of this important 
ftrength thirteen companies of foot, two whereof were 
Englljh at our being therp, and four troops of horie. 
Ever fince the furprife of this town by the turf-boat, 
it is the cuftom to fearch all boats iaden with com- 
modities that enter here, by ftabbing them through in 
fundry places with a fpit. 
StGertrw May 22. we travelled from Breda firft to St. GertrU'^ 
Jenberg, denberg^ belonging to the States, no great town, but 
well fortified and intrench^, garrifon'd by three com- 
panies of foot, one whereof was EngU/b^ and a troop 
of horfe : and from Qertrudenberg the ume day by water 
Dort to Dordrecht or Dort^ a large city, very rich and popu- 
lous, well built with tall houfes of brick, not inferior 
to thofe of Antwerp. The ftreets el^ntly pav'd, in 


Moral, and Pbyjiologicah 2 1 

the nuddle with flone, and on each fide next the houfcs 
with brick fee tigswzySj (o clean that a man may walk 
them in flippen witKout wetting his foot in the midft 
of winter. Thus paved and thus cleanly kept are tho 
ftreecs of all tho cities and great towns in Hoiland. The 
£figS/b merchants have great privileges, and keep thetr 
court in this town. Here are two EngHJb churches and 
one Frmcb. From the tower of the principal church 
we had a fiur profpeft of the city and countiy adjacent, 
the flmpk of Breia coming into view. In one of the 
upper rooms of the gunners doel or guild iat the fynod 
aitemhicd here, Anm 161 1. The feats round about are 
fill remaining. 

JMgr 23. we took places in one of the paflage-boats;;^//^;.^^^ 
that go m feveral times daily to Rotterdam^ feme three 
kagues diflant from Dort, which brought us thither in 
five boun« Rrttirdam is of a triangular figure, and 
much larger than I thought it to have been. It equals 
if not exoeds any dty in Hdland^ except Amftgrdam and 
and perha^B L^^dm. \t hath been lately much augmented 
by the addition of many ftreets of new buildings Near 
the principal church dedioated to Su £auretue is a littk; 
houfe where Erafinus was born, over the door of which 
is placed his pifhir^ and on one fide of that this difticb 

bit artuf nmmhtm dectravit Erafmui 
Ariihis ingtmusj nlligimiy fiit. 

Under it in ^niftf this, 

Eh i/la eafa es nacUo Erafma TbeQlog9 celebrad9^ 
Par d^arina fpmalado^ la pur a fee ms a rtueladq. 

And in Latin this, 

FataSsfiries nobis invidit Erafmum^ 
A Defidmum uUfre nm potidu ^ 

In a hiBe Piama flands a ftately brafi ftatue ereded 
to his memory, with the figure of a hook of the fiime 
metal in il» l»Qd> and in the p9^re of turi^g over a 

C 3 ^^ 

22 Observations T^opogfdphicalj 

leaf, of which in drollery the people £i}r, that» every time 
it hears the clock ftrike, it turneth over a leaf. The 
citizens of Rotterdam exerciie no haunlicraft or iniinu- 
£iAure to trade withal, but all their riches proceed from 
their fea-trade and merchandife. T£ey have a very 
good pert,{hipsof great burthen coming up in deep channeb 
mto the very town : where they lie fecure from all dongery 
and lade and unlade their commodities at the. merchants 
doors. The government is by a pcefident, ibvr btfrgo-i- 
mailers, and twenty four magiftrates or ienatofSy wfeidt 
they call the Vroetfchap, Thefe chtife all puUkk oScers 
out of their own number. Themfelves continue ih place; 
during life, and when any one dies, the reft chafe out of 
of the citizens another into his room ; h that the people 
have no intereft or (hare at all in the government. The 
form of government is moft what thefiime in aO the othei' 
cities and towns of Holland^ only the number of coan«> 
fellors or the Vreeifchap ts in feme more, in feme le6. . 
*^*!ft' Every hour of the day at the ringing of a bell goes off 

a paflagc-boat, fomewhat like our pleaiur&-barges on the 
Thames^ to Delft. We took piaccs in one of tkefe. 
May 25, which in two hours tinte brought ns to De^^ 
three Dutch miles. This is silfo a hi^ city, fair and 
well built, vtra'ter runs through many pf the ftreets. The 
ftadthoufe is a very hand(bme ftrudhire. Here iue two 
large churches, the one called the old, the other tlie new 
kirk. In the middle of the choir of the new kirk is 
a ilately monument . erected to the memory of Grave 
tf^lUam of Naffau^ Prince of Orange fwho was aflaiiEnated 
bcrej with this infcription: 

D. O. M. 



• > < , 

«• '•• Jit , "' •' *\ 

Mterna memor'ta 

GuHelmi Naffovii^. 

Supremi Araufionenjiwn Princtpis^ 

Paty. Pair. 
%/ Belgii fcnunk fu^s piJiBakiih . 
Et fuorum, 
Validlffims exereitiis are plai4mum fSr'iniat4 • t 

Bis cohjiripjit^ bhinditifh ir^*^ * 

Ordifmm aujpicm Hijpania tfrnnmdtm pftpuHt : 


Morale and Pbyjohgical. 23 

Vent reUgmis euUwny avitas patria leges 

Revccavitf reftitmt : 

Iffatn demq\ Uhertatem tantum non ajfertam 

Maurtth Principi 

Patema virtuth haredl Jilio 

Stabiltendam reliqult ; 

Herds vere JUuj prudintls^ invi^i : 

Slum Philip 11. Hifp. R. ilie Europa timer timuit^ 

Non aomuity mm terridt i 

Sed empto percujfore fraude nefamia 

Suftuhu ^ 

JFaederaL Belg. Provinc, 

PtrewH memcr, monum* 


lo the choir of the old kirk is a monument to Van 
Trump with this inicription : 

Mternee . Memoria. 
^ji Batavesy qui virtutem ae verum laborem amasj 

Lege ac,lHge. 

Batavge gentit decuSf virtutis bellicafiJmin hie jacet^ qui 
vivus ttunquam jaeuity ^ imperatorem Jijantem mori ae^ 
here fie exemph decuit : amer civium^ hoftium terror^ 
Oceam Jiupqry Martinus Harperti Trompius : S^uo wh 
mine plures ceiuinentur laudes quamhic lapis capitfarii 
mguftisr. Etcui Scbola Oriens ^OccidenSy mare ma^ 
teria triumpbarumf ,umverfus Orbis tbeatrum gloria fa- 
it z ^adunum eerta perniciesy eommercii felix aJfertoTy 
famUiaritate utilis nm vilisf pojlquam nautas ac milites 
. durusH, genus patemo.^ eum efficacia bemgno rexit im* 
pmoj.poft L pre^lia fuarum Dux fiat autpars magnoy 
po/l infipsisfi^a fidm vi^eriasy po/lfummes infra nu- 
ritum hanmresy tandem, belk Ang&ce tantim non viSioTy 
^erie snvi^usy x. .Aug* Anno JEnt Chriftianae cio 
IOC Liii. JEt^ LVJ. vivere ac vincere deRit^ Faede* 
rati Befgii Patres Herei optimi meritc M. r . 

C 4 Over 

24 Observations Topographical^ 


Over hb Arn^s this written, 

•i i, Del- • Urbs Phaebi cineres jaSfdUftd * curru^ bonorn 

V^^' Ingredltur cuotits egrediturq\ mart, 

* Phosbi 

mmirum q^^ y^^^ vander Mere^ an apothecary in this towq, 
lea Q IS, j^^^j^ ^ Mufaum well ftored with natural and artificial ni* 
rities, which we viewed, and therein obferved among 
ether things the following particulars. Zibitta or the 
civet cat. Dens ITtppopotamx as he pretended, thoi^h it 
he a queftion whether or no there be any fuch animal as 
the Hippopotamus ; Denies Phoca^ Camu GaziUa^ of thcfe 
we have fmce that feen in feveral cabinets. Cofta Sirenis 
diS(i^ Cornm bird Bezoardiciy Cornua bf Pfdes Alcif : 
this animal in En^lijb we call an Ett ; I uke it to be 
the fame which in New-England and Virginia thn^ 
call a Moofe \ it is of the deer-lund, the biggeft and taUeft 
of tl at genus. The horns have no brow-antlets, but 
only a broad palm with feveral fiiags upon It. I have 
fecn one of thefe horns at Mr. Holnef%zn apothecary in 
Lewis that weighed 25 polmds. The skin of an Elk 
ftufF'd we faw in the Great Dukis gallery at Fhrmce.^ 
Cemu cervi Anuricam, The rattle^fiiake'^ skin. An 
elephant's tail, a very finall thing confidering the bignefi 
of the animal. Lacertus hdicus fquamofus. Acus ptjtit 
4 fpecies. A piece of a Rbimceros^s skin. At the anato- 
mical theatre we faw the whole skin of a young rhi- 
noceros ftufPd. The head of a dolphin. A giant's 
tooth, ^ credere fas Jit. The head of a homed hare. .A 
chamxleon. A Soland-gook out of Groenland, A Tatou 
or Armadilh. Os petrofum Balanet. A young i^i^iale. 
A morie or iea^horfe's head. GuainOy a fifli from 
the ifland Mauritius. Petimhhuaba or the tobacco- 
pipe {i(h« Orbis Ecbinaius. Cancer Mohucanus ex nffva 
Belgioy which fome call the fea-fpider. Corallium nigrum 
fiue Antipathes, ' Spmgia infkndiiidi fpe^e. Mujlela >^W- 
cana. Indian habits, an indiaii faddle, feveral forts of 
of Indian bread, Indian dice, feveral antient idok. The 
cup prince William of Najfau laft drank out of. Pimcii- 
lum Sinenfe. A Japan letter written to the Dutch gOr 
yernor, odly painted. Pajfer Brafdienjis. Several forts of 


Moralj and Phypohgical. 25 

Tmmmtfs or humming-birds. A feather-|arment from 
the ftreights of MageUane. Siliqua arhmsjaccifira. Ni- 
dus avis ex Surat. Cancer Jmericams, Many forts of, 
Mian tobacco-pipes from new Belgium. A dart from 
Fretum Davis j wherewith the natives kill fiih. A locuft 
of that fertthat Sf. y. Bafftifi ate in the wildemefi. Ono^ 
creiali caputs Roftrum Rhinoeerotis avis Jive C^rvi Indict 
conmti of Bmtius^ which is worth twelve florins at Amfter^ 
dam* A cai&iwaries or Emeus^s egg, A pelican's skin and 
bill. Many ibrtsof /ndian weapons from Brafil. Eggs 
of an Indian ffx>fc. Car Veneris (a (hell like a Nerites,) 
Star-flones from CempefteUa, Several Indian and exotick 
firuits and feeds. Putorius Africanus^ with hairs (potted 
like the quills of a porcupine. 

In thb dty is a chinirgical and anatomical theatre, 
where leAuresare read every Wednefdajy and feveial ra- 
preferved, as the skin of a young rhinoceros ftufPd, 

befere-mention'd. Lacertus fyuamofus of a different kind 
from what we had before Ken. Manueodiata feu avis 
Paradifi nevajpecses. A flying iqulrrel, ' The skeleton 
of a dolphin. The tail of an /niraff peacock. The head 
of an dephant. The horns of a hare. The head of a 
Babamffa ; it hath two long tufbes* on the lower taw, 
and on the upper two horns that cortie out a little above 
the teeth, apd turn up toward the ey^. In the entry be- 
k>w hangi a Gr&enland man iii in his boat, of whlbh we 
have feeninievcralphces, particularly in the Trinit^-houji 

This town b noted for good eartheii ware, as ftone- 
ji^ pots, &r. of which great plenty is made here. The 
government » by a praetor, two burgontaflers, (even ef- 
cheviiif , and forty fenators, which the/ caH here, as in 
other towns of HMmel^ the Vroetfchif*. 

May 28. We went by boat in an bourns time from Delf Hague. 
to tbe Hague^ which, though not walled about, is ra- 
ther a great city than a village. It hath fiiir ftreets, ihtely 
and beuitiful houfes, elpecially about the palace where the 
States fit. Near this town is a larg^ grove full of plea* 
iant walks; where we firft obferved AfMfl^&rm growing 
wiM in great plenty. At SeheveUng^ a yubugt by the fea- 
fide, a mile from tne Hague^ we found a fort ^iSparfum 
mefriihnum, much taller and larger than our EngUfi kind, 


26 Ob^ervatioms Topographical^ 

From the Hague we made an excurfton to a village . 
called Laufiun^ diftant about an hour and halTs ridings 
famous for tlie burial of the countefs of Zealand and 
her 365 children. . The two brais bafihs in which they 
are reported to have been baptized hang up ftill in this 
church, and over them this inicription, which contains 
the hiftory. 

En tibi monftrofum nimhtSmmorahilefaSlumy 
^ale nee a mundt conditione datum. 

Margarita Hermanni Comitis Hennenbergtas Uxor^ Quarti 
Florentii C«m/Vw HoUandiac tf Zdandiac i^r7r^l, Guliel- 
mi Regis Romanorum ac poftea Caeiaris feu guhernato- 
ris Imperii atqi AJetheiae Comitii Hannoniae Soror ; 
a^us Patruus Epifcopus TrajeAenfis, Avunculi au^ 
tern filius Dux Brabantiae, (sf Cmes Thuringiae^ &c. 
Hac autem illuftriffimq Cvmtiffa^ jannos ^^draginia 
cireiter nata^ ipfo die Parafccues, rmamcirciier horam^^ 
Anno 1276. 365 efdxa efi ftteryiSi^ qfif priiis a Guido^ , 
ne Sujffraganeo TrajedenA mines in dftahus.exare gtelyi- , 
, if us ha^ksfliifiint^ fuorum nuifiuli motquq^ erant Joannes^ 
• puilla i^uiem mffnes Eli&betba^ vofata funf^ fui. 
/jhnul cmnes, cum matre uno eadem^ die fatis 
,amcefferuntj atque in hoc loiufduncnR tfmplo/epultija^ 
cent, ^od qui^em accidit ob paup^rculam . quandam 
fceminanty qua ex uno pariu gemellos in ulnis gejiabat 
. puerosy qusfm rsm: Jpja Comitifla adptirqta dicebaty id 
fer unum virum fieri non poffef^fafmufi- cofnumeliofe re- 
jecit I wide hacpaupercula animO'peifiifrbaia atque per^ 
culfoy mok tantum pralium numerum ej^jtnopartu ipfi 
imprecabatury quot vel totius anm dies numerentur^ ^^. 
quidem preettr natura curfum ehfiupenda quadam ratk^e 
iia factum ^ijicut in hac. tabula in, perpeiuam bujus. 
rei memoriam^ ex^ vetuftis tarn maf^ufcrip^s.quam typis* 
excujis Chronicis breviter paftium CgT enurtatune e/i^ . 
. Deus ille ter nusximus hac de re^fufpiflendusy honor^n^: ^ 
dus aclaudibuf extofUndusin/eff^Urfiii^ciiia^ Amen, 



' Morale and Pbyjiologicah Xj 

May ji. We took places in one of the paflage- 
boftts^Aom the Hagm Xf% L^fdm^ .which brought us 
thither in three hours. Thete boats are drawn to and 
fro by holies, teyden is next to Arrt/iitdam I think 
the grcateft city in Ibllapd^ and well built. In the 
great church dedicated to St. Peter ^ are many monu- 
ments let up' to the memory of peribns. eminent for 
learning, as Hnanuus the famous phyiidan, Bentius^ 
7l9,.Effiftttu^ RenAertvs Dodm^euf^ jhtmms Thyfius^ 
Fiftus Hunlmus^ EvirarAa Bronckbsrfi^ ami . others; 
their infirriptions you may find in Hegemtiuis Iti- 
nerarimn lillaniiee[ ' In the Frekch church lie buried 

?'^ipb ScaligiTy CarolusCbifiuSy WiUArordus SnelEusy and 
^^fiVtis P4fymier i KerclSHrift, 
The fchekM are one pile of building of bridb, three 
^offies high» <3ontahiing two xooms on a flooK . The 
lower two are the divinity and phyfick fcbods. The 
middle the kw and philofophy fchools* The upper- 
mofl or garrets are the Officina Elztuiriana. The foK* 
lofwing Series LeHionum (of which fort there is one 
yearly printed arid affixed to l9ie. foHDcl^gates) will 
give an account, what were the names of the pro- 
fisOhls ih tandi iifcuky: at. the time of our bem'gf thdfe« 
and what books and at what houn tfac^ rcad« 

ReSior ^ Senatus Academic X'^g" 
duno-Bat. LeSiori Salutem, 

^ A<r, ^eam LeHimmm fetiesy quee in omni Facukate 
bfkerms H eeftivis iemporibus hahentur : vifumn^is fuit^ 
Mt Je bis Tim hefiris taitMn^ fid & exterts coH/iaret^ bre- 
vem indicem earum^ H taheUam quafi dare : ut qui Aca^ 
demht Ingus.m/iree.'eehbritatem apud alies commemorari 
emdismtf quid in ea doeeeHur^inteUiganty prit^ijuam ad earn 
accedant : aut fMius mt accedant^ culttmtqi 4inimi in ea 


28 Observations Topograpbicaf^ 

Ordo Lection UM iEftivarum In Academia 
Batava Leidenfi. Anna 1663. 

MANE. . . 


D. Joannes van Home, Anat. ^ Cbk. Pr^iffl ^d, in 
Inftitutionibus Medicina praUpt Mttbdium MidmdL 

H O R A N O N A. 

D. Joannes Cocccius, SS. Theol. D§Sf. feT Profejffir^ E^ 
fijlobm PttuR ad PhUippmfis fuccin^i ejtplkau 


D. Jacobus Golius, Pr^f. Maibe/e^^ Ekmenta j^r^n§^ 
mica exponit,' ' 


. D. Abrahaiaus Heidanus, SS. Tbed. DtSf. (^ Pnfkffir^ 
locos commwffs profietur. 

D. Daniel OJonius, J.U.D. {sT Prtfeffor^ Academia i 
Sicretii^ Cedic4m intirprttatur, 

D. Adolftis Vorftius, Med. DoSf. {sT Prrfejfor prinrn" 
riusy interpretatur Aphorifmos Hifpocrath, 

D. Henricus Bomius, Philofophia Profeffbr^ Studiorwn 
Ciljiffipti Ar^ufionenjinfn, Prtncifis Ephorus^ Etbuam pr^ 

D. David Stuartus, L.A.M. SS. TheoL Doaor bt PU* 
lofophta Prtfejfor L^ces Prtecepia & ^mftiinn Wifftrf 
Mitaphjificas^ alurms interfretatur. 


D. Job. Antonides vander Linden^ D0&. (^ Profiffir 
Medkinge Pra£ika primus^, Morbds partictdans c^pmfcindi 
& curandi metbodum juxta Ratima&s Mgdiciiut prmupta 


D. Ant0- 

Morale and PbjifiohgicaL 29 

D. AntoniusThyfius, J. U. D. & Elojiuntia Profeffor^ 
TOuftrilf. & Prttpou D.D. OrMnum Holland. &r mji- 
Erif, Hi/ldricusj & BUUotheca pubtic^e frafi^hu^ ad Pern- 
ptmum Milam mitncraUlia totius Urrarum 4rUs ixpmiL 
DUhu auUmMircuru & Saturm Jus publicum Intirpretaiur. 

A M E Rl D I E. 

D. Jacobus GoIiiiSy in tabids Akuramun nUerfnta^ 
tuTy H uU ipuseft rifioat. 

D. Johannes r redericus Gionovius, yjJ.D. (sf Lingua 
Gracm Grmcarumqui Htftariarum Prtfeffir^ aliemis Ht^ 
r§diammi & Hiftmam Komanam rtcitabtU 


D. Johannes Hombeek, SS. Thiol DiUfnrli Pnfifor^ 
Sknan Mifis ixplicaty Liviticum. 

D. Adrianus Beeckerts i Thienen, J. U. D. isf Pn^ 
feffsTy Acad, in prafens Re^or^ PandeSfas intgrpntatur. 

p. Fiancifcus de le Boe, Sylvius, AfnEcina Pra^ica 
PnfiJpTy Affi^us graviores^friquentntfoe in Praxi Midica 
wkvementis tra^at, 


D. AUardus Uchtmannus, Hebr. Ling. Profejfor^ Pen-- 
tatiucln capita fili£fa l^ difficiliora inUrpretabitur in Gcmfiy 
& HAraam Grammaticam. 

D. Georgtus Hornius, Hijtmarum Prtf. aberuatim C 
Taciturn & Hiftmam Univcrfalem interpntatur. 


D. Staphanus Marchant, J. U. D. CsT Pnf. Injlitutitma 
yuris interpntatur. 

D. Jeannes de Raei, L. A. M. Medicina Doctor i^ 
Pbibf^ia Profejfor ordinar, profitctur Phyficam. 

D. Adolfus 

jo Observations Topographical, 

D. Adolftis Vorftius, Medicina {sT Betanias Profejfor 
frimarius^ Plantas in Horto Acad, demonftrat. 

D. Petnis a Schootcn, Math, Prif. Belpcus^ Fortifica- 
tionem txponity deinde Per/peSiivamy turn commuHemy turn 
curio/am^ ejufque in Cofmograptna (f Gnomonicis ufim 
fcientifici eft explicaturus : Hora taidmma kcofiUto. 

D. yobanms Antmdes vander. Linden^ Med. Pradiiof 
Profeffw frimuSy altemh. trime/irihm in publico Nificomio 
Studiofos Medicine Jingulisfeptimanis aliquoties in agrotorum 
mfitatiwiilusy iff morbanemy qui fefe iffirwtty cognofcendi 
atque curandi ratione inftruity caufafque mortis in cadavsri' 
bus dijfe&is ad oculatamj quantum fieri poteftj fiiem de-- 

D, Francifcus de le Boe^ Sylvius^ Me£cina Pfa&ic^ 
Profeffor in Nofocomio publico trinuftribus altemisy die- 
bus fingtdii,, exceptis Domimcisy Studiofos Medicines in 
Morberum digmiione per fua JignCy cognitione perfuas caufas^ 
furatione per fua indicata exercei^ atque Jic ad praxin ma- 
nuducit, ^icquid autem de partibus yere affe£fis Csf caufis 
affe^uum latentibus capi fenjibus poteft^ id omm in demortu-\ 
(trumfeHime rimatur h* patefacit. 

Exercitia Jnatomica publica fient nunfibus Mybemis a D. 
'Joanne van Harney Anaicmes far Chirurgia Prtfeffore 

D. Antonius ThyJiuSy Eloquentia Pnfejfory Collegium 
Oratorium publicum inftituit. 

D, Henricus BorniuSy Philofophia Profejfory Studiorum 
CeUlJfmi Arauftonenftum Principis Ephorusy in mni Phi- 
lofiphia parte CoUegia habet & Di/putationeSy ac in illujfr. 
V. //. Groiii lib, de Jure Belli ac Pads Exercitat tones 

D. Johannes Fredericus Gronovius Grteca Lingua £sr 
Greecarum Hiftoriarum Profejfory Gnecos tf Latinos au^to- 
res antiquosy quosjbidiofi deftderahunty privatis CoUegiis 

Ex Authoritate publicoy diebus Mercurii tf Safumiy 

Gcorgto Hornio Collegii Oratorii publici Pnrftdey in omnis 

generis & illuftrts argumenti Orationibus, ut W dtfputationi- 

bus Politicis habendisy publici exercere fe pojfunty quotquot illis 

Jhdiis operamfuam addixerunt, 

D, David 

Morale and Pbj[/ioIogicaL 3 1 

/>. David Stuartus Phthfiphia Profeffir Collegia Expli-^ 
caterioy Examinatoria l^ Difputatoria per iotam Pht" 
hfophham aujpicatur ter in finno^ menfe videl. Sept, Jan. 
Jfpril. eafie trimejlri conflanter abfolvit j ut Acadenucm 
juventus rbibfopki^ Jladiutn fapius decurrat anni fpatio, 
J^ifputatimes etiam publicas de ilbiflribus maieriis babet^ 
cum prafto funt ReJpmdenUs^ fingulis feptitnanis. 

Adjoining to the fchool-yard is the Pbyjick garden^ a 
£]uare of lefs than an acre of ground, but well ftored 
with plants, of whifrh there have been at fundry timies 
feveral catalogues printed. Here are no colleges for 
ftudents to live in, as in our univerfities (excepting two 
of the nature of hofpitals, for the maintenance only of 
poor fcholarsj but the ftudents live in private lodgings 
in the town, where they can bcft provide themfelvcs. 
No fcholaftical habits, as gowns or caps, worn by any 
of the ftudents, but they walk up and down, come to 
the ichools, and perforno their exercifes in cloaks. The 
profc/Ibrs when they read lefhires, or prefide at difpu- 
tations, wear gowns. No capping profeflbrs, or univer- 
fity-officers in the publick fchools, but all the ftudents 
are covered both at ledures and diiputations, not only 
in thb univcrfity, but in all the univerfities we have been 
at beyond the feas. If any defire to be admitted of the 
univerfity, they go to the Re£for magnificusy who gives 
them each a ieal, and then they are freed from paying 
excife. The ftudeiits ufually lift themftlves under feme 
profeflbr, who reads to them in private, running thro' 
a whole faculty, which they call Collegium in/iituere, and 
for tliis they give a gratuity to the profeflbr. In con- 
ferring degrees, here is no refpeft had to ftanding. When 
any one intends to commence in any faculty, he makes 
Toe/es upon the fubjed he intends to anfwer, which 
Thefes arc printed, and thefe he is obliged to defend againft 
all opponents. The refpondent hath his feat under the 
prcfei&r's, as in our fchools : for the opponents there is 
no particular (eat, but in any part of the (chools where 
tlicy happen to be, they arife, and there ftand and op- 
pose, firft asking leave of the profeflbr that prefides at 
the aA. Any one that pleafes may oppofe with the 
profeflbr's leave. Uberalium jlrtium Magl^er and DoSor 


32 Observations Topographical^ 

are the only d^rees conferred here* Each of the prO- 
feflbrs have 200 or 300I. per arm, ftipend allowed them 
by the States. 

The chief trade of this city is ckathing. The roo& 
of the houies are more fteep than ordinary^ made b on 
purpofe to caft the rain- water into a channel or trough, 
which conveys it into a large ciftern^ where it is kept 
for the ufes of the houie. Great channels of water pals 
thro' many of the ftreets. On the tower of the Stadt- 
houfe ftands a watchman, who blows a trumpet every 
hour, and if any fire happens, be founds an alarm. Be- 
low flands a guard of thirty armed foldiers, and at each 
port ten. Every hour of the night a man goes about the 
fireets, and malcing a notfe widh a rsmper, tells with a 
loud voice what of the clock it b. In the anatomical 
theatre are preferved many skeletons of men and beads, 
skins of beafb, parts of exotick animals, and other rarities* 
We noted a horned beetle from the Eaji-Indies \ an 
Armadillo \ petrified mufhrooms; -^^/V ceraunias ; Caput 
Porci Jluviatilis e BraJUia', Ala Hirtmdinis marina ex 
Oceam Orientali ; Grammari JEtlnopici ; Thus p^JiU M^ 
ravicum ; Capftda Chinenjis cum capite ammalis partim 
cervlnamy partim porcinam naturam reprafentante ex in^ 
fida Celebes India orientalise Niduli cruftacei ex cautibus 
regni Jehova^ qua a Chinenjibus in delidis babentur^ thefe 
we faw afterwards in Kircber^s Mufaum at Rome and 
. elfewhere ; Folium betk five Jiri^ it refembles the great 
latyrion leaf: of theie leaves and the fniit of the tree 
Arek^ mingled with a little chalk, is made the Indian 
Betle^ which is very flomachical, and a great regale at 
vifits. Faha Mgyptia Jive Benamicia ; elephants skulls ; 
Guandar formcas voransj or the ant-bear ; Mjremeter^ 
X bigger than an otter, having a very long fnout, long 
crooked claws, coarfe briflly hair, and a long brufh tail ; 
Gralla five cabpodia Norvegica \ a fifh with two feet ; 
Caprifcus Rondelettiy Tigris tapta in Jacatra regno. In the 
. publick library are preferved the manufcripts of Jofeph 
Scallgerj and Libri Orientates quos Fir. CL Jacobus GoUus 
impenjis publicis ex Oriente hue advexit. This town is well 
walled and trenched about, encompafled with pleafant 
walks of lime-trees. He that dcfires more particular 
information concerning the univerfity and publick build- 

Mora!, and Phyjiological 33 

iflgs of the city, lie. may confult Meurjiufs Athena Ba- 
tava^ and tUgimtiuis Itinerarium HoUandiie. 

Before we l^t Leyd4n^ we made a bye-journey to Se-Se'venbtPfs* 
venbujfs^ a village about four leagues diftaat, to fee a re- 
markable grove, where, in time of year, feveral forts 
of wiU-fo)vl build and breed. We obferved there in 
great numbers (i.) ScMfers^ i. e. Gracculi palnupedtSy 
in EfigUnd wt call them ShagSj they are very like to 
cormorants, only lefs. We were much furpriied to fee 
them, being a whole-footed bird, alight and build upon 
trees. (%J) Lepelaers^ called by Gefner Platea fwe Pe^ 
Itcatiij by Aldrovandus Alhardiolay we may term them 
in Engiyb fpoon-bills, ^3.) ^uacis^ or Ardea cinerea 
minoriSy the Germans call this bird the Night-ravetiy be- 
caule it makes a noife in the night, No^e clamat voce 
mhfofia V tanquam vomiturientis. Gefner. (/^.) Reyersj 
or herons. Each fort of fowl hath its feveral quar- 
ter. When the young are ripe, they who iarm the 
grove, with an iron hook fdlenol to the end of a long 
pole, lay boU on the bough on which the neft is built, 
and ihake the young ones out, and Ibmetimes neft and 
all down to the ground. Befides the forementioned birds, 
there build alio in this wood ravens^ wood-pigeons^ and 
iMTtle-daves. This place is rented for 3000 guilden per 
enm, of the baron of Pelemberg^ who lives at Lavain^ 
only for the birds and grafi. By the way to this place 
we obferved in the ditches Lyfimachia lutea fiore glo^ 
bofij and Arum five Dracunculus aquaticus. All the 
country about Sevenhujs^ towards Leyden^ is a flat or 
fenny level, full of fhallow pools of water ; there we 
obferved their mamier of making turf. They rake 
or fifh up mud from the bottom of the water with a 
net like a hoop-net, faftened to the end of a pole, and 
fill therewith a flat-bottomed boat. Out of the boat 
they throw this mud with a long (hovel, or fcoop, on 
an even piece of ground, making of it a bed of an 
equal thicknefi fo near as they can; there it lies to *" 
drain and dry : after a while they tread it with broad 
boards fidlened under their feet to make it clofe and 
fffiooth. When it is moderately dry, they cut the whole 
bed with a kind of fpade into pieces, of the bignefs 
of a brick, Thefe th^ pile up in fmall cofiical ftacks, 

D or 

34 Observations Topograpbicaiy 

or long ranks, laying the turves fo, that a man may 
fee thro' the ftacks, and the wind blow thro' them, to 
be further dried. At laft they houfe them in bams 
that are thatch'd, the fides not walled up dole, but 
made of wooden bars fet at a little diftance one from 
Haerkm. June 6. We took boat for Haerlem^ where we arrived 
at four hours end. This is a large, populous, and plea* 
fant city, ftrongly walled and intrenched. Water is 
' brought thro* many of the ftreets. Without the walls, 
towards Leyden^ are pleaiant groves. In the fummer^ 
houfe in the garden of the Prince's court here, is a pi£fairc 
of Laurentius Cofterusy in a furred gown, holding the 
Letter A in his hand, and thi^ infcription over it, 

M. S. Viro Confulariy Laurentio Coftero HarUmenJi 
alieri Caimo^ & Artis Typographic^ circa Ammm 
Domini MCCCCXXXX Inventori prima. 

His flatue, and the infcription on his houfe in the 
market-place, mentioned by Hegenitius^ we could not 
find, being, as we were told, lately bought and removed 
thence. The butchery of this town is a handibme build-* 
ing, and covered with lead, which we thought not un*- 
worthy the notice-taking, it having been the firft pub- 
lick building that we faw fo rooPd fince we left Er^-- 
land. The citizens here drive a great trade of weaving, 
as well filks, v.g. damask, velvet, iattin, tafPaty, bfc^ 
as linnen cloth, tiflany,, holland, iSc. On the iea- 
coaft near Haerlim^ and all along Nortb^HoUand^ are 
great (andy hills or downs, which are a great defence 
to the country hereabout againft the incroachments of 
the iea. 
Atnjler' J^^^ 8. From Haerlem we boated to Amjlerdam^ two 
dam. hours diftant. About the mid-way we pafled by two 
great mears, where we changed our boat. At the port 
of Amfterdam (land two arined foldiers, one within, 
the other without. This is the greateft city in aU the 
Low-Countries^ and one of the richeft and beft traded 
empories of the whole world. At our being there, we 
judged it to be about the bigneis of Venice^ and lefler than 
one half of London ; but they had then taken in, and 
inclofed with a fubihuuial wall and trench, a great fpace 


Mcra^ and Pbjifi&iogfcaL 35 

of ground, wherein they had dcfigned and fet out ftrcets, 
With intention to make their city, for bignefe alfo, com- 
parable with the beft of Europe^ London and Paris not 
excepted. I hear fince*, that this Void ground is filled 
with rows of flately and beautiful houfes. The pub- 
lick buildings we efpecially took notice of were, (i.)The 
mw Staitboufe lately erected, the old one having been 
burnt down to the ground in three hours fpace (as wo 
were fold) Jmi 7. 1651. but (as I find it in the printed 
defcription of Am/lerdam) iii July 1652. This is a mag- 
nificent pile of building, of a i^Uare figure, large and 
taD. The oudide^ or feeing of the walls round about, 
is of frefc-ftonej the body of the walls of brick. It is 
reported, that the founda6on of this ftruAure under ^ 
gfouAd coft as mucfi ds the fiderficies above ground, 
vlx. lOOOoo/. flerling; The Defctiber of Amjlerdam 
faith, that it ftandefh upoh 13659 great mafts, or piles^ 
driven into the groundi ^2.) The '^urfe^ or Exchange^ 
like our old Rgyal^Exchahge at London^ but liot a perfe6): 
fquare, bein^ longer than it is broad; The firfl fton^ 
of this building was laid May 29, 1608. and the firft 
ineering of the merch^ts there Augufl i, 161 3. Mer- 
chants of all nations refort thither, but of all flrangers^ 
the yttvs are the moft numerous, who fill one walk. 
(3.) The Admiridty-hufey a handibme building with fair 
rooms. (4.) The Magazine^ 2Lni(Si) thefeveral Hofphah 
afid houfes of correction; In this city is ixvAthenaum^ 
or Schola ittu/lrls^ in which are maintained fix profefTors^ 
who read publick lectures in feveral faculties in fummer- 
time. Here is alio a publick Phyfichgarden. The Jewi 
are here allowed the free and open exercife of their re- 
ligious worfhip. They live together in one quarter of 
the cit}s and are faid to be in number about 20000 
louls. They are in better condition, and richer, than 
in moft places where they are tolerated. They are, for 
the nu>f( part, of a dark, or tawhey complexion, and 
have black hair. Not only the Jewi/h^ but all other 
religions, the Romijh not excepted, are here tolerated. 
But if any,befide thofe of the State- religion build churches, 
they are prohibited to ereft (leeples, or make ufe of bells 
for the afTembnng of the people. In the new church 

O 2 is 

36 Observations I'opegraphical^ 

is a handfome monument to Jcbn van GaUn^ with this 
infcription : 

Generojiffiau Heroi 

yobanni a Galen 


^td o& res fortiter bf/iEcitir gefiasj fexies wu anno Dun-- 
kcrckanorum Praaatorum navem captam, i!f a Barbaris 
opima fpolia teportatOy OrJinum ClaJJi in Mart Medi^- 
terraneo PtafeSfus memorabili fralio ad Livomam^ Deo 
auxiUante^ Angkrum navibus captis^ fugatis^ incendh 
& fubmerfime deletisy commercium cum diSii maris ac^ 
tells re/iittdty idibus Martii^ A. CI3 I3C LIII* Et 
altera ude truncatusy mno die poft ViSleriamy anrns 
natus XLVIII obiitj ut infecula per gloriam viveret. 
lUuftriJf. & Prapotent. Feeder ati Belgii 
Ordinum decreto^ 
Neb. (^ Pot. Senatus Archithalajf. 
^i eft Amftelodami 
M. H. P. 

In this church is a ftately pulpit, laid to have coft 
1000 /. fterling the building. We were told that in this 
city there were 24 minifters penfioned by the States. 
The go- The government is by a fcout or praetor, four bux^go- 
vernment mafters, nine fcabins, and thirty-fix counfeUors or (ena- 
of -^^^-tors, which they call the Vreetfchap. The fcout is ftadt- 
dam, holder of Hdlandj and hath the firft place in the bench 
of fcabins. He is chofen to this office by tht burgema/Iersj 
with the confent and approbation of the Vroetfchap^ for 
three years : tho' he may continue in office fix or more, if 
they fee good. He muft have been a freeman at leaft 
feven years before he be chofen. His office is with the 
bwrgemafters and fcabins^ to make laws and conftitutions : 
to apprehend and imprifon all malefactors within the 
liberties of the city. He, as chief judge in civil as well 
as criminal caufes, hears the pleadings, and with confent 
of the burgemafters zxAjcabins pronounces fentence, con- 
demning the guilty to death, if the caufe require, and 
taking care that the fentence be executed. In other 
cities, the prsetor hath to do only in criminal caufes, 


Morale and PhyfioIogicaL 37 

bong no more than the commonwealth's fbUicitor, or 
puUick acciiier and proiecutor of maleiadors. 

The number of burgomajieri is twelve, whereof four 
are regent yearly. They muft not. be under forty years 
of a^. £very year, by the major vote of all the bur- 
gomaften that have ever been fcabins, three out of the 
twelve are choien to be regents, which three newly ele£l 
take to diemfelves a fourth out of the three chofen the 
year before, who gives the three new ones their oaths, 
and hath the precedency the three firft months. Out 
of the other eight are other officers chofen, as treafurers, 
mafleis of hoipitak ; one for the convention of the States 
at the Hffguij one for the council of the admiralty in 
Amfterdam^ ifc. The bui^mafter's office is to govern 
thedty, to arbitrate differences between man and man, to 
take care of the ftreets,walls,hou(es, publick buildings, (s^r. 
When one of the twelve dies, another is chofen into his 
room by die Vroetfcbap. As for the (cabins, the Vroetfchap 
chufe fourteen perfons, out of which the burgomafiers 
take feven ; but fo that none of them be near of kin 
to the fimty or the regent hurgomafters. To thefe (even, 
the new ami old hurgomafters, with the new chofen 
fcahinsy do by moft voices add two out of the kwTL 
that were choien the laft year ; the which two fox that 
year are the firft and fecond preiidents. The foabtns 
are judges in all cades civil and criminal. 

The council of thirty-fix, or Vroetfchap, continue in 
place durii^ life, and when one dies, the reft chufe 
another into his room, but none under twenty- five years 
of age. This council cbufes the fourteen fcabins, and is 
a&mbled upon important occafions by the hurgomafters, 
for their advice and dirc<%on in the weighty af&irs and 
concerns of the city. The fupreme ^wer feems chiefly 
to reft in thefe. 

Formerlv none was capable of being for^em^^, except 
his fiuher nad been a freeman a year and fix weeks be* 
lore he was bom ; but of late they have made a con- 
ftitution, that he, who will pay five hundred guilders, 
nuy be made free of the city, and capable of being bur-> 
gomafler after feven years. Any one may be made a 
neeman for fifty guilders, but then he fhall never bQ 
(amble of bebg chp&n burgmafter. 
^^ h { The 

38 Observations Topograph! cai^ 

The Delcribcr of Jmjttrdam faitb, that there were in 
that city iS years ago 54.000 hauia, whereas in Parity 
there were then hut 46000, which is a thing by no 
means to be credited. 

The militia of Amftirdem confifh of 54 compajuet, 
divided into hve le^imcnts, each containing eleven com- 
panies, and every company confiiHng of 150 men, ia 
that the whole amounts to 8250. Two companies 
watch every night for the guard of the city. 
Vtruht. June 16. We took boat for Utruit, whore we ar- 
rived at fix hours end. This is a neat town, and the 
head of a province, environed witn a thick and high 
wall, and a deep trench. The ftreets and buildings 
lar fnort of the ej^ncy, beauty and cleanline^ of tbofe 
in Holland, much like the houfes and ftreets of oub 
Englijh towns. Water runs thro' many of the flrecta 
in deep channels. The dimo^ or cathedral church, hatk 
a great tall tower, afcended by 460 fteps, from whcnca 
wc had a fair profpe^ of tlie city and country rotuid 
about. Here is an univerfity erected by the States of 
the united provinces, in the year 1636. Who were 
the profeflon tn each faculty at the time of our being 
here, the following Serits LtiJitnum will ac^int the 


Morale and Pbyjbhgical. 3^ 


Series LeEiienum in Aciid. Ultra^ 
jeBina, Anno Chrifti M-DCLXIIL 
Prion Semejiri. 


T\, Antonius Matthaeos, J. 17. X). 6f Prcfeffirj diebui 
Lume fcf Mariis Injiitutiones^ Jovis auiem i^ Vt^ 
mrh StliQiara PandeQarum iStuUs int^rpretabitur. 

D. Rq^nerus a Manfvelc, Philofophia Do^ar^ L^i^ 
as tsf Metapbjfices Prtf^ovy diebus LtaUc (Sf Martis Ia^ 
gicam cum quajlionibns metaphyjkh \ Jovis V€ra i^ Fc* 
mrisy Naturakm ThioUgiam docebit^ 


D« CypMiiu» Regnerus ab Oofterga, y. 17. D. &f 
Profeffer^ CwUetm Academka IS Fgrenfi expUcatione ex-- 


D. Henricus Regiad, E^es Juratus if Medidna Prtn 
fifir Prlmthriuf^ fias Me£ctna MeiKcationumjue Bbros in^ 
terpretabiHir ; faf dkbuf Venms Stirpiwh dmmfiratitms 
im fkrff Pwbtko inflituet, 

U. Dttnid Bcrckringcr, L. A. M. if PhihMhia 
PValfic^ dtque Ebquentia^ Prtftffor^ diebus Lunat & mar^ 
th Ihfiimtkms fms Ethkasy Jms veri if Veneris Po^ 
Uiifeis^ furfirie inttrpretabitur. 


D, GtsbcrtusT VoctioJ, SS. Tbtobgia DoShr if Pro^ 
feffor^ diebus. Jvois if Veneris perget in expUcatione Po^ 
Bi^0 Euli^fiic^ 9. dietus verM Jjma if Martis^ in Ex^ 
f£catiin0 prims partis Locvrum Commumunu 

IX Isbrandus de Dietnerbroeck, Med. Do£t. ac Mi^ 
dicime Pra&ica if Anatimes Profejfor^ diebus Luna if 
Vemris in Academia gxpUcabit Hsflmas merhwrum ca^ 

O 4 pitis^ 

40 Observations Topographical^ 

pitis^ quihus abfolutis, parget ad Hiftorias morberum thora-m 
cisj diebus Martis fcf Jcvii in Nofosamio. decumbentis agra^ 
tos invifet^ eorumque examen Cff midicationem docebit^ ac 
praxeas Jpecimina exhibebit. • Demonftratimis vera anaiP^ 
micas in theatre publico inftituetj quum fubjeSli humaru ca^ 
pia dabitur. 


D» Andreas Eilenius, S, Theoltgia ac PhilofifAia Dec-' 
tory ilUus Profeffhr^ diebus Luna^ Martis (st jovis CoH" 
tr&verfias traSfabit ad file ff a loca V. T. Veneris qwji 
Hlftoriam Ecclejiafticam faeuli Cbrtftiani duodecimiy e^ 

D. Johannes Georgius Graevhis, Philofepbia Doifor^ 
Miftoriartan IS Ehquentia Profeffory diebus Lunay Martis 
bf Jovis explicabit D. Taciii AnnaleSy dii verS Veneris 
Ciceroni s oratimempro Milme. 


D. Paulus Voct, J, U. D. & Pro/effir^ Juris Pam- 
de£fas cmtinuata fertiy interpretabitur. 

D. Johannes Leuiden, L. A* M, & Lingua SanG^ 
ProfeJfoTy diebus Lunic^ Martis IS Jovis explicabit PfaU 
mos Hcbraicos\ diebus vero Veneris interpretabitur Rab^ 
hinum aHjuem, velfele^os ist difficiliores 564 verfus Pfal^ 
teriiy in quibus omnes ejus voces ^ pleraque radices V. 7t 
continentur, Pofl explicationem texiuaJem Jemper addet 
quajiiones Philologicas, concernentes Philolegiam Hebraicam^ 
Cmtroverfias Cff Rhus Judaorum ^ quidem eo ordine^ qm 
ea poji invicem de/cribuntur in Spicilegio PbiUegico. 


D. Francifcus Burmannus^ SS^ TheoUgia DoSfor & 
Profejfory diebus Lumt fcf Martis Evangeliftam Mattbm- 
um cum necejfariis qu^^ionibus it ei^ervationibus^ qud p9^ 


Morale and PhjifiologicaL 41 

tgrlt hrevitatey enarrabit\ diehus vero Jovis if VemriTOe* 
cmmmiam filutis bumana fub Fadere Vit* ac fJovo trac^ 

D. Johannes de Bniyn, Z. A. M. Phjfica l£ Mathe- 

fen ProfeffoTj if p. t. Academia RiSfor^ diebus Luna: if 

Atartis in Phyjicis USftonlbus ptrget ; Jovis vero if Vem- 

ris contitmabit expUcatiomm fuiidamentorum Micbanicorum. 

Dp Heer Hugo Ruys, fal JFoenfdaeghs en Saterdaegbs 
van Elf tat Twaelf ujren inde Forttficatte ctnuinueren. 

The garriibn confided of eight companies of foldiers,- 
whereof one was Englijb. The government is by an 
upper and under Scout^ and four burgonuften, whereof 
two new chofen yearly. 

Jmne i8. We went by boat to Ftaneriy paffing over, a Vianen. 
branch of the river Rhine called the Lech. This is a^ 
privileged town, wall'd and trench'd about, fubje£i to* 
the lord of Brederode, Here we noted an engine or 
wheel for the weaving of inkle and tape, which moves^ 
many fhuttks at once. The iame day we travelled on to^ 
Leerdam^ three hours diftant from Vianenj a fmall mcon* Leerdam, 
liderable town, beloi^ng to the Prince of Orange. 

June 19. We pdTed through Afperen a fmall wall'd AJ^ren. 
town, and further on ferried over the river Wale {Fa*. 
caUs in Latin) to a pretty pleaiant wallM town, called- 
Bommely ftanding in an ifland. Bommeh 

Here la^ in garriibn four companies of (bldiers, where- 
of one ot Scotchmen, 

Not bx from hence we ferried over the Mofcj and - 
palled by a ftrong fort nigh the water called Creve- Crevcoeur^ 
coetoTj and not much further another called Engelen \ and 
after four hours came to the Befchy Hertogenbofch the The 
Duicb call it, and the French Bns le ducy i. e. Syha Bo/cb. 
Dncis. Before we entered the town, we pafled through a 
water and over two draw-bridges. Thb place is fituate 
on a hill in the midft of a bw fenny level of a great ex- 
tent, the gftateft part whereof b (at leaft now was) co- 
vered with water, fo that the only avenues to the town 
are upon artificial caufways. It is encompafled with a 

ftioiig wall and a dcqp trench. At one end ftands a ci- 

4Z Observations Topographical^ 

tadd ftrongly fortified, which commands the town. By 
rcafon of hs fituation and fortifications one would judge 
this place imprq^blo, yet bath it been taken in the 
hte wars. At our being there were kept in garrifon for 
the defence of this important ftrength 21 companies of 
foot and four troops of horfe. In the choir of St. Jdm^s 
church are painted the arms of many of the knights of 
the golden fleece, and over the upper ftalb or feats this 
written in French^ Le treshaut if tres puijptnt Philip, 
ditUBany &V* which becaufe it contains the hifiory 
of the author's firft inftitution and aiodel of this ordery I 
thought fit to tranflate into EngUJij and here fet down* 
♦* The moft high and mighty Prince Pbir^ cailed the 
** Good, by the grace of God! duke of Surgtmdy^ 
^* Lorrain^ and Brabant^^ in the year 1^429. in the city 
** of Brug^es^ did, in imitation of Gedeon cxesX^ andin-> 
** ftitutc to the honour of God and the Virgin Mary^ 
^^ and for the iake of St. Andrew protcdlor a^d paitron 
*^ of Burgundy a compaoy . or (bciety of honourable 
^' knights, rnto which might be received Emperorsji 
^ Kings, dukes, marquefTes, and other porfbnages,^ a^ 
^' well of his own fubje(% as of foneigu couotries, 
** provided they were or noble blood and gpod bnac : 
^- and called thefe great perfons,. Knighti Mite Goldif^* 
<• Pkecey to whom he gave, for perpetuaf chief, hinv 
^' that fhould be lawful duke of Burgundy^ and have 
"^* the feigneury or lordlhip of the Lov^-Cauntriis ^ lit 
^* miting their number to 24, comprehending alio tfaq-. 
*' chief. And for occurrences and Hie of the order 
^^ he created foilr honourabre pfiicers, ^.. a cfaan-* 
** cellor,^ a treafurcr, a fecretary,, and a king of arms^ 
** And for the etoblifllment and well r^^Uting of this, 
*^ order he mad); notable (latutes and ondinances '\ The 
houfes of this town are of a difieroat make fiom thofe 
of Mollartd^ the outfide being covered with boards,^ 
like thoffe of Edinburgh, in Scotland, We obfcrvcd gceat 
flore of wild fowl to frequent the waters hereabout ;» 
and found growing wild H&niarifi birfuta on tliQ. 
flndy arid gravelly banks.. 


Morale and Pbyfiokgicah 4J 

yune 20. We took a waggon drawn by three faorfes 
meaAj as is ufiial in thefe countries, which in fix 
Ihuxs time brought us to Eindbeveu^ a finall wall'd town ; EtenAo- 
and cheace in ibur houis more to HaummU a pitiful walled '^' 
tovn belonging to the bifliop of Liegt. Jwu a i . Three ^^""^^ 
bours riding brought us to another little walTd town 
calkd Bry ; the houies whereof were old and decaying, B/y^ 
fietween H^mmai and this place, we rode over heaths 
of gieat extent, called the Champagne, We then left 
thr level country and afcended fopie hills, from whence 
vc had a pleafiutt profpe£l of the M^fe mA Maejlricht^ ^f ^ 
vfaere we arrived this evening, though it be accountedA^'^^^' 
feven hours diftant from Bry, This city is foitified with 
gpod outworks, befides a ftrong wall and trench, garri-> 
fcned with 31 companies of foot, and fix troops of horfe, 
it being a great town and a finontier. Half of the ma- 
giftiates are Proieftanis^ and half of the Rumjh religion* 
The greater part of tbe citizens tUmanifti, There are \x% 
XDVKi near 20 doifters or n^Miafteries of both fexcs ; 
and they have the free and publick exerciie of their re- 
ligious woiihip. For the frotefianU there are threo Dutch 
cburcbes, and one EngUJh?jA French^ which thofe nations 
idis alternately. The old buildings of this city are like 
thofe of tbe Bofch $ but fuice the States have been maf- 
tcis of it, it is become a rich and thriving place, and 
they are building fair new brick'd houies apace. They 
VKce alio letting up a large ftone ftadthode, of a Iquare 
figure, refembling that at Amfttrdatn. The river Mtuft 
divides tbe city into two parts, which are joined toge- 
ther by a brood ftont-bridge of nine arches. The leiTer 
past over tbe water is called Wick. The garrifon-ibl.. 
dieis are all PrUiJtants. 

The common people of Holland^ efpecially inn-keep- The man- 
ers, waggoners (ibmnen they call them) tsoat-mcn and ners and 
posters are furly and uncivil. The waggoners bait them- particular 
febes and their horfes four or five times in a day's jour- ^^"^^^ 
ney. Generally the Dutch men and women are almoft ^i\J^^ 
always eating as they travel^ whether it be by boat, 
coach, or waggon. The men are for the moft part 
b^-booed and gro&-bodied. The firft difh at ordinaries 
and entertainments is ufually a iaiade, Sla they call it, of 
Mdiicb they eat s^Muidancc in Holland. The meat they 


♦ * 

44 Observations TSpogrdpbical, 

commonly ftew, and make their Hotchpots of it. Pud- 
dings neither here nor in any place we have traveUed 
beyond fea do they eat any ; either not knowing the 
goodneis of the difh, or not having the skill to make 
them : Puddings and Braum are diflies proper ta £»f- 
land, Boil'd fpinage'minc'd and butter*d (ibmedmes alfa 
with currans added) is a great difli all over thefe coun- 
tries. The common people feed much upon CMIiau 
f that is cod-ii{hJ and pickled herringi, which they knovr 
how to cure or prepare better than we do in Et^land^ 
You (hall feldom fail of hung beef in any inn you come 
into, which- they cut into thin flioes and eat with bread 
and butter, laying the flices iqwn the butter. The/ 
have four or five forts of cheefe, three they ufually bring 
forth and fet before you. ( i.) Thole great round cheefis^ 
Coloured red on the putfide, commonly in England called 
HolIand-<hec(es. (2.) Cummin-feed cheefe. (3.) Green 
cheefe, laid to be fo coloui'd with the juice of iheepV 
dung. This they fcrape upon bread butter'd, and fo eat* 
(4. Sometimes Angelots. (5.) Cheefe like to our common 
country cheefe. Milk is the cheapeft of all beIly-pro« 
vifions. Their ftrong beer (thick beer they call it, and 
well they may) is fold for three ftivers the quart, which 
is more than three pence Englifi. All manner of vie- 
tuals, both meat and drink, are very dear, not for the 
firarcity of fuch commodities, but partly by reafon of 
the great excife and impoft wherewith they are charged, 
partly by reafon of the abundance of money that is ftir- 
ling here. By the way we may note, that the dear- 
nefs of this fort of provifions is an argument of the 
riches of a town or country, thefe things being al- 
ways cheapeft in the pooreft places. Land is alfo here 
fold at 30 or 40 years purchafe, and yet both houfes 
and land fet at very high annual rents : fo that, were 
not the poor workmen apd labourers well paid for 
their pains, they could not poffibly live. Their beds 
are for the moft part like cabbins, inconveniently (hort 
and narrow ; and yet fuch as they are, you pay in fome 
places ten ftivers a night the man for them, and in moft 
fix. There is no way for a ftranger to deal with inn« 
keepers, ws^gonerF, porters, and boat-men, but by bar- 
g^ning witli them before-hand. Their houfes in Hcl^ 


Moralj and Pbyjiological 45 

iand are kq>t clean with extnu>rdinary nicenels, and the 
entrance before the door curioufly paved with ftone. 
All things both within and without, floor, pofts, walls, 
g^fiyhodhold-ftuffmarvelloufly clean, bright and hand- 
ibinly kept : nay, Ibnie are fo extraordinarily curious. 
Is to take down the very tiles of their pent-houfes 
aod dcade them. Yet about the preparing and drcffing 
of Ibdr viduals our Engli/h houfwives are, I think, 
more ckanly and curious than they ; lb that no won- 
der EngUflmm were formerly noted for exceflive eating, 
they having greater temptation to eat, both from the 
goodnefi of their meat, and the curiofity of the dreffing 
it, than other nations. 

In the principal churches of Holland are organs, which 
uiinlly play for fome time after the fermon is done. 
The ooUedbns for the poor are made in iermon-tinie, 
a purfe with a bell hanging at the bottom of it, and 
faftened to the end of a pole, being by the colle£br 
reach'd to every one. The pialm to be fung is mark'd 
upon flates, which are hung up and down the churches. 
The people of thele countries buy and fell fmall com* 
modities, and travel by waggon or boat upon the Lord's 
days. Their travelling waggons are fome covered and 
Ibme open : few travel on horfe-back. No beggars to 
be feen in all Holland^ care being taken to fet on work 
all that are able, and proviAon made for the aged and 
impotent. There are in this one province of Holland 
three or four and twenty wallM towns and cities, and 
fix of thcfe, at leaft, befide Amjlerdam^ bigger than any 
wc have in England^ except London j and Amjierdam^ by 
thb time, well approaches to the bigneis of London. 

To thefe I (hall add fome obfervations concerning the 
Laiv^ountriis^ made by my much honoured friend Francis 
Bamhantj £lq; deceafed, at his being there in the retinue 
of my lord ambailador Holies. 

In all the cities and towns of note throughout the 

United Netherlands there is a continual watch kept night 

and day upon the higheft fteeplc, for the more ready 

and ipeedy difcovcry of fires, or other things of a fur- 

prifing nature, which wc have ahready noted in our dc- 

fcription of the city of Leydcn. 



46 Observations Topogr'aphicat^ 

All dii&rences arifuig between skippers and foremen^' 
tsfc. are decided by cafting the dye : this we often ob- 
ferved them to do, when feveral of them ftrovc who 
(hould carry us. 

The rain that falls upon the houfes is by pipes tod 
gutters conveyed into a ciftern, and there referred for 
the ufcs of the houfe, as at Venice in Italy. This parti- 
cular we have alio before taken notice of in the defcrip* 
tion of Leyden. 

The generality of the Dutch, from the better fort to the 
ineaneft, do much dread their fuperiors; I think the cauie 
is,becaufe, upon complaint made, there is fpeedy care taken 
to dojuftice^ The generality of the people, of all forts, 
are ftrangely given to the humour of running up afid 
down to fee any new or ftrange thing. The common 
fort have any thing that is rich or gay in great admira* 
tion, inibmuch that^ when my brd Holies made his entry 
into Bredd^ the coronets that were on the top of his 
coach were talk'd of with wonder all the country over^ 

The people univerially are great love^f money, very 
covetous and greedy of gain, yet in their bargains pun* 
dlual and jufti The knowledge of moft of them extends 
no further thaxi the arts of getting money, and an ability 
to talk of ftate-ai&irs^ tvherein you fhall meet with mean 
pcrfons very well feen : I think the reafon may be, be- 
caufe the lowtft of them is not without hopes of coming 
to be a burger, and at laft one of the States* 

I cannot allow the Ltw-Dutch to be of a valiant and 
courageous temper generally^ notwithftanding they fight 
fo well at fea ; for the conftitution of their bodies which 
Is phlegmatic, and the temperature of the air which is 
moift, and their diet which is grois and foggy^ forbid it. 
• Yet there are few or none in tbefe countries that die 
of confumptions. 

There is liberty of all religions and pro&flions, but 
abundance of fpies to watch them^ that they difturb not 
the publick peace. 

I think it harder to be a traitor imder the govern- 
ment of HoUandy than under any other kingdom or 
flate, becaufo they fecm to be more watchful and fuf- 


Moraly and PbyJiologkaL 47 

The people (ay and print what they pleafe, and call it 

The better, much more the worie, ibrt have little 
lenfe of honour, governing themfelves more by the rules 
of profit and advantage, than of generoCty and De- 

Murder is not profecuted with io much diligence and 
cx>Acem as felony or theft. 

The times of the day for marriages and burials are 
limited, but with difference in re^A of places : for at 
Breda they mufl bury their dead before X2 of the clock, 
and at Amftirdam not till the afternoon. 

When any £imous deed or exploit is done by any of 
their nation, it is reprefcnted to the people with all mfi- 
nuating circumftances, to make them proud of the ho- 
nour <^ being fubjeSs in a fbte where fuch mighty deeds 
are done. Befides, for encouragement, there is, for the 
moft part, a monument or fbtue eredled to the memory 
of them who do great things. 

Their ibleii^iizations of Vi£toir$y as they call them, 
ttcxtvi to me of ]great ufe, like triumphs among the Rjih- 
mans. For thodfe bonfires and other expreffions of joy 
do make glad the people, and give them better thoughts 
of their governors, and diipofe them to their fervice. 

In the fervice of God the people feem more delighted 
and concerned in that part of worihip which confifts in 
fining than any other, and they provide more for it. 
For in their churches there are tew other books among 
them than P falters bound up with the Churcb-Catechifm. 

The common fort of women (not to fay all) feem 
more fond of and delighted with hfcivious and obfcene 
talk than either the Engl\[h or the French. 

The women are faid not much to regard chaftity 
whilfl unmarried, but when once married none more 
chafle and true to their husbands. 

The women even of the better (brt do upon little 
acquaintance eafily admit falupng with a ki(s ; and it 
is familiarly ufed among themfelves either in frolicks 
csr upon dep«utures and returns though never fbfhort. 

The women are in a*fenfe privy-counfellors to their 
husbands ; for they are for the mofl part privy to all 
their anions 4 and the men feldofti do any thing without 


^8 Observations ^opograpbicat^ 

their advice and oonlent. Yet doth not this indulgence 
enamour them of their own nation ; for it is faid, that. 
If a woman can get an Et^lijh hxAy^nAj (he will never 
marry a Dutch. 

The Dutch when they iee their friends at the point of 
death, and paft all hope of recovery, out of pity and ten* 
demefi, defirous to rid them out of their pain, will (bme- 
times haflen their end by withdrawing the pillow, or the 
like. Thus far Mr. Bamham. 

In moft of the cities and towns in the Netherlands^ 
there are a great number of chiming little beUs which 
ieldom reft, but were to us troubleibme with their fre- 
quent jangling. But for rings of great bells, all Europe 
cannot (hew (o many as Engmnd dione i (o that it might 
well be called the Ringing Mind. 

A multitude of (lorks nequent thefe countries, build- 
ing upon their chimnies in the towns and cities as well 
as villages ; but not in the territories of common-wealths 
only (as (bme imagine) but of Kings and Princes alio, as 
at Lovam and elfewhere in the King of Spain*s country, 
and in Germany in feveral Princes dominions. 

yune 22. We travelled from Mae/iricht to liege four 
leagues diftant. In the fide of a hill we afcended at Ibme 
dilnince from Maejlrichty we faw an arched paflage into 
a vault fas we were informed) Ibme two hours in length. 
A good way within under ground they dig ftone, 
which here they bring out in carts. It being a wet 
leafon, we made no (by to go into thb vault, therefore 
I have added here the defcription of it out of the Phi^ 
hfiMcal Tranfa£iimsj numb. 67. pag. 2051. 

There is an excellent quarry within cannon-(hot of 
Maejirichty upon the very brink of the river Mafe^ lying 
in a hill ; where there are about 25 fathoms of rock and 
earth over head ; the length of the hill being of fome 
miles extending along the river towards Liege^ (ituate on 
the feme river ; and towards Maejlricht^ having in 
breadth fome half or quarter of a mile, but fomewhat 
more further off. This quarry hath one entry to- 
wards the river, where carts can pafs with great eafe^ 
and unload the ftones upon the brink of the river, the 
quarry within lying parallel to the horizon or level, 
(which is a ^reat advantage) and eltvated but very little 


Morale and PbyfiohgicaL 49 

above the river. This fame quarry, which hath well 
ni^ undermined the whole hill, affords one of the moft 
fiirprifing prc^peds, when well lighted with many torches, 
that one can imagine ; for there are theufands of iquare 
pillars in kige fevel walks, and thole almoft every wherti 
above twenty, and in ibme places many more foot high» 
and all wrought with fb much neatnels and regularity, 
that one would think it had been made rather with cu** 
rious workmanfhip for an under-ground palace, than that 
thoie pillars and galleries were made by quarriers that did 
it only for getting ftone to build above ground. This 
quarry ferveth the people that live thereabouts for a kind 
of impr^able retreat when armies march that way : 
for, being acquainted with all the ways; in it, they carry< 
into it whatfoever they would have ufe, as well their 
borib and cattle as their moveable furniture, till the dan* 
ger be over, there being fo vaft a deal of room, that 40,000 
people may flielter themfelyes in it. And be that ibould 
attempt to ieek them out in this vaft wiUemefs of vyatka 
and pillars^ without an expert guide^ would not only be 
in hazard of lofmg his wav, but of being knock'd oa 
die head at the corner of every pillar ; where people, 
lurking in the dark with their carbines and fowling- 
pieces, would have £iir opportunity of (hooting at them 
by the light of their own torches, &/. 

Farther upon the downs we iaw three or four more 
of thefe paflag^ and from hence had again a very plea- 
hnt proiped of Ma^ricbt and the country about the 
river Mtfe. 

Liige ox Lujck is a large city, but not comparable to Zi^#« 
the Hflland towns for txauty or riches ; built for the 
moft part of timber ; fome of the houfes being cover'd 
with boards after the Scotch &fhion, and ibme ^ith 
Hate fthe walls 1 mean] the reft uncoverM and of clay. 
The ftreets are neither broad nor clean kept. The rivfo 
M^e hero divides itfelf, and runs through the t own in 
two or three branches, over M(hich are feveral bridg^s,^ 
Here is a convenient key, and upctn the river we ob** 
lerved boats of an extraordinary lengthy the like whereto 
we had before fcen at Vtncbt and jPort. This city is 
plea£mtly fituated, and enviionM almoft round with hills* 
On the blow of a JmU which hangs over it, fiands ^ 

£ fort 

50 Observations Topographical^ 

fort or caftte which coiamands k. Upon the fides of 
thcfc hilb are abundanjfc of orchards and chcrrv-gardent r 
on thofe neat the city we firft few vinc-yarA ; Aough 
there are near Lava in, which" we iaw not. AH bell jr^ 
provifions are cheap here. A- great many of ^f antl 
beggars you meet with at every corner, but they arc not 
importunate if denied. The country people are ciril, 
well-manner'd, and kind to ftrangen The women are 
of a dusky complexion, and generally not fo handfcrae 
as the Hotttntdm. They do a p^eat deal of drudgery^ 
the poorer fort carrying coab and other burthens on their 
backs in baskets of a conical figure, to the end or bottom 
of which thty apply a ftiff bafton, and fo reftthcmfelvcs 
without fetting down their burthens. Near this city are 
gotten coals in great plenty, but they lie very deep under 
ground ; fome of us went down into a pit 150 yards 
deep. The coal are like our ftone-coal. The arts they 
ufe to get air enough to ferve them in the bottom of 
tUefe delfs, fee in the Phibfoph. Tranfaet. 

At Luyck they ufe alfo for fcwel a fort of round baRr 
made of clay mixed with a certain proportion of coal, 
beaten fmall, temper'd together, and dried in the fun,, 
which they all Hoijhots. Thcfe we never faw ufed any 
where but here, though the milking of them is defcribed 
in many books. Tbey ferve to flake the heat of the- 
fire, ana keep the coals from burning out too feft. Here 
and at Nanture (as we were toH) are made ftonc pots and 
jogs. The cathedral church is dedicated to St. Lambert^ 
to which belong 60 Canonici majoris^ who muft be all of 
noble bkx5d, lexcept feme few fdiolars whidi they may 
chufe in. By thefe the bifhop and prince of Liege is 
cle£ted. Befides thefe there are twelve Canonici ineSocreTy 
zndtwchreminores /he parvanunfa. On weighty occafions 
the prince afTembles the fbtes ot the country for their ad- 
vice. The Clergy, Gentry, and Commms fend their fcvcral 
deputies to thefe convention^. No law can be made, nor 
any great tax impofed without their confents. In this 
city are an mcredible number of monafteries, or rdigious 
hoafes, as they caH them. In the garden of the Engli/b 
yefiiits college we faw many * ingenious dials invented by 
Pramifois Linut, In the church of Ac GuUebnites cloi- 
fter without the walls we Ikw Sir John Marutmlt^ 
tomb-ftone. ^ In 

Hidr^, an J Phy/i)bgicaL ^i 

id the rdfay are kfept his Mdle, <purs, 9ftd bridle- 
bit ; ts aHbtwogftat ktiire^, which the mixries, wh6 
fliev/d us theie thmgs, told td were givtfi Mm by the 
Knperor of the Ttiri/, betng fbch as himfetf ufedi Uf M 
hi9 toii^fEene was tMs infcri{»eion : 


siMus pauperibus erogator, qui 


anno dnl w ccc^ lxxp mensis no- 
. vembris die XVD. 

Thereon was alib engraven the figune of In arm^ 
than, treading oo a lion, having a forked beard, his 
hand lift up to his head in a bleffing poflure, and 
thefe words going out of his mouth, POS Kt PM 
POR MI. Which is old Fnnch^ figniftring^ You tbci^ 
fofs votr mi fir thi Icve jf God. pray for mt. 

yum 26. We travellM billy and may way from ^P^^ 
Uigi to the Spaw^ feven hours diitant. We had ia 
pcofjpeAy on the .left hand as we rode, PranfUmont caftle^ 
and loon after came to the view of a deep valley, in 
the bottoiD ef which lay the Spa^f. It ia a plea%at 
little wall^d town, though caA^d a villagp, inditterently 
well buQt for a place fo remote from commeirce. Thf 
hihabitants reap nofmall benefit frcun the frequency 
of ftnuigersi which, in the fuminer-time, repair thithed 
in great ntimbets to drink the medicinal waters. Tber^ 
is one weD caUed PmJmij within the tpwn, in tb4 
market-place, which taftes ftrong of vitriol, the virtMi^ 
whereof are contained in thisditticb wrltt^ over k«. 

Objlru^um referMtf durum tmt^ fwmfda ^ft/^ . , . ; 
DeHili fortlficQi^ Ji iamen arU bihis^ 

£ a TU 

$2 Observations 9opegrapbicat^ 

The other welb are at a gcxxl diftance from the 
town, (i). Sauvimfy to the eaftward, about an hour's 
walk rcmo^ {2)* Girwfler^ as far to the ffxithward^ 
and (3). Tmulit^ about the mid-way between Pmf* 
hmt and Sauvmr. Thefe waters feeincd to me more 
brisk and fprightly, and better iatcd with mineral jui- 
ces, than any I have tafted in England^ and doubtleis 
are more nimble and vigorous in their operations. But 
of fheir feveral natures and virtues Hmricus ab Hars 
hath written a particular treatife, intitled Spadacrcnty to 
which t refer the reader that is defirous to know more 
of them. In the woods and upon the rocks near this 
town we found many rare plants, which we had not 
before met with, I mean fpontaneouily growing in their 
natural places, viz. ^fcU^sJlore alboy Pofygtmatum mi-^ 
futSy Cyanus major j Ranunculus JhicatuSy Campanula ptrfi* 
afdiay Sidiritisjhn paDido JimiUi Ladano fegetumy &r* 

Umhmurg. June 28. From the Spaw we travelled to Aken^ 
paffing through limbourg three houn diftant, a town 
confiderabk for its ftrength, being fituate on the fide 
of a hill, and encompafled with a ftrong wall and trench ; 
not for its bignefs, it confifting onlv of one ihort broad 
ftrect, nor for its beshity, the buildings being aD of 
wood. The garrifon at our being there was about 300 
fddiers. Before we entered the town we were met up- 
on the'^ way by feme of theie foldiers, who very in- 
folently ftopp'd our borfes,demanding money of us, which 
we were forced to give according to their difcretion, 
before they would let us pais ; which, though it were no 
confiderable (urn, yet was more than we were willing 
(bould be violendy extorted from us. When we were 
paft the town, we met alfo with many of thefe ftrag- 
glers, by whom (it was tdd us^ many robberies are com- 
mitted hereabout. 

Min. -^^f called by the French Aix la Chapelkj to diftid- 

guifh it, I fuppofe, from jftx in Prwence^ h a free city 
of the empire, very confiderable for its ftrength and 
greatneis, being encompafled with a doable wall, and 
having in it 30 diurches. About now ibme 15 years ago 
here happened a lamentable fire which almoft ruined 
the town, burning down to the ground 4500 houics, 
frofi which calamity it was not half recovered at the 


Morale and PbyfiohgicaL 5j 

lime of our being there. In the gfeat Piazza or mar* 
ket-pbce is a bandfiune fountain, with this infcription a- 
bout the edges of the Mbn : Hie aquis per Graman Prin^ 
npim pmulam Rtmamm^ Nirwis Ut 4grippa firatrem 
htviniif^ caUdarwm fimium tbtmue a principio cwftruHa^ 
f^fUa veri pir D. CarJum Mapmm hip. conftituto ut 
Uctis bic Si cafut & ngm ftits trans Jllpts^ renavatm 
pmi: patus werms hie gitidus fins vt/bixit $Um^ quern 
mwu daaum bee senee vafe ilbtftravit S. A J^ jtquijgra-^ 
mmfU^ Amu Demitu i620» The iron crown wherewith 
the Emperor is qown'd, and the fword of Cbarkmaigne^ 
which he holds^ when he is crown'd, and is obl^ed to 
wear by his fide thr^days together, and wherpwith ho 
pcaies nobkpien ; as ^Hq the go^ls, &id to be writtea 
by the EvangeliAs own hands, are here kept, and eve» 
ry ocMonation ient to FrankfurU The chair, wherein tho 
Emperor fits when he is crown'd here, hath its fidea 
of ivory, and its .bottom as they fiuidly imagine of the 
wood of NcaVtjirt, 

This city (according to the beft information we cou]4 
get there) is governed by a mayor, two confuls or burgo^ 
snafters, fourteen fcabins, and about a hundred and twenty 
ienators or counfellors. The mayor is prefident of 
the fcabins and executes their fentences ; he is put in 
by the duke of GuUct and continues during life, meeHi 
bene fe gejferii. The confuls are chofen by the fuffrage 
of the feveral companies of the city, and continue two 
yean, mede bene Je gefferint \ every year there is one cho* 
fesL. One tbtt is' no fenator may be chofen conful or 
buigomafter, and yet thefe have the chief power. Th« 
fcabins ;ire jw^ and continue during life; when one of 
them diesi the reft chufe another in his place. The fena« 
ion are cbolen by the feveral companies, of which there 
are about fourteen or fifteen in thb city. Every com* 
pany chufes eight. Half the fenate are yearly chofen. 
The territory of this city is large, conuining about 
aoo vilhges, and is for the moft part encompafuKi with 
oiountains. We (aw here the manner of making bra(s 
of copper, by mingling and mdting therewith Lapis Ca^ 
iasnmarisf which changes the cobur thereof from red to 
yettow, and increafeth the weight by thirty in the hun^ 
dred. But that for which this place is moft remarka* 
hl^ amd from which it took its name, are the hotbaths, 

E 3 of 

{4 Ob'servations Tcfogr£phicaI, 

or which there are ferefal within the walh and others 
without, >t Street » great vjll^ left ritan tn EwBfh 
mite diAuK. The wxtets of Sire/I at the fburces whera 
they itliie out of the earth are much hotter than thofe 
»f the Both tfi England, and the fpringt more plentifiil, 
The |ieople there told w, and I can ectfily Vlieve thentj 
ihst they will ierve to hoil eggi in. T^it tafte (cemed 
to ut f«lti&. Tbey are ufed outwaidly for bathing, and 
taken inwardly fer many iifaSa. As we walked to 
Barett we could not but take notice of' a pool whofe 
mters were dmoft tepid, by realbnof a little ftream 
fnym die hot baths running mrotigh it, wherein we were 
aflured were bred aad fed good ftore of fifli, which are 
pat into cold watef fer a month dr two. before thejr 
eat them. 1%it of the nature, Unds, ingredients, and 
tries of the fevenl b« waters, m weQ dfoTe of the city, 
as of Bgrcft, the fiiUowing abftraA of an Ep«(lo1ary TjiC 
couHe concermng them written in French, and pnUifliecl 
by Francis Bhndel M. t>. will gjve (b? TCader nior« 
potkuhr ipfonnattofl. 


Merat, and IPhyjiok^ccl. 55 

O^fervatiom cwtcerning the Baths of 
Aken, cdUeSfed xmt of an Epiflo- 
lary Difcourje. PuhUJhed in French 
fy Francis Blondel, M. D, 

"^^ O T to trouble the reader with the various opi- 
^^ nions of antietit and modern phil6lbphcrs concern- 
uig the caufe of the aAual heat of natural baths, our 
Autboi^s account thereof in reference to thefe of Aktu 
» in brief as follows.' 

Thefe waters (feith he) paffing .through a certain ar- 
gfllaceous earth, pregnant with a kind of nitrous (alt^ 
Biinoft of the fiinie tafte witli the waters of the baths 
(wUcfa Is to be found 'in good quantity in the lands a- 
lout this dtjr) charge themftlves therewith, and fo be* 
come a jff^f^oar^ capable of difiblvini; fach mineral me* 
Cab as are contained in the veins of the earth through 
wUch tbey run. 'This iblution he conceives is made 
hj piercing and corroding the minerals, after the fame 
manner as fpirit of nitre and other Aqua Stygut are wont 
to do, which ufually caufes a great ebullition and heat. 
Sd then the aftual heat of thefe fprings prxxreeds from 
the mixture and encounter of their waters (impreg- 
nated as is before intimated) with the mineral and me- 
tallic ibbftanoes, juices, and forrits contained in the veins 
of the earth through whicn they have their courfe. 
The nhroiis fait fore-mentioned may perhaps be the 
thmutic b\t of monfieur Rochasj or the efurine (alt of 
Hfbnont. Now the water once heated, being conuined 
in the vaults of the mountains as in a ftov^, continues 
fast a long time, the eiuption thereof being, it is likely, 
at a good diftance fVdm the place where it did at firft 
conceive its heat. 

At the long continuance and duration of the beat of 
dieicwaten, for fo many ^es paft, no man need won- 
der: iiinr (i.) It is ^AC^y* taken for granted, that al) 


56 Observations Topographical^ 

fi)rts of mines do grow and increafe by addition, con^ 
verting the more refined, fubtile part of the e^rth, and 
which hath a feminal difpofition to fiich a change, into 
fheir own nature. (2.) The pitrous falts, the hrft in- 
gredients 4>f thele watere, are alfb reftored in their mtf- 
tricesj after th^ fiux)^ n^anner as we fee it happens in the 
Caput mrfuum of vitriol, which, tho' the vitriol hath 
been once or twice extracted from, it, will, bv being 
cxpoied to the air, f gain recover niore ; whether ^t be by 
conveHion of its matrix into its own nature, by a kind of 
aggeneration and tranfmutation, or by imbibing and re- 
taining thofe fubtile and volatile falipe exlial^tjons, which 
continually afcen^ ou( of t)ie earth, of wander up and 
down th9 air. 

As for the ingredients of thefe hot waters in gener^, 
he faith, Tliat befides a threefold bXt-mtvc fixedyVolatiU^ 
^nd minglid^ or armoniaci^ they partake ot a fixed and 
volatile fidphur^ a manna of aflum, ^ovcKt vitriol, divei^ 
metals, as copper and iron, a very little volatile earth, 
a certain argiUay iand a^qd calaminary flowers. That 
they partici(iate of copper he proves i|i ^t t|ie ttxritory 
of Aken aboi4|id$ in divers places with Lapis cahminaris^ 
which Is, as 1% were, the aliment of. copper : &r being 
mingled in the furnaces with red copper, it ^uggient^ it by 
the addition of 30 poun4 V^eieht f^r ctnt. and gives it f 
yellow or golden tin^ure. As for iron, the many fer* 
rugineous fprings, that are found within an^l without thi^ 
city, are an evident teftimony that there are plenty ot 
iron mines hereahoMt ; and therefore mod likely it is, if 
rot certain, that thefe hot waters charge th^nfelves with 
that metal. That they contain a thrpe-fold nitiOMs fait, 
lie proves from their natural evaporations, ^i.) The 
fixed is found in the wfUs of Borf^t an^ the Emperw^ 
chryftajlized into fmall ihining (quarf gfaiiis, . ming)bd 
with a little flower of fulphur, ftifrkinjg to the covers of 
thofe wells, which h^ve not been of a ^g tin^e. Opened. 
It may be alfe| found in the chymical paminationof thefe 
waters by evaporation, or diftilla^on. ('^.) Tlie vo/atil^ 
is carried up by the volatile fulph'ur, a^ is hereafter 
fhcw'd ip the defcription of the firft fcrt of thefe baths. 
13.) The mhgledy or armoniacy is daily feen in all the 
\vaters of tjx? city, juid {fi Bored ^ fwimming in little 

" cylindcis 

Moraly and PbyJSohgicaL 57 

(jUnitTs on tfae furface of the waitarB, and this is that 
cream, or icum, which is ordinarily found upon the 
waters in the halbns. That th^y ooatain the reft of 
the befbiementioncd ingredients, (hall be (hewn in the 
4;fi:ripiioo of the particular baths: ^ Meters whereof 
our Author reduces to four Ibrts. 

I. Nitr9-fiiipburtms^ fuch are thofe of the Ei9^ir$/s 
bath, the lUtU bath, and St. ^ritis bath, 2. Stdphnn^^ 
nitrmiSf fuch are thofe of Campus^ or thcPoar-mfn's bath, 
the R^i bath, and St Cmtilms^s bath. 3. Sutphursor 
mtr§^iiriclk^ iiich is another bath of the lame St. C^^ 
fuUus. 4. Salfhabunim-nitrma^ viok thole of Bcrcet^ 4 
village adjoining to Jhn. 

L As for ^ Nitro fulfbifrMif kind, thofe of the Em^ 
ftrm^^ bath, wA, the kn\i bath, ^ure.bMt ope water, con>iBg 
from the iame Iburce, and coIlqSed in one and the lamf 
well. That part referved in (he. £^f^0r's batii is di-* 
vided into five gregt balbqs, pr receptacles : that in the 
Utile bath, into three, AU which .might be renewed 
daily, if tifne would permit, the fprjng is ib copious. But 
by leafim of the, exceffive heat of the waiters, it is ne^ 
c^Hary oftentim^.tbat tliey l^and in tb^ bafon 16 oir 
18 hours to cool, before they b(» fit for the patient's ule* 
Notwithflanding when th^y are coine to a juft temper^ 
one may bathe in Cl^^, and efidure them \ long tim^ 
as thofe of Borate without any inconvenience. Thi^ 
fource h^di that of peculiar to itfelf, that in its well 
one may find diftindly a qi4antity of nitn cos^ated^ 
and good plepty of ^pw^^ of fijpbur very light, purely 
fine, and w^.lfented, The nitre fticks to the fida 
of the well, and io do the flowers of fulpbur above that: 
the which Ibn^etimes, whfnher b^ the extraprdins^ry boiling 
tgi of the fountain, or by the in^petuofity of the afoend* 
«ng vapours, qr by their Qvrn weight ai^ broken olF, and 
fall bacl( into tb; Iburce i from when^ being no more 
difiblved by the water, they come forth intire into the 
bafons. If you take of this water, and let it ftand in 
a veflel certain days, it will prQcq;iitate of thefe yellow 
flowco of Jjii^bur^ to the bottom of the velfeL wfidct 
tbefo vJauU flowers, thefe waters contain alfo fix'4 
ilowen of JuUwr^ a competent quantity of nitri both 

valatiUf jvf4^ and mfvVir^^ dn^m^Ci a little aUwnj Ids 


5^ Obskrvations topographical^ 

ifiiriily the i^rfts ttiid prindples of cappet^ and iron^ a rery 
little fmhtik tBLfth^.^rgilh knd fimd :' no htittnunj for let 
ttefh^ ^nd %» loAg as ybu pleiife, yotr (h^ find no fatty 
fiibflanee fwimming tinen them, as'tipon^the Spaw wa* 
ferk The v^laMie fiaphtr evaporates fi> fltdngly, that 
it carries up with it a quantity tX "nftre,' zs one may 
'=fee after the folUtion of the vapours, cotigealed and frbzeo 
ill winter time, wrhen it ivmains incorporated upon the 
'#a]k, fn the pkeci' where the idcfe were. Thcfc wa- 
tcht ktt in- vrci^ hcfiai to tbofe of the Spatv ; coming 
ffefh <Kiit of thefoofce, theV appear Whitift, or bKxiffa, 
fcut having ftood a white and grown coM, greenSh. They 
are very pure, and leave no kind of mud, or LuMn 
ihirmab bdhind thtm i in cooling they yield a fmall fcam, 
•r cream of mttrel TNlt from their feinr^, beipg wrought 
ttpoA hj the aifi, they let fall a litde whitifii fediment, 
as thdR of B&riBtt "do a Mackflh one. They preferve 
the colour of rofes put into them*, and caufe them not 
to wither, as doth common 'wtter. 'fhe vapoun afcend- 
ing from them ftiike filver pbce Uadt; as diofe of Ar- 
rH make it white. The other fource of St. .9«r- 
rh^B bath diiftr» ftom thefe iri no other refped, five 
Ihat the water tbeifeof is cooler. It is-teferved in throe 
Ijttfofis. In tfais^ wcfi you find neither fidbhur nor fait- 
fet^t ftiekii^ to tlie-' fides,' probably liiecaUfe it is open or 
imdovered. i ' .. 

• 11. The fecoAd) w juifhuteo-nHr^s brt <fi Cemfusj See. 
tW they fpriDg tip in feveral pbces, and hare diSeient 
\f^Ib, yet is tlw nature of them alV their compofition^ 
Itfnd mineral ifigredients the fiime. The fW-zvim's hath 
hath- one great bafoti t>r receptacle; the ^iSoft bath Ifbur^ 
iMrhereof two on!y are ufed, and St. Vufnems^ bath oF 
thi^ mine two. Thelk waters are fit for ufe at aH fea- 
fbiis, %eing of a temperate heat, more efEcacioos, and 
bf grekter fbrce fn their ^peratiotis, than the firfl ibrt ; 
thev weigh two per cent, more thaii* they, and arc of 
M ftmnger ftent. In thefe is never found any fiifbur 
oondehfed, no not in their wcllj, thtf 'they \t covered: 
hut when they are emptied, arid flew water let in fas 
hi the Rnfe bath) the water running down sdong the 
walls and feilts^ into the bottom? pF the b^i^ or con* 


ftrraterlei, the extermillAiv pMvaiting u{ioii. it^ & tfttad^ 
and in ftich littk quantity arjtfts, fiktfi> and ooodBnfe 
ksfa^^bur aD along the fakl Mmlb and &sl% TnktQxing 
die eyes of the TpeAatore With its beau^ and luftiie. But 
llie water riftng in the1)H^et^ttnentioned bdbm,' and oo* 
Tering the feats and ^^ll9^''«feBfiilphi«r- again imitaiand 
incoqixMfates with its diflfoktnt, aiid diftppeaia and bidet 
itEM therein. The water of thefe (bureeft eontaias gneae 
quantitjr of (cdpfaur, rttf line and (ymft^ Usk oU 
trous (ah, a litde vitttol^ and k& aHuM^ « more of the 
•tfaer minerals and metab^ than die firft fort ^ or thofii 
of Bmrctt. So that they are more compounded^ oleoui 
and bituminous, dian an^ of the othfcr fiMWoess and 
tho' they come out ^f tiie earth vetr neaivperafe, wim 
adual heat, yet can fick perfima haidfy enduntfaem for 
any long time, for the «ioft patt Ibaice half an.faonr. 

in. The thifd foit, Whidi I call SnlfiMethiiitn^m^ 
triMcy and b aUb of' S^.~ Cwndiut^ diftia Irom ^ pm* 
cedent, in that the tafte is a Httb moise acid^ the £ndi 
fweeter, and liker that of <pirit of vitriol^ and the touch 
left o3j. It is of lefs efficacy in ufe than cfte hooni 
Ibrt, mi. of moie than the iirft^ Of thifll Iburce tkece 
are three hafons, Irhkh, Hvith the two othwsxif St.* Cor^ 
neCtu hefbrementioned, make fi?e in this houfe Tliefe 
waters do agree much What m dieir compoTition with 
the precedent. They are Very pure and -ckbr, efpedaUf 
in their wdb; and tho^ Ihey (eem troubled in 'their 
boibns^ "yet taken in a gla&, iliey appear dear. 

IV. The fourth, or ^^^oArMiw-iMfrMtf kind, are tho<e^0rr«f 
of the neighbourhood, or Ar/#r. Thefe come out o£badu. 
the eartfaextream bot^ and in gmat abundance^ are aii 
af the fimie medicinal qOldkjr, have fa«end \0dlt, and 
are referved in ilen or tWelye houfts, each wfaneof 
hath two haibns, or feceptaeles $ hefides which, there 
is a comraon bath escpdfetl to ilie air, for the ufe of 
poor^peofde. Thefe waten caft off a copious exciemenc 
or tautar, whkh yet is not Aone^'but only a fiuid mingled 
with, and united to the nhrous and aluminous felt of the 
wieer, otegufaned by the beatmg of the cold air on tea 
^perficies^ to whkh dlib cdiiieuia the cold of the waiia 
cxptled to th^feuMT air^ TbOk excrefoanciee zsc found 

6o Orservations Top^rapbicat^ 

lit the fiibttrnuieous cx>nduitSt not only of thefe» but 
the other baths in the city ; being held to the fire, they 
ibon become friahle, and are nothing but a pure round 
land like the common. The higher houfes and baibns 
have the more of this tartar^ yet is it fo little, that it 
is not to be icen or peroeivea in the water. Thefe 
waters are of a difirent Jp^Usy virtue, and operation 
from thofe of the city, are very eafy to fufier, and ferve 
often for divertifement and recreation to peribns that are 
in health. The content of them is a great quantity of 
fei-fidt and allum, Icis nitrous fait, a very little iulphur^ 
and not much of metallick fubftances. 

Concerning the virtue^ and ^fkS^ of theife waten 
inwardly taken, he difcourfes to this purpoie: 

Thefewaten taken inwardly are v^ available againft 
the Phthiiick, Afthma^ or diffioul^ ot breathing, ccca« 
fion-d by toi^ phl^m lodging m the branches of the 
wind<rpipe ; ag^nft the weakneis of the ftomach, indi% 
geftion,. crudities, flatulencies, vomitingii, hiccougl^, and 
inveterate chplicks. They diffipate and dry up all manner 
of catarrhs and ferous defluxiops; and are very proper 
to be drunk by thofe th^t 41^ troubled with the paify, be- 
fore the ufe of the baths. They quick^ii the appetite, 
deanle the blood, and open th« obilru^tions of the me* 
jentery. They are of ejccellent ufe againft hjrpqchon- 
driacal maladies, efpecially in fuch as have weak and 
coU ftomachs. They mollify the hardnels of the liver, 
ffdeen, and meientery. They difiblve and brii^away. 
the gravel of the reins and th^ lei&r ftones : and tere 
he produces many examples ojf fueh as voided flonea 
upon the drinking thefe waters^ and among^ the reft of 
fiime that had drank the &p0w waters, ;md qime from, 
thence without receivii^ any benefit. They deanfe 
the ulcets of the bladder, diiT^vlng not only ^(tegpis,; 
phlegmacick and viiiaous hun)0|8 whidi ooagu^ite the ^one, 
but even the ftone itfelf, wbUft it is yet tenciier. They 
have fometimes cured in^rotittopt fevers of ipng conti^ 
nuance, and fcropulous tuoKm,. Thc)^ dry up.afwi heal 
the itch, leprofy, and other a£kdions,of tl^ slun* TW- 
ftop the immoderate flowing^of the mmfei in i|mnen» 
and cure the jaundice, the .p|lene(s anfi difco(oMi^ o( 
the skin in virgins ; and fii^Ily they give cafe and re- 

Morale and PbyJwiogicaL 6x 

lief in the gout. Of all thefe faculties, he brings in* 
ilances and examples of peribns that have been cured. 
Particularly that thefe waten drunk mav have a pow* 
cr of dtflblving the ftone, be proves by tnis experiment : 
Taking a ftone voided by a man about two years be* 
fore, and infuiing it in water hot from the fountain, for 
the ipace of three days, we found it (faith he) molli- 
fied and reduced into a loft phl^m. Which virtue of 
the watcn was further connrmed to us by a late ac** 
cident : for opening the vault of a well, there was found 
a certain glue or mucilage, which, it's to me probable, 
came from the fblution of the mortar of lime and (and 
in long time, by tlw volatile and diilblvent fpirits of tlic 
waters ; tSptxia&y there being found no other cement be- 
tween the ftones, and in that this fame glue or mucilage 
mingled itfelf tntirely with the waters of the fountains, 
without any appearance of icum or fat fwimming on the 
top, (b as gum of cherry, or the like is wont to do in 
water, and being caft into the fire burnt not, but dried 
up. Thefe experiments and obfervations were made 
upon occafion of a burgomafler of Riga (who, being 
afflided with the ilone, drank thefe waters) his paffing 
his urine thro' a linnen doth, and finding therein a 
certain thick phlegm left behind, which, beine kept a 
while upon paper, haidenM into a fhmy fubfbmoe. 

From jUen^ June 29. We travelled through a fmaU-^^^ 
walled place called AUifAvoen to Gir&i, five hours difbuit '^, 
This is an ek^ant little town, built of brick, though the^**'^*' 
houfes be but few, having ftreight ilreets and a fq^are 
Piaz^. It is well fbrtified with a ftrong wall and trench, 
but mofl confjderable for its ciudel, which for grcatnels, 
fbength, and beauty gives place to few that we mtve feea. 
Within it is a fbtely palace of the Prince, who for the 
defence and (ecurity of this city maintains here a garrifoa 
of 1000 fbldiers. About ten or twelve vears fince thb 
place was poflelTed by the Spaniards, w hen the peace 
was conclifded between them and the HoUanderSy it was 
agreed, that the duke of Ntwbergb fhould have GtiUck 
and Berg \ and the marqueisof Brandenhtrgjhy Mark and 
Clew. The main trade and employment cf this town is 
making of malt. 


62 Observations Topograpbtcai, 

Jwu ta We proceeded on to uoUen fome feven IkHxts 
difrant from Gulkky by the wav paffing through a little 

tirchtm, walled place called Btrchefn. A great part of this day*8 
journey was throueh plea&nt wtxKk. We obferved, by the 
way-fide ahd in the woods and hedges as we went. Mm- 
tirion Girmanicumy Aktluro mont/tna latifolia ramofa^ Pid- 
imnaria macukfdy GaU&pJu fioe Vrtica imrs flcrt purfu^ 
rafctnti mijkriy folk mm ffiAcvktOy and among the corn, 
Vaccaria Oer. 

CMeM, ColUfiy thou|h k gfves tide to an archbiihop who is 
one of the elenors, is a free city of the empire, and one 
of the greateft in Gimiany. The middle part of it is well 
built of ffcMie, wherein are two hit and hrge piazza^ 
the skirts meaner and of wood. The walls of the city 
ftfe of Ibne, very tall, but not pfoportionably thick, and 
covered with a TtHum. Round the walls without is a 
pleafimt walk of trees, two deep trenches, and at con- 
venient intervals ftrong bulwarks. Within the wall are 
inclofed 300 acres of void ground (not built upon I mean^ 
planted with vines; of the grapes whereof we were told 
many hundred tuns of whe are yearly made. In the 
Demo or church of St Petit ait preiervea in a golden cheft 
the bodies ^as thev would have us believe) of the three 
wift men or the Eaft that came to worfhip our Saviour, 
commonly called the three Kings of CoUm ; Melclnor^ 
GaJpoTy and Balthafar, To this church belong fifty 
fxir canpns .nobles, and eight canons presbyteis. By 
thefe fix^ two with the dean of the cathedral, who hath 
two votes in die eledion, and the two confuls regent of 
the cfnr who have four, is the archbiihop chofen, who iii 
not alK>wed to continue in the ci^ at any time for above 
three days together. The government of the dty is by 
fix confuhor Durgo-mafters, who continue in office during 
Cfe, yet but two only in power yearly ; (even (cabins and 
150 (biators. When a bui^-maAer dies, the fenate 
chufes another into his place. The fenators are chofen 
by the feveral companies of the city, and continue 
during life; only fifty are in powcf yearly ; fo the power 
revolves tor rfic &me every third year. The (cabins an; 
put in by the Prince, and continue during life. The 
main body of the citizens is of tlie Ibinan religion ; vf^ 
are .there a good number botb of Lutherans and Re- 


Morale ^ and Thyfiokgical 6%' 

firmei or Cahlntfts. The IsuAeram are allbWed a church 
within the walk; the Riformed^rt farced to go trog the 
waiter a mile out of town, to church. In one of the 
churches of this to^^n ane preftrVed the bciics of thoft 
I rooo virgins which accompanied St. Vrfula to Rwi^ 
and in their return here fufierod martTrdom. 

From CoHeh we went up the Rhim in a boat drawn 
by men, which brotight us the firfl day to a fmall vfllagft 
called Vidich. By the way we found growing among the 
com in great plenty. Delphinium Jiwflici ffore pttrpurc- 
idTulio 'oufgare^ and Ni^ella artfenfii: in fome barreii 
grounds near the rivers Stat^has citrina Gimutniea latiori 
fiUd J. B. Next morning we pafled Softna^ a pfetty 
walled town with a handfbme piazza. Here the eleoor of 
CcBftt hath his palace and ufual refidence.' This night we 
lodged at a pitiful poor walled town called'^r^r^, where 
we firft began to have feather-beds laid upon us inftead of 
blankets and coverlets. 

Jufy 6. iVe pafRd by kineck c^HUon our right hand,' 
flina about a mifc from Bri/aca came to j^demach a waHed'^*^^***^* 
town of btik, note, fubjefl to the ardibiihop of C^en. 
Over-againft this town is /f^^»m^cM cafl'le belongiite to 
tlie aidibxdiop of THers, Then we' pafled by two caffle$ 
0f the earl of fTats, one on the right hand on a highf 
rock, well buik, with a cloifter in it. , 

Two leagues from Jndermcb we pafled by E^ersi 
and this night lodged at CMeniZy a confideratjle city he-^MMtz* 
longing to the archbifhop of Triers^ called in Laiin^ 
Cwijkunttty becaufe fmiate at the confluence of the rivers 
M^iUi and SMm, Here is a fair ftone-bridge of thirteen 
arches over the Mofelle^ which, notwifhftanding its di^ 
minutive name, is no fmall river. Here is alio a bridge 
of boa& over the Rhiru^ to a ftrong caftle called Herman^' 
Jlein^ fituate on a high rock ; under which, near the 
river, is a beautiful palace of the atchblfhop of Triers^ 
whofe name is Carclus Cafpar. Not far hence is Hi^tn-- 
Jltin caftk, near which fpring^ an acid water. Another 
Wdl of this natott there is at Antmjlein^ three or four 
boars diftaiit from Andemachy belonging to a dolfter of 
CarmeStis^ who ielf the water fealed up in^ttles; a 
third of greateft note at ZwoWach^ four miles off J^ani- 
fitrt. All thtfe waters are feld to the tov/ns add countries 


64 Ob s e r V AT IONS Topograpbicaf, 

about, and commonly druok mixt with wine, to wluch 
they give a pleafant tafte and purging quality; I can- 
not iay, as Blondel affirms of them, that upon mixture 
> with wine I faw them fmoke, or found them aAually 
hot : Indeed I was not careful to obicrvc thefe particulars. 
yulf 7. We pafted by Lodejhiim town and caftle on 
the left hand, and CapelU^ a caftte of the bi(hop of 
Triers^ on the right ; then si large ifland in the middle 
of the Rbim y next Rens^ a (mall walled place belonging 
to the archbifliop of CoUen^ on the right hand, and a 

Bvffant little further Srotvhach^ and a caftle above it. About 
four hours from CebUntZy Acppaert^ a wall'd town of 
Ibme note on the right hand, and not br from thence^ 
a caftle called Bomhobn on tlie left. We refted thisAight 
at a village called Hertznach, 

yufy o. In the morning we came to a pretty pleafant 

St Gkmt. wallM town callM St Gnvir^ a mile diflant from HfrtK- 
nacbj under the Landgrave of i/^ir, who lives in a fair 
caftle, built on a rock above the town. On one of the 
towers of the wall, by the river's fide, b fiiftened a biafr 
ring, etven by the Empetor Charles V. which is put 
upon ftrangera necks> and then they are obliged to drink 
wine, eUe they are Iprinkled with water. The magi- 
ftratcs, and greateft part of the inhabitants of this town^ 
are of the Rifirmed religion, yet have both Lutherans and 
Fapifts their churches. Jim without the walls, over- 
againft St Gower^ is a town and caftle call'd IVeilmcb^ 
Somewhat further on the right hand is tVefel town and 
caftle of the archbilhop of Triers^ and higher up on 

j2^. the left hand Cub^ a confiderable wall'd town, with a 
caftle upon a rock, belonging to the Prince EleAor Pa* 
tatine. Here we oUerved a float of timber going down 
the river, which was direAed by many men, who moved 
two long oars at each end thereof, which ferved inftead 
of rudders. In the rocks hereabout is flate gotten. Next 

Bmccharacwt came to Baccaracb^ a wall'd town on the right hand, 
having many towers, fubje^ to the Prince EleAor Pa- 
laiiney famous for the gcxxlnefs of its wine ; as is alio 
Rhincvw , a town not far from Mentz. At this, and 
many other towns between CoUen and Mentz^ our boat«^ 
men paid toll. A little diftance from hence we had in' 
view a fxxuU wall*d town on the left hand, and on the 


Morai, and PbyjitdogicaL 65 

rkbt we feft a pitiful village, yet walled about, called 
Hmhacbj and Came to a fecond of no better note, called 
Drecibaufitty where we lodged. Both thefe are under 
the archbilhop cf Attniz. Over-againft Htinkacb i$ 
Lt%vry^ a fmall yr^cd town of little account. 

July 9. We paided by Af^thottfe caftle, then by Mouji- Moufe- 
icwer^ ftanding in a Uttle iiland, iiunous for the ftory of Tower. 
the bifhop devoured by mice and rats. Over-againft this 
tower (lands a caftle, and a little further up the river 
on the right hand, Bingy a handfome walled town bc-Stwg4 
l<^ging to the £ie6br of Ment%: at fome diftance 
hence on the left hand, Rhodes^ then Gifon and Elveldty 
a walled town, and laftly. Wallops where we obfervod 
ilorks nefts upon the chinmies. This night we arrived 
at Mentz. 

From Colkn to WiddUh the river is of a great breadtby 
but above that, till you come to Mwfe-Ufwtry much nar- 
rorwer, being ftreighten'd by high hills and rocks on each 
iide. The fides of theft hills are in fome places covered 
with wood, in fome planted with vines, and below the 
vineyards, near the river^ are lai^ orchards of fruit-treea. 
The vines are tied to ftalces or pole^ of about a man's 
heighth, b that^ were not the poles « much fhorter, their 
vine]rards would nearly refemble our hop-gardens. All 
this way the river flows with fo fwift a current, that 
I conceive it impoffible to get u{) ftream with oars and 

In this journey ill the corn-fields, meadows, rocks, 
woods and iands by the river^s fide, ^c, (which the 
downefs of our boat's progreis gave us leifure to fearch) 
we obferved imny * plants, which we had not elfewhere, 
or but rarely before found growing wiM, vi%. Gentiaim 
crtuiata^ Chaimtdrys fiuria tinguflifoliay CbmdriUa junaa^ 
Chamadrys laamatisfoliisy Lychnis jyhefiris c€ilyculi$ Jirie^" 
iisy Pnjicsria JUiquoliiy Gemflella montana Germanica Park. 
Cmiftella aculeeia^ Baphtbalmum vulgarey Fraxmllay Car^ 
damne impaticnsj I6erhy MilUf^ium mbiUy Digitalis hi* 
Ua fMgn» fiarty Eryngium etruenfe fdiis ftrrm Jimilibusy 
CaucaUs alUs Ji'ir'Am^ Saxifraga fimtonmy Cbondrilbf 

^ Piajits obferred as we travelled between. CMm and Mimhu 

F carU' 

66 O^fi-^ ERVATioNS Topographical^ 

ettndeay Tithymalus magnus multtcauUs five Efula major ^ 
HeUeborafter maxtmus in great pknty, Ttthyrnabts pimus 
and fundry others* Near the citv of Ment% we found 
the fea-gilly-flowery or thrift j called by C. BauBme^ Ctf- 
ryophyilus numtanus major flore gMoJiy Caryopfylhs grami* 
neo filiQ mSnimuSy Caryopkylbts arvenfis umielliferusy C/- 
TU^hffitm minus y Thlafpi mmuSy aliis Aljffim minus J.B. 
Thlafpi capfuUsfublongis incammty Heliotropium majus^ Cam-- 
pherata congener^ Prunella flore majore & Prunella foEis 

Mentx. Mentz is a large city and well fortified: the build- 

ings generally old and but mean, the ftrcets narrow and 
not well paved, yet are there many great houfes of 
noblemen fcatter'd up and down. The Prince's palace 
is moted about. The prefent Prince, or Archbi(hop*s 
Jiame, is Joannes Philippas a Schaenbom ; he was betides 
bi(hop or TVurtzburghy and a few weeks fince chofeh 
alfo bi(hop of Worms. The canons of St. Martinis 
church here, who are in number 24, all barons or noble- 
men, chufe the archbifhop out of their own number ;' 
and when any one of themfelves dies, or is removed, a 
canon into his room out of the Domicillaresn The arms 
of the archbilhoprick is a whee>, derived from the firft 
archbi(hop, who was a wheelwright's fon, his name 
Willigefusy a Saxon \ he was wont to £iy, fVilligeJey 
Willigefey recogita unde veneris. Jews are allowed in 
this city. Here is a bridge of boats over the Rhine, 

yufy 13. We took boat for Frankfort^ going up 
the river Mctnus which near Mentx, runs into the 
Xhine, By the way we took notice (i.) oi Rufetheimy 
a handlbme fort <hi our right hand, belonging to the 
hndgrave of Darmjladt, (a). A little further up on 
our left hand a fmall village called Eterjheimy and (3.) 

Hocht. Hochty a walled town on the lame hand, garrMbn'd 
by the Ekdlor of Mentx. Here we may note, that 
the dominions of the Princes of Germany^ that border 
on the Rhiney are ftrangely mingled one with another. 

frankfirt, Frankfort is about five miles' or leagues diftant from 
MentLy tho' the houfes thereof are for the moft part 
built of timber, yet is it fair, populous and rich, very 
ftrongly fortified and encompaflcd with a deep trench 
of water \ the walb and bulwarks are kept ^ery trim, 


Mvrali iind Pb^logtcaJ. "' 67 

and In good repair* The river Main divides it into 
two parts, the lcfler» oh the (buth fide, is called Saxen- 
haufen. They ai-e joiAM by a fair ftone-bridge of about 
fourteen arches. In the great piazza are three hand- 
Ibmc fountains. The Emperor is lio^-a-days ufually 
chden here in the curia^ or fenate-houfe ; and crowned 
in the coll^iate church of St. Barthohmnv. There have 
been about 25 or 26 Emperors here chofen. By the fa- 
vour of one of the confuls, or burgomafters, we (aw the 
ordinal imperial grant, or conftitution, .whereby the col- 
lege of dc^rs IS appointed, called' Bulla aurea. It had, 
in place of the feal, a great medal of gold hanging at 
it, on which was ftamped, or engraved, on one fide the 
figure of the Emperor CharUs I V . with this infcription 
round, Cardm quartus^divim fawnte clitnentld^ Romano- 
rum Imperatnr femp. Aug. On the rcverfc, the figure of 
the city of Ksnuy and tliereon written, Aurea Ronuty 
and round about, this rhyming verfe, Rama caput mundi 
regit 9rbtsfrdtna rotunds. 

This city is governed by 42 fenators, two burgomafters^ 
a praetor, and KHirteen fcabins. The fenators are divided 
into three Jcamnay or benches : the higheft is Scabinorum^ 
the fecond, or middlemoft, Lttiratorumy and the loweft, 
Opificum. When one of the (cabins dies, or is removed, 
they choofe into his room one out of the Scamnum Li-- 
ttratorum. Thofe of the Scamnum Opificum can rife no 
higher. Thefe fenators choofe yearly the two confuls, 
or burgomafters, out of their own number. The peo- 
ple have no part or intereft in the government of the 
city, ht choice of the fenatc. Many Jews live here, 
who have their ghttOy or particular quarter, wherein 
they are locked up every night. Their trade is only 
brokage, and moft of them are very poor. They are 
forced to wear a piece of yellow cloth fome where about 
them, to diftingiiiih them from other people. 

All the magiftrates, and the greateft part of the citi- 
zens are Lutherans^ who have five churches. The Ro- 
man Catbolicis are allowed the free exercife of their reli- 
gion, and have within the city two doiften of men, 
and one of women. The Reformed had formerly a church 
within the vradls, afterwards, that being taken from them, 
thty had one juft without, whi9h being burnt down, 

F 2 whether 

whether by accident or malio^thci^, c^(^ '^ WW 5i 
good diftance from the town. \y^ -£?^i/?.|^"'^h* "M 
in Qj Afory's days^jjoes to decay. ' TJ^e ifVi^}^ hPMfo^ 
is made a granary^ or ftore-houfe. ' ^^c couatry hgj^, 
a.bout is pleafant,^ and the ground rjcli. We ifouna grow-* 
ipg wild Grameu amoris 4^£fum £jf ^h^moa yu(fMre^^ 
Fortulaca fyhefirts^ ini. ia fom^ hedges, Al/me bacctfsra^ 
which, it was riot my . fortune in all this voyage, tQ' 
meet with' any .Vfhcre elje, 

Jul> 17. We'leFt Franffofty taking the poft-coach^ 
for Fr mkenihaV' fiSttx ai^c.hajf hQUr.'$. riding, we critqr*d 
into pine- woods, the *fifft We piej: vfUh^l^ they reach'd. 
aimoft to our lodging^' this night, which was at a vilja§c 
called Geirjheim^ fhrce G/rman rnije? from franU'^t^ 

KertJhtim J^b ^^* ^^ a little walled town called Aorn/hemy. 
we ferried over ttie i^V, aiOd at fi^ n^iles end came 

IVorms. to fTcrms, a ]great old city, but meanly built, and in a 
decaying condition. It feems formerly to have bqea 
richer and more populous. The biihop is cholen by the 
canons of the gr^at church, being 20 in number. All 
the magiftrates are Lutherans^ After We bad pafled 
Worms^ one hour's riding brought us to Frankeruhaly 

Tranken- ^ fas wc ufuJly pronounce it) FrankendaUj a towa 

tiale. belonging to the Prince £le3or Palatuu^ ,i[^tuate in a 
level by the Rhm^ more confiderable for its ftrengtk 
than greatnefi. The houfcs are low built^ the ftreets 
broad and ftreight. The wall, mounts, and outworks 
neatly kept in good repair. The garriibn confifis of five 
companies, whereof two are citizens. There are in it 
three churches, one Jlmagne^ one Liw-Diitcb^ and one 

Jufy 20. We travelled from FrankendaU^ befide the 

Bpler, Bhtncj thro' Obenkeim^ a fmall walled town to Spitr^, 
two miles and a half diftant. Spier ^ tho' it hath a. 
bilhop, yet is it a free city of the empire, and governed, 
by its own magiftrates, of confiderable ftrength and 
greatnels. The houfes are moft old-built of timber^ 
father vaft than handibme or convenient We could 
not learn tliat there was any confiderable trade driven, 
here, fo that were it not for the imperial chamber (which, 
di^ws much company hither) we believe it would fooa 

-;i®M7, iiffd Phy/fologichf. 69 

^'ifid-irtfi^ Tht RdMi/h itrligion |)re. 

; toHB:^ yh haVt ,^ Luthervns their church*. In 

cathecfa^sd dnircli di:^ t|iie fhdnum^iita of feveralEm- 
^bibrs and'WIhopsi whor He intcrWd thtrc. The im- Imperial 
p^aJ chariiber cbrtfifc 6f 36'aflfcflbrsi and a chief pfefidenlC^««^'- 
aj)t»inted by* the Sot^k^^' beflde^ Whtte, thcrt are oihtt 
Htvcei prcTidehS cBofth '% the fChipferbr but of the de- 
lates. EVerV S5^rVOT *he cmplri, and each of the 
twi circles, i«iff twd delegates br afRflfors, The^e ii 
bother cha^fabei-. bP like power ^t yit^na. Thcfe 
Cdufb dcicrmrn^ ill cahttoverfies arifirig between thd 
fe^eAI Princes/ infl Static of Hi tmpire, 'by majo/ity 
<jf Vote, llie fia^£b ^0 ;<i)f 'txiaiW 6f ftie* Princes may 
apped from thbir <j^' PWn'iifes totnis,c6utt j tot it is noi 
prvdenf nor laftj fdt^xhttti fcf to db, trrtlefe they Arft with-. 
^w'themfelvc^ out^^f their terr?cpilY. $Dmc Ptinces. 
^'Wt ^ntT^lati^ have' 7ftr tan tppetlandi. 

^iilf^l.^'Wc t\xtphi,'.i htde backwards, and crofled' 
cKrcr'^iB' Airing tb Mii^ihn^ a town belongmg to thtMimheim. 
Prince EieOor Pilibil5n6, ficiiate jdft in the aiiglft made 
fty the *^ff^r and' iBBfti ttectirig, and ffrongly fortified.' 
The ji6ufcs 'in th^'ktSwars Were inoftof tffim beaten 
down, but 'navir 'tb^ ^i^ rebuildi'i^g them a-pace, th^ 
Prince havS^ gJv^K ih^town"^ great privileges, to in- 
^e ftrangers to co^pe' arid' inhabit! thett. At the tim^ 
df 6ut Being . fliere, *i^'^tSghntfs was buiWirig a new 
citadel, wMcir't^ SW tcr provd ^ itr6rig piece. It 
wanted riot mtidl thdn of beiA^ . finifhed. Who it 
irafi that firft advahcdf tlfiis place to the dignity of a' 
atf^ and foritiied it 'With walls, ditches and bulwarks, 
diisr hifcriptibir over (Mr the gate, towards the Ni^ccsr% 
will apjuaint the reader. 

^cd ffTt^t fdxh fAoikXj \ 

frediticus Ifllv Etk^ir 
' pAlatifttis 1Q)it^y Dhif Batari^ 

B lidiri Pa^^ ManheThio 

J^a ^tltrmdihUtipn^ 
fhblUth JJrim MnUtUSy 
y^Otf pjpiy^ J^v^o ttaufit^ 
[ Partem bms 'cipbh ipifuiu 
Jaao Domini MDCX. 

F3 y.fy 

70 Observations Tcpcgrapbical^ 

Biidelberg Jufy 22. From Manbeim wc roflc to Hiid^IbergjjfiBL 
before we enter'd the town paiHng a woodca bridge 
over the Neccar covered Qver with, a U^htm^ as are a& 
many of the gr(;at bridges in Smtxnlandj to preferve the 
timber, as I conceive, frem the injuries of the weather, 
HiideWerg^ thoVnone of the greateft cities, jet is the 
chief of the Palatinate^ and for its bigneis, populous ; 
which is much, confidering the devaftations made by 
the late wars in this country, ^hs, houfes are moft of 
timber, yet handfbme, and in good lepair j which aigues 
the inhabitants to be induftrious, and in. a thriving con- 
dition. It is fituate on the right bank 6f the river 
Neccar^ under hills of coniiderable heightb ; by rca^ 
fon of which it canno^ be made ftroi^, tho* it be en- 
compaiTed with a double wall and trench. 

In this city are five jurifdiftions, (j.) AuUca^ under, 
which are all the Princes or Noblemen : of this jurif- 
diAion the mafter of the houfe is prefident, {%.), CMn- 
ceUaria^ under which are are all the councib and other, 
officers, as advocates, do^rs of law, f^r, (3.) BdUca^ 
or the (bldiery: the general is their prefident. {^,) Jca* 
demica^ in which the Re£i9r. magnifi^ui. prefides^ and 
(5.) Civica. The memben of each jurifiiiAion may 
refufe to be judged by /my but their own judg^ before 
whom the plaintiff mufl implead them, according to 
the maxim in hw^ Jsiir fitpiUur firum ret. The city 
is divided into four quarters, and governed by a pnetcr 
and burgomajiirsi It can raife two con>panies of fbot^ 
and one of horfe. The Lutherans are permitted the ex* 
ercife of their religion here, and have lately built them 
a church: xhere are alio Roman Catholicks^ who liave a 
church without the walls. , . 

About the middle of the afinSent of the hill, caljej 
KoningfthaU^ flands the caftle where the Prince keeps 
hb court, a fhtcly pile and of great capacity, encom* 
pafled with a ftrong wall and a deep trench hewn out 
of the rock, which, upon occafion, may' be filled with 
water. Over the gate leading into the palace, is a 
Dutch infcription, fignifying the buildine of it by Lu" 
divicus V. in the year 1519. It is not all of one piece, 
but fmce the firfl foundauon fevfraT buildings have been 


Morale and Pbyfiological. 71 . 

added by fevenl Princes. One part b called the Eng* 
lifii hdUing. 

Under one of the towers flood the great tun, which 
almoft iiird a room. It held 132 fudders, a fudder 
(as we were informed) being equal to four EngRjb 
hogjiheads. The old tun b taken in pieces, and there 
b a new one in building by the Prince*s order, which 
is to contain 150 fiidders, or 600 hogflieads. Being 
invited by the Prince's order, we dined in the palace, 
nrheie we obferved adl things carried with little noife, 
and great decency. After dinner, his htghnefi was plea- 
fed v> call us into his dofet, and lliew us many curio- 
fides, among others (j,) a purie made of Alumm^unw^ 
fum^ which we iaw put into a pan of burning char* 
coal, till it was thoroughly ignite, and yet when taken 
out and cool, we could not perceive that it had received 
any harm at all finom the fire, (a.) Two unicorns 
horns, each eight or ten foot long, wreathed and hol« 
low to the top. By the way we may note, that thefe 
are the horns of a fifli of the cetaceous kind (two 
At&[AJpecm whereof you may find deicribed and figured 
in the Hiflory and Deftuription of the AntiUesy or Caribee 
Iflands, vo-itten in Fnnch by R. F. of Tertri^ and the 
head of one in Warmuf^ Mufaum) not the horns of a 
quadruped, as b vulgarly, but erroneoufly thought. What- 
ever the antients have ddtvered, modem voyages and 
enquiries have iliicovered no other terreftrial unicorn be- 
Mfa\ikft Rlnnocer^s^ which, it*s moft likely, b fignified 
by the word DKH ufed in in fcripture, which the Sep^ 
taagint render Moroxiotfi^* (3.Ji The imperial crown and 
gbbe of Rupertus Imp, who was of this &mily, richly, 
adorned with precbus ftones. (4.) An excellent and 
wen digefkd colkfiion of antient and modern obrfis and 
nedab of all forts, in which the Prince himfelf b very* 
knowing. Among the raft, we could not but take notice 
of a Swalift doUer of copper, . about the bignels, and of 
the ^uie of a fipiare trencher, fiamped at the four 
oomeis v^th the King's image and arms, of that weight, 
tine if a man be to leceive ten or twenty pound in fiich 
coin^ he muft come with a cart and team of horie to 
carry it home. The Prince Palatine's name and titles 
are^ CarJm LudmaUf Cmus Palatims Rbenl^ facri Ro^ 

F 4 mani 

7?^ Observations T^gtapbi^al^ 

mani Impirii Ek£i^^ utrinf^^^ B^vt^r't^, J^« He fpetks 
iix languages perfe^y well, v'n. High-Dtftcb^ Lpvh- 
I)uui^ Englijh^ Fretich^ bdian aii4 X^l/^ is greatly be-r 
laved of his (ubjefb, of whom he b^th a paternal care, 
a^ whoft ipter^ ^e makei his ov^. 

In the great church where the faviMi library ti^ kmt, 
\Y0 obferved oiany fair monumekics of Prkioes of this 
family, fome with Dutch^ ijioft with Lfitm epitaphs or 
inicriptions : others in the FraruifeOm. church. In St. 
P£ter*s church aUb a great number fA. monuments of 
learned men of the uDiverfity j .which i$ of good account 
and one of the beft i? Germany. Three or four colleges 
there are huik and endowed chiefly for the maintenance 
and accommodation of poor ftudcnts. 

The government of this univerfity is by % iiumte^ which 
cDofifls only of fixteen profeflbrs. Thenmiiiber of pro- 
fcflbrs is limited, and their ftipcnds fix'd by the flitutes of 
the univerfity given them by their founder RMpirtus count 
pftUcine ^n§ 1 346. and confirmed by the Pope and £n^ 
peror. Of thete profe&rs three are oi divimty ; four of 
l0w% three of medkimy and fix of plnlofy>ly. Of the 
phitofophy profefibirs four only are admitted into the fenato, 
left they iboujd make too great a party. Befides the 
ffnate chuii^ a-new the philofophy prc^non every year, 
and mav change them if they pleafe : the other profdbis 
2fG chofen for term of Ule. When one dies the icnote 
fchuies two and prefents.them to the Prince^ of which he 
takes one to fiicceed in the vacant place. Thb fenats 
chufes every year ^re^hrmagnificsnt^tfua^ which is only 
ato honorary title conferred upon feme Prince or grefit 
perfon, for he bath no power at all in the univerfity. 
(2.) A re^^ magm^i out of their own number $7 
ms^r vote, the chief officer for power and anfiveraUe ta 
our vtci'chanciUor^ (3.) An mtUfis who taket care of the 
pgblick buildiiigs. (4*) ^ prafiShu m vinaridf. (sO A. 
fr^ftBu^ ni frmutitiaruty which oficeis aafwer to ciiir 
%uanri. [b.) A qum/Uar^ who gathers up the univeriky 
revenue and rents, further this fen^te is a jurii3i£liaab|c^ 
themfelves, and. have abTobilB power in crimsaal cades, 
extending to life and death.: only after fenosnce g^vea 
the Prince may pardon. The degrees conferred heie 
ace in philofophy nwflirj^ of which Jjttebr thftre luwe fa^m. 


but few created ; in law and medicine liantiaUs and 
4M9r$ \ in divinity hatchehn^ Uctntlates^ and doifQrs^ of 

degrees without any regard of ftanding. The candidate 
muft undergo a double txamen, ^i .) By the faculty where-* 
in he is to commieAce, .tke retkrjkagik^us being prefent, 
and if be be found unfufficient he is remitted, and ap- 
pbinted .a^ certain .fludy to prepare. fiimlcK, 
(2.) By all the profeflbrs* together, the reffor maj^tficut 
being alfo prtftnt« The ftA Thc]^ ^ EJMWi umato^ 
rmm^ th^fecoiid rigi^oji^m^ Having- paj^ both ^xamens he 
is to dilute ^xihlkiSf ftdf frajfdiy then to tnsik^ u^tbSture 
ia the faculty wherein hi i%pCG|notcd,'' a^d^l«Al); i( i^ch. 
The ^cecb cnded^ he a^ks the vioe-chancelloi^ ut'det 
fmniidttm frofmt&ri iffiem frmmndL Notoi* th^ by the 
ftaAKf Ibe Pr^^^^fa^ Ecci^ 1Vfrmati$nfu \a perpetual 
ch^cellor, and mBftltutes a vic^-chancellbr in his place. 
But now thiii\isHt>ftiy ddtte:/^Ay&ir»«, ^]^' the uni- 
vcrfity is not oonoxious to the chancellor.. The vice- 
chancellor granting leave, the promoted, ^ho' Is ufbally 
the ^ dean of the faculty, in the name of the Prince 
£Ie£tor, afid ky ttelc^V^of the vi:c<ie6atD(^Jfcr^*\pro- 
nounces (iich an one do£br, and bids him afbend in fw 

finger^ and a.cap onJdi^.be^ a«(givC6>bim.Ji bodk 
fWft ibut and then Qp«n. ' Then; t]» gtaduaie. talon aa 
oalk touching witk hi«.ftegMrth»two beiidklflayeiiet 
leailiM one ^ainft tbc; mbei* and laft of kQ. feafk the 
pmfefliits in the roibm caUed the Pryh^mum^ whkh il 
nomt ukd as tbk dtvinity^jMiapls: At whicb^ feaft ths\ 
Prince Jttmfttfia.imfent or fends the xmcflhal ofhiiL' 
houfe. To fave charges two or three candidates, if ibejr. 
be of neaaer ooadftiMi. get|» brpfomotaiiiegtcb^ 

* • « . I > 

* Nol» Ail tke pMMMrs ill ^bA laMllf ftito th» diaalhlf 
bf mi^ tboBSb theknatt niafyappQiiirai^otlen ' 


74 Ob 5^* R V A T I b N s Top^raphicat^ 

D. T. O. M. A. 

Cur Jus LeBionum Publicarum ftP 
Privatartimy quas alfnc^ Unvoerfi-- 
tatis ArchipaiattTue D.D. Profef- 
fores hoc Anno D.DC.LXIL ReEiore 
tnagnififiQ Jacobo Ifrael Med. DoEl. 
&f Phyfiolog. Prof, ordinario^ habe- 
Bunt J juxta Facultatem feriem di-- 


X. TTRidericiis'Spftnhemius, S&. Thithpit DtSt^r^ ff Pr^ 
J7 fifir Ordinarius Navi Tffiamiftiii Diehu Lutut^ 
Atartis^ Jmns bf Vmiris^ aberd ^ddem Siptinumd perje^ 
fdtur VinMcuis Locirwn eomrmmfirumj nbera vtri «&- 
Jhriwa €x PauSnis E^oUs hta^ -46 metbado ixfemdtmry 
tti pntmiffu ^aftimibusj ad tbmdatiofum cttjmfyi bd 
JidfjuHgaiury abn Jnaljfis L^gicaj turn Parathvfis Sit^ 
i9rica^ tandbnque iruantur trdim ufus cum mantici twn 

CdUgia prhata exigtticcy difpuUttarUt^ ixamaatmria^ 
frimbus nuper abfobitisy Shtdiojis effert^ Difiutatifitus ardi- 
warii & iiftra$rdinarii snpmumi u^imfur mtn§uMm. 
HoralX. Johannes Ludovicus FabriduBt £S. ThtAgue DfSmr. 
& Profiffvr Ordinarius^ diehis lAOUf^ Mortis^ ^mf isf 
Vemris Thidogm Sjfinna ixpUmariperget^pr^erui uhfijuf 
Cafmflico CMi^$y UmverfaU gxpUcatorip^xamrmtmum^ 
aliaqui pro Studio/irum defiderio ixirMa turn fublka turn 
privata. cmtiHuabtt atqui tnjiituet^ 


Moraly and PbyJialogicaL 75 


Hcnricus David Cbuno, D, C^ Jztrium Profiffir pri^YbvATK* 
tnarius Acadtmiaque ProcanceUariusy Leniones QodUls^ 
cujufque tituE principiis ^ fundamentu fropofitis^ legibufqui 
peregrims U fugitivisj id eji-^ mn fuo titulo collocatis^ [ubi 
jpkilipum fa6furm fft) jtvrfim txplanatisy publice cmtt^ 
nuahit : addenda Jurium concwrnntium ampHationes if 
tf/triitiofUi tx omm yure. 

Idem privatim operamfuam pr$ captn & defiderio Studio^ 
firum iCfui pmtt, 

Johannes Fridericus Bockclman, J. V. D, PandiSta- Hora I. 
rwnPrrfiffor Ordinarhis^ V yudicii £lB6f oralis AuDci 
Affeffir^ puhUci Pandeifas docebtt hac metbodoy '^^ (^O ^<f' 
jufpu tituU qua tft^ o/iendat cmnexiarum^ (2^) jus cer^ 
twnymfod in Legibus effpe^antihus reperituryperdefimtimis^ 
divijtmes (ff Canoms ctmpendiose pr([ponat» f 3.} Contrever- 
fas fuaflieneSj additisfolidioribus rationihus propugnandi CsT 
nppiignandi fubjungati ("4.) Stqua Ux no/Iris Plciniaumque 
moribus antiquata M, mneat. (5 J Dtnique texfus in qui" 
bus Jingidaris matnta alicujus fides fjiy^icustim ajignet. 

Collegium etiam di^utatorium pidfUcum^ necnon expSca^ 
tortum privatum^ utrumaue ad Pandemias • ivjlitutitmy cm-* 
unuabit^ aliijque exercitits Auditoribus^ uti ba£fenus prodejji 

Banier Shuttenius, J. V, D. Injlitutionum ImperialiumHotiX^ 
Profeffbr OrdinariuSj in tradendis in/litutionibus Jenfum cu^ 
jufyue paragraphi genuinum ubi expo fuerity dubia occurren- 
tejque circa pr^entem materiam ^ontroverftas breviter 

In CJkgiis privatisy explicandiy diSandij difputan£ ope* 
ram (quam nee public} denegabit) etiam polUcetur. 


Johannes Cafparus Faufius, Medicina Do£for W i*r^ HorilX. 
feffir primariusy necnon Archiatcr Palatinus\ PraSiicam 
Afedkinam docet^ Idoas morborum fuccinSfe tradit. Medi- 
eamenta •inrtetr*, cfficinalia isf Chymicay eorumque pra* 
paratiomm enarraty Isf formulas elegantiorcs cum propriis 


fS ObseiivatioKs ^^gNtphical^ 

longa, francos txperimmtis felicUer iradit.^ C}rfmcati% t/a^^ 
que offkinam ejus rei Studiofis apermt 

Hct^Ytil Jacobus ifrael, Med. Do^. tff Ph^Jiohgia Profeffir br^ 
dinarhty i Nundinis AuttmnaRhus adj^ermria AnafMiatfi 
^ Chlrurgiam : a VernaRhns veri adAutumnales htjiifji^* 
Hones Medicas enodqbit* 

' Ex Cdlegiis prhatis mum AnatmrncueH iiffiEfwmemy tfuad 
circa manualem drffOHonem operahttkr : mtenm de gene^ 
ratione y incr^m^ntU pulR in evo Jihneficio fttt^nl Chymtd ^ 
ignis Lampadi:^ habebh4 " .* .' 


T . , t 

Word I. JcAaj^bes a LctmefcHos, P, bt M. D. Mathefriatum tf 
Phfjkes Pro/efforOrdinarius^ in 'fhjficii pubRci Jpecialivm 
noflret Ul/ttris Cerporum naturam enuckohit^ ptivafltn Cd^ 
kgia aperiety in^ quibns res genetaibn^ li corrt^ticri dStidxia 

HoriXll^oc^f^^'^ ^ ^^ interrogata re^ndebijtkr, ' Circa Qem-a* 
fhiam themcam (f praHicam AndiioribUs hiufiriinnflutfn 
ftonJiSim pubRce docendo fnbtfbif^ fed'^ eop/e^n prtvatim 
turn in eademy turn in mtisfpathJii^Alikbyetts panibus^ ut 
Arithmetical Harmmca^ Wemetria^ -AjtrmtniOy Thtica^ 
ArchtURmca CmR bf MHitariy dRiJ^-^lnn^ffkriisy 
'Del rarioribus EUgantirs^ tarn tbeorii} in aJibus fuis^ quam 
Pr^£Hcl in ObferoaUfio V Cantpo^ ad difimiwn natum (i 
captum in/fituere baud gravabitwr^ 

t t 

Hord IX. ' Johannes^ Seo1);ddus Fabricius, SS. IFhittbgis D^. 6f 
Etckfttt/tesy necn^n Lingvec Graeat Pr$/iffor Ordinarius^ 
Xempbmis Kv'pV #Al/i{<ei? a/AXio# A, pettPaffaHt. 

Hoji II. Sebaffianus Ramlpecfc, PoStica f^ Eh^ntU Pfofejir 
OrdinariusySympfeos PsRtket^ telani pr^fidteM-pertexity-Oecf- 
nonucorfim Epitomen. breviter illijfifandam additurus^ idque 
diebus Lusuty Ahrth fef Jms : diibUs Vefurh M. TuiRi 
de Oratare Rbros Rhetmce ac PoRtici tUuflrahhp Studiojis 
• qkimtiam id pititnris p^iica prt'Oati^i tyidujlria fuccurret^^ 

Mord X* Stcphanus Ocrlacftius, K/foriit tcclejlafiu^ P^<ft]f&^ 
Hrjtoriam Sulpitii Sever i eadem qui cceph mithodo hoc Se^ 
ttf^ri perfetfuetur. SteHUm ncmpe a^ficiihtVeteris Ecclefi^y,- 

M^^h ^^ Pbjtjiologkal > ^5^ 

«^ okku t^ui M^ A 0cubs pawns : tmdam Ri^ rihip 
nmrffyu€ ixplaMtmi^ SenifntiasjudwnvmacChriftiamntmi 
nm vetmrmm Mfm recaatiiim iifp* hreviurexbibms U ton*) 
ySr<«r, q/mqind dtniqug .£d wrnandam Hiftmam lucgmqus 

Si kpfitpff namuUi foffan m c^dms Studih literariis prtA 
v$H0i i^fm 9ptrmn ixptiimnt^ fiiefua j/tis ac indt^ria 

S9f9iie] Puffendorfi; Pr^ifor ^Mimsj Jus NaUtn^Horilll. 
& Gentiitm ad duifum Grotli tradert pergetj & in ea erit^ 
ut k^ hyeme opm iftud - adfhum perdusatur* Opirem fuoqui 
Jitam privatam^ fiqti tamjimt petituriy ntmm dsnegaiii. 

Joh. droeus, Vtrh. p$i Mnift. & Coliigii S^pUntiaUorilll. 
Pr0C0piory in AfHephjficis Impels ^ EthUit Li£iio»€s habi$ 
duius Lun^^ Mortis bf Jvuisy dh Vnm-is Tikfes dijpu'' 
tandas pTipmuU 

Hmrumvero JcMdn^carsaa^ Difputati$mm^ Le^lormm 
Curforwrum^ Amaiamkarum danrnfiraUmtam & Fawgyrici 
m^MS crAtrrimi baigKtur. 

Et m 0fumusf(Sim Sapwttia excolaiUTj veritm bf ijfum 
corpus ingenuis Exerdius ad viriUm virtutom exciiitur, Vir 
Artis Etpaftris caUtnUffimus^ eujus fama iekberrima jam 
plufqyam perarthuk^ EfUffiri Gymnafia finpdari cum Umit 

Unpsarum vcri $xoticarum PrmcepHres^ Laniftm oif^ 
alierum dcganiiarum ArtifictSj certatim martibus fuis td^ 
ctfuUs peritiam acftduUtatem demmjirare aliatorant. 

The Prince Eleftor is abfelute in hii own territory. 

He can make laws and repeal them, treat with foreign 

Princes, fending ambafiadors to them, and receiving anw 

bafladors from chem, make war and peace, impofe tri« 

butes arbitrarily on Us fiibje£b, without the confent of the 

States of the country. The Emperor hath nothing to do 

with his fabjcSs^ they fwearing allegiance only to him« 

He only can excommunicate, having referved to him- 

iielf the cpifcopal power. The Prince Eledor hath fe- 

¥cn councils or courts, (i.) Concilium Auguftum^ or hit 

privy council. (a.) Concilium Status. (3.) Concilium 

EccUfiafiicum^ oonfiiling of four, wheieof two are lay- 

^8 OBSEftvATiaNs Topograpbicaly 

men, and twockig/. (4.) 2)ja^^/im», who judge nu- 
ies between man and man. (5*) Cmdlimn feudale, 
(6.) Ccncilium redttuum temp^raUum^ or mthmm. (7 ) 
Concilium redttuum Ecchfiajiic&mm. The Prince luith 
thought fit to keep thefe two laft diftin£l, partly that 
he may know how to proportion the minifters allow- 
ance, and partly that if any of his fuccefibrs fliould hap- 
pen to change his religion (as is ordinary for Princes to 
do in Germaf^) they may be able to diftinguifh clearly 
between their own proper temporal and the church re- 

The Prince in his own territory b general bifliop and 
fupreme head in ecdefiaftical afiairs. Formerly this 
country was under the inlpedion and jurifdidion of the 
bifliop of Spier^ but, fince the reformation, the Prince 
hath not only feized the revenues of the church into his 
own hand, but alio aflumed to himielf intirely the epif^ 
copal power and jurifdiAion. He is alio univerfal pa- 
tron, and difpoies of all vacant benefices as he pleafes : 
indeed, the council of four nominate and prefent two 
unto him, of which ufually he chufes one ; beoide it may 
well be prefumed that he knows not fo well as they 
what perfons are beft qualified and fit to be preferr'd ; 
but he is not obliged to confer the benefice upon either 
of the perfons by them fo nominated, but mav either put 
in another known to himfelf, or command them to no* 
minate others, if he like not thofe prefented. The re- 
ligion of the country is the Refarmtd. The whole pa- 
latinate is* divided into three Prafe^ura, and fome, viz. 
the greater of thefe fubdivided into lefs. Every Prafe- 
£iura hath its infpe&or or biflx>p, who is paftor of feme 
church in that Prtsfeaura : he diffen not from any 
other in any jurifdi6tion, but in that commonly he hatn 
a larger ftipend. His bufinels is only to give informa- 
tion, if he be of a lefier divifion, to the infpe^r of the 
whole Pratfi^ura under which he is ; if of a greater, to 
the council of four. If need be, every PrafeHura or 
great town hath a presbytery. The presbytery of Heidle^ 
berg confifts of the five miniflers of the city, two de- 
puties from each jurifdidion, except the Jullca ; and two 
from each quarter of the city ; fo that, at this time, the 
number in all is twenty-one. Tlicfe all have equal fuf- 


Morale and PbyJioIogicaL 79 

fiages, the lajr-men with the minifters, onlv one of the 
minifters always prefides in hb cotufe. This presbytery 
aflembks once every week, at whofe meeting is always 
prefent a delegate from the Prince, to fee that nothing 
be a^tated there which it concerns not the presbytery 
to meddle withal. This presbytery hath no power to 
cxoonununicate or iaS&Bt any church cenfure ; but if any 
peribn be accufed to them of any crime, they fend him 
to the juridiAion to whom he appertains, to enquire in- 
to his ofience. The court, having ^^eceived this infor- 
mation from the presbytery, either negleft it if they 
pkafe, or^ if they fee caufe, enquire into it, and punHh 
the ddinquent according to his demerit ; and,in the dofe 
of the lentence or warrant for execution, add this claufe, 
^uoi ad Seandalum Ecckfia datum remkihmis te ad Pref- 
hyternan, Viow at laft, all they can do, is to exa£t of 
him a publick confeffion before the church, and a pro* 
mife of amendment for the future. As for ordination, 
it is given by the council of four by impofition of hands, 
after examination of the perfbn to be ordained, and tefti- 
moniab exhibited from the univerfity, or other peHbns 
crf'known credit. The Prince receives all tythes, except 
fuch as in fome places, for conveniency's fake, are paid 
immediately to the minifters, and other church revenues, 
moft whereof is paid out again in ftipends to the minifters, 
which the Prince proportions according to their merit and 
his own difcretion ; the reft is referved for emergencies. 

yttfy 25. We hired a coach for Straflmrg^ which 
brought us thither in three days. At three miles dif- 
tance from Hiidelberg we pafled in fight of PhlRpsburgy fhiUff- 
a well fortified place fituate in a level near the Rbiney iurg, . 
now poflefled by the French. The caftle or palace yield- 
ed agix)dly profpefL A mile forther we paftd through 
Grafft a (inall town with a caftle belonging to the mar- 
grave of Tito'lacbj where our coachman paid tolL We 
kdgpd this firft night at a village called Linkmm under 
the &mc krd, who is a Lutheran. 

7ufy 26. At four miles end we baited at a large 
ytlbtge called Rajpaeb\ and two miles on further we 
palled through StoJeboven a little walled town, where out ^^^j^^.^,^ 
coachman paid another toll ; and after one mile more a- 
nother walled tvwn calkd Utchtmiw, both under the Hchte^^ 


marfaels of Ba^eu. This Apond oight we took tfpoHr 
i]uancrs at Sertz^ a villagt wider fhe earl of Hmhow* 

July 27. We pafled over the ^hiiu divided into twa 
branches or ftfeams by two g^eat wooden bridgfts, which 
inftead of boards aie floored with whole fir-Mes kid 
loofe acrofi, neither pinned nor nailed down : I coa-^ 
ceive that the bridge might upon any exigent be moie 
fuddenly thrown down and broken. SoOn after we were 
paft the bridges we entred Strasturg. In thid jolvney 
we obierved great plenty of Mais; otbidian wheat plant- 
ed } in ibme places Latbyruijiithmij and in othen Cirr- 
ihamus or baftard fafiion fown in the fields : gr^wmg 
wild befides what we had before obferved in other pla- 
ces, Blattariaj SoUdago Saracmica^ and in the meadows 
near Strasburgy Carduus Pratmftt Tragi, 
Strmburg. Strasburg js a free city of the empire, laige, well 
built, rlch,and populous, enoonipafled with a double wall 
and trench full of water^ beiides the advantage of a 
good fituation in a large level, very exaAly fortifM, and 
the walls and works mod regular, elegant, and fcrupu- 
loufly kept in repair : ib that k ieems no eafy thing by 
force to take this city \ neither was it I thiiik once at- 
tempted in the late German wars. It lies as a bkx:k in 
the Frmcbmens way, and is as it were the rampart of 
the empire in thefe parts. The government is by a 
greater council of 300, chofen by the fevcral compa* 
nies of citizens, and a lefler of 7 1, of which number 
£x are Burgomqflers^ Ax Stetm/i4rsj 15 Patra Patria^ 
and 13 of the Militia^ The women of this city are 
weIl*favoured and of good complexions. The inhabir 
tants are moft part iMtheram^ who have (even churches: 
fome Pa^ftsy who have one church and four ck)iflers» 
two for men and two for women ; and a few Rrformii^ 
who yet are not albwed a church in town, but forced 
to go ibme two miles to church in the^ territory of 
the earl of Hanaw, This city is an epifcopal fee, the 
bifhop whereof is lord of the lower Alfatia, He hath 
a pdace in the city, but is not fufficred to lodge therein 
above three days together $ in. an inn he is allowed eight 
days at a time» Here is the £u>eft, largeft, beft for-^ 
nifheJ, and handfomclieft kept armory or arfenal that 
we iaw in Germawf^ or in al) tfaefe refpeds any where 


^M&f^af/dnJ PHJidtogi(:al. 8i 

eUe. Here are, alio. pubTick granar^ waie-ceUars, and 
ftorc-houfes* The river Mile runs li^rough the . town. 
The Dvno or pithedral cburch is a fair buiMiiig of i^one^ 
fiaving. a great p4k oif.Sr^ ^ding-doors at the weft» 
end. llerein we vie^fa^the lamous dock deicrtbed by 
Coryat and others, a mece of excellent workmaiifhipy 
ihade, as we were told^ by one j^aac Haireihtus of Strafe, 
burg. The fteeple of (nis church is curioufly built of 
carved ffone^ and incomparably the bigheft thait ever w«' 
yet faw. Tlie numWf oi ftep^ from the bottom Co the- 
top is 662. We aicended ,640 ftep$ to the* place cat-. 
I6d the Crown^ from whence we had a , .^iride prof- 
pefi of the country round about. In this fteeple two 
men watch conftantly hf day and (our by night. Ten 
hours diftant from Strasiurw towards Stufgard is Sawn- e 
tmrn^ from whence' acia water is brought Wtbcr ,• ^^^^'^'^ 
which they mingfo with their wine axkl drinl^ as sit 
other places. By the Inbabitants of this and dth^r im« 
perial cities, elpedally the wom^f^ are many diiFerent 
ibrts o^ habics ufed. 

yufy 3 1. We left Strasburg and b^n our jou^nbjr 
towards Sa/d.^ travelling as far as 7mj0rfi9t a tillai^ 
under the bifliop o^ Sirasburg^ (bme two mifes 4nd - 
half. Augij/t u After three miles riding (brWanf we 
pafled through a fmall waQed town beloi^ing to the • 
fame btlhop called M^rkUJhrim, Two miles farther il^e 
rode in iigh< of Brijaehy a. town ieated on a rock ^ ^rifiuh. 
the Rhine fide^ a place of great ftren^h and itfiportance, ^ 
much contended for Jn the late wars. It i^ nciw in 
the french hands, as if, ^11. jRjftia almoft t^ th^ walls 
of Bafil: and after two other miles We cane Co a vil- 
lage caDed Lodejhum plea&ntly fituate in aivg^ plain 
woere we lodged. 

Aug, 2. We rode but one league and an half 'ere 
we arrived at Bajil Thfr f ity is larg^ and fair, the BafiL 
houfes being for the moft part built of (lone, tall and 
painted- on the outflde., Ic \b cd)npafled,afiotit with a 
double wall and trench, rich and populous, buiW upon* . 
hills, fi) that which way (eevef ytm' go you eilSier af* 
tend or deicend^ The river lUjim divides it into two 
parts, which are joined together by a bridge of i^ 
ardies. That part on the north fide of the river is caU 

G W 

Sz Observation^ T&pt^rapbical^ 

kd Uttli Baftl. There are £ud to be 300 fountains 
in this city, fcarce aftreet or houfe of note but bath 
one. It is one of the thirteen cantons of Swttzirland^ 
and hath in its territory about 100 collages. It gtve& 
title to a biihop chofen by canons, who yet is not fuf- 
fered to lodge in the town one night. He lives at 
Broudmty keeps the ftate of a ^temporal Prince, and coins 
money, which is not ctnrrent in BafiU 

As to the civil government, the citizens are divided 
into 15 tribes or companies. Each company chufes 12 
men by major vote, who are called SexerSj becaufe Ax 
of tliem only are regent at once, vizy one fix one year, 
and the other fix the next, and fa alternately. Thefe 
tvirelve Firi or Sexers chufe out of each tribe two tfimft- 
maflers, or Tribuni Plebis for their lives. The Tribuni, 
Plebischak two out of each tribe who are called £f-' 
fiators. Of thefe fixty, and the four heads ftwo where- 
of are called burgomafters, and chofen by the fenators 
properly (o called, and two Tribuni Plebis or Tfunt-ma^ 
JiiTSj and chofcn by the Tribuni PUis) the leflcr council 
confifts. Both burgomafters and Tfunfi-maften^ tribunes 
and fenators rule alternately. The old fenators, or that 
half of the lefler council which was in power the prece- 
dent year, do firft debate and agree upon any bufineis of 
moment before it be propounded to the new fenate, who 
confirm or rejed as they pleafe. The great council 
(which is aflembled by the ordinary council upon weighty 
occafions) confiftsof sill the magimates, m. the twelve 
Viriy and all the lefler or ordinary council. The lefler 
council judges in criminal caufes. In thii city is an uni- 
verfity founded by Pope Pirn II. The univerfity fe- 
nate oonfifls of tne feventeen profeflbrs. The names of 
the prefent profeflbn in each fiiculty, now Anna 1663^ 


yehanms Buxtorfius Profijf^ Feteris Teflamenti bf Lin' 
gua Hebraica. 

Job. Rudelpbus Wetfteniui Prtftffir N. Teftamtnti. 

Lucas Kamkrus primarius Pajior IS Pr^. Controvert 


n,.. *■ 

Maral^ and Fhjfiohgicah 8t 

In LAW. 

itgmipm Ftchfim fandi&arum Prrf. He has c^lleffed 
littny landcs* 

Iakm Mkrebardus Cod. Prvf. magmfiaa Riffcr* 
Jaedus Bt&ndmuUerui Inftina^ Prrf. 


EmmamiA Stupams Med. Theor. Pref, 

29b, C. Bauhinus pattr^ Praxeos Prcf. 
Vfrm^^muf BatAsma F. Anatomes &f Btftamces iVa^ 
Of tbefe two the father is the fon, and the ion conte^ 
quendy the grand*child of that tauAous herbarift and ana« 
t»mift Cafpar Baubhms. 

In PHILOSOPHY and Human Literature. 

Chri/tpiarus Ficf^^frater RemgHy Hijhr. Pnf. 
Rbiinbar dus Ifelius Ethic. Prof. 
RMtddphm Burcnardusy cognatus Jjucm^ Mathem. Pnfi 
Mr. tbnricus Kifeliacbiusy Phyf. Prrf. 

Friiiritus Burcbardus^ Htnrici patrtatSj OraU & Ekq. 

Samkd Btenbardus^ Logka Prof, copmtus emttro^ 

SinwH Bathunusy Rhtt. Prof. 

Job* ZMatgoruSi Gr. Lingua Pnf. 

The profeflors are to read every day in the week in 
term-dme) except TTmrfdays and Sundays ; their ftipends 
aie finall, and not a competent maintenance. 

Here are no doAocs in divinity created befide the pro^ 
icflbfSi and fome the condition of whofe places require 
that degree. In Law^ they confinr two degrees^ Do^or 
and Luimi0io% in Midtcim^ only Doifor ; in Philofaphy^ 
Maftir and Batcbekr. The ecclefiaftical government is 
by the tfarae profeflbrs of the firft EMidty, the four Scho-^ 
lircbaj and all the minifters. When a benefice happens 
10 be ykcanty the ftnale nominates three to it, out of •. 

G 2 which 

^4 O B s E i{: V A i^ i o K s ^Bpqgro^cal^ 

which the minifters chufe one. The city-miniftcis have 
a certain ftipend in money ; in the country^villages the 
minifters have part of. their allowance in tythes, and 
part in money. No minifter, before or after impofition 
of hands, is obliged by oath or promife to continue bis 
profeffion fo long as he lives, but may leave his miniftrjr 
when be pleafes, and betake himfelf to ibme othor catting. 
This and all other the BroUftant cantions of SwiHurU^nd 
are of the Reformed religion. 
Erafms, In this city Era^s Rot. lived the latter part of hb 
his time, and here he died and lies buried in the great 
church, where there is a £iir marble monument oitded 
to his memory, ag^nft a pillar on the north {ide oi the 
communion uble. He founded and endovrad a college 
in Bafily wherein are maintain'd twenty perfons, eighteen 
whereof are to beflude&tsin divinity, who may live thew 
as long as they pleafe, provided they follow their fludics 
and continue unmarried : only the magiftrates have a 
power to command them thence to anothec kind of life; 
Of the other two one is a bedel, and the other a fchool-« 
mafter. Over this college there is a regent, without 
whofe leave no ftudent may lodge out of the houfe one 
night. Tea of the ftudents are to be BaJUeum^ and ten 
ftrangers. At the great church is preierved Srafmus*^ 
Bihttothe- I'^i^y* calkd BebUoSmca Amberl^hioMOy becaufe Eraf- 
ea Amber- ^^^i bequeathed it to Amberbachius^ by his laft will and 
hachiana. teftament, which we law written with hisown hand in half 
a (heet of paper, dated the 1 2. of Feb. 1536. Tn this library 
arepreferved many good pieces and defigns of Holbeniusp 
a famous painter bora in Bujil : a box full of Diploma0^ 
given to Erafmus by the Pope, Emperor, and feveral 
Kings and Princes of Eur^ : Erafmus^s feal and ring : 
a iair gold medal lent to Brafruis by thp King of iV- 
land : many antient and modern coins and medals : three 
Rapffers (u e. fmall pieces of money of a mix*d metal 
not h big as a iilver penny of the value of i fiirthing) 
turned into gold by Lecn. Turnitius^ a famous alchymHl 
of this place, who turaed the nail at Fbrenee: feveral 
antient Entaglu : many papers of Amierbachkis concern^ 
iag the antiquities of Augujki Rauracorumy formerly a 
great city, now a viUago called jlugjfy, not far diAant 
AcMn A^. The great church or a^edial^t Beftl^nsk 


MordI, and Phyfi&hgical 85 

Mk by the Efldperor Hemj 11. who tharried Cuni^da 
the dftMghter ef an Englijh King. Sc Pantalus an £1^* 
i^bman^ was Chc firft bkhop here. Thfc graver fort df 
citi2fcns and mftgijftniCes Wear ruf& and fl^le-caps. \h^ 
profefioisand miniflto wear the fame caps and ruf&, and 
befides fliort gowns» which redch little lower than their 
knees. Man/ of the cmintry-boors wear ftraw-hats. 
The vfomtn wear their coats very (hort, and fbme of 
them little round cap oil their heads, very like the young 
firhoiars caps in Cambridgty but left ; and a tin-girdle about 
their waifls. We few in this city Dr. Fel. Pbrterus^s 
Mufaum or cabincft, wherein there is a good coUeAion 
of minerals, ftones^ riietals, dried fifhes, and other natural 
and artificial rafities, gathered by .720. Platms the &- 
ther, and Fit, Platnts the fon, and diipofed in a good 
fliethod, the names being fet to each one. Here and 
at Zttricb are lentons every day in the ^'eek at feveral 

David George^ that monftrous fanatic, died in this 
city, at whole death there happened a great tempeft of 
thunder and lightning, and a thunder-bolt brake into 

About BaJU we found growing wild, befide what we 
had before met withal, Scrophularia Rata canina di£faj 
Pajjerina Tragi among the corn. Phalangium parvoflore 
ramofiusy BBtwn minus album J. B. in fimetis. Cymbahria 
italica bederacea^ m muris urbis ad portam quae Argen- 
timm ducit. Steebe major calyculis mn J^ndentibusy 
in ma rg inib tis agrorum & muris paffim totx> itinere i 
Frankendalia ad Bafileam ufque. Folium montamtm La- 
verUhJafolioy Confolida media Oenevenjis J. B. Cff Cneorufh 
Mattbio&fm ^bymeUca minor Cordi. But if any one de- 
files a more particular account of what plants grow wild 
about Bajily C. BaMmfs Catabgus Plantarum circa 
Batfiham nafantitm will give him full £itisfa£tion. 

Augi^ 10. From Bafil we (et forward for Zurich. At 
the enid of one Dutch mile we pafled Augst^ fuppofed to 
have been At^ufta Rauracmem. There we view'd the 
ruines of an^ antient building, judged by Ambirhachiits 
to hafite been an amphitheater. Next we rode faft by a 
waHed town on the Rhine fubjeft to the archduke of 
Inffrmi. Oa tbe hills hereabout we &it law fir-trees 

G 3 growing 

86 Ob$£Rvations Topographical^ 

growing wild. Then we ptfled through Bruck a piettr 
little mlled town, having one handfbme ftieet wdl 
built with tall houies of ft^e^lnd fountains in the mid- 
dle, and lodg^ at the baths of BatUn fix miks diftant 
from BafiL This day we firft took notice of the litde 
green tree-frogs. The baths here are faid to be fixty in 
number, but (mail ; the water is very hot. Baden is 
a walled town, feated on the fide of a hill by the river 
Umagus^ about half an EngSfif mile diftant from the 
baths. Here the delegates of the thirteen cantons meet 
and fit. The poor people put a cheat upon ftrangets, 
bringing them to fell, as they pretend, fiffite iice^ which 
they iay, they dig out of the earth naturally fo figured 
and marked. But I am well afllired, fuch as they brought 
us were artificial dice, and, if they digg'd them out of 
the earth, they firft buried them there themfelves. From 
Badin^ Aug. 1 1. We rode along by the Limagui on one 
hand, and fair vineyards on the other to Zurich. 
Zitricb. Zurich is pkafantly fituate at the end of a lake called 
Zurich-Jiaj Icarce ib big as Ba^lj but I think more popu- 
lous. The river Umagus which runs out of the lake di* 
vides it into two almoft equal parts, which are joined 
tc^ether by two bridgq ; one very broad for carts and 
horfes to pais over. 

The houies are built of timber with clay-wall8r~b^«r 
fomely painted, many of them four or five ftories hi^h. 
The ftreets are narrow but well paved with flints vid 
great pebbles. This citv is as well fi>rtified as the fitua- 
tion of it will permit, befides the wall, being enoom* 
palTed round with good earth-works and trenches after 
the modern fafhion* The river Scli runs by and gives 
defence to it on the fouth-fide, and a little lower empties 
itfelf into the Limagus. The citizens are given to mer*> 
chandiie, all very bufy and induftrious. They either 
are rich or at leaft ib eileemed, and thereibre envied by 
their neighbours of the Remjh religion. Here are no 
guards of ibjdiers at the city gates; no ftrangers examined 
pr fearch'd, either at coming in or goipg out We ob* 
ierved the colour of the water of the Zurich-fia to be 
greenifh and well approaching to tliat of fea-water. After- 
wards we found the water of all the lakes and rivers near 
thp y/lps to b^ of the Udmc colour, at which we were not 


Morah and Phyfiokgical. 87 

a little furprifed. Far ^n^ were wont to- attribute that 
colour in the fea-water to the mixture of fait that is in it, 
whereas the water of thefe lakes and rivere'difcovers to 
the tafte nothii^ of iah or biackilh.* But afterwards, 
oonfidering that thefe waters did confift for the moft part 
of fnow diilblved, and that fnow is fup^ydftd to contain 
good iiore of nitrous iak, we thought it not altogether 
impiobaUe that this colour may be owing to the nitrous 
portidei remaining in the water, though thqr be not co- 
pious enoi^h to afieft our tafte, and it would be worth 
the while to diftil good quantities of this water, to fee 
whether it would lonre any iait behind. 

That thefe bdbcs and rivers do confift for the moft 
port of fnow- water it is manifeft, for that upon the 
mountains^ excepting the lower parts of them, no rain 
6Us in vnnter-time, but only fiiow, with which the higher 
parts of them are covered to a great thickneis for at kaft 
fix months in the year \ and for that the rivers that flow 
from die Al^ run feweft in winter, and abound moft with 
water in the fummer^time ; io that fometimes they over* 
flow their banks in the hotteft months of the year, and 
when no laios falls ; as myielf can teftify concerning 
the river Rbodanus^ becaufe the fun at the (cafon melts 
the fnow upon the mountains. Hence it appears, that 
their opinion was not fo abfurd who attributed the yearly 
increafe and over-flowing of the river Nilus to the diflb* 
lution of the fnow upon thofe mountains where it hath 
its firft rife. Though I do not think this to be the true 
caufe, partly becaufe that part of the earth where thofe 
mountains lie is fo hot, by reafon of its fituation under 
the dire£l and ibmetimes perpendicular beams of the fun, 
that it's not likely any fnow ihould £dl, much lefs lie there : 
chiefly becaufe traveller^ generallv agree, that, in moft 
parts of that climate where thoie mountains lie, there 
are at that time of the year great fells of rain, to which 
therefore the over-flowing of Nilus is more probably 

The government of this city is by a greater and a lefler 
council The lefler council confifts of fifty, viz, twenty 
four tribunes or matters of the companies chofen by the 
twelve tribes or companies, into which the city is divi- 
dedy two by each company. Thefe twenty four are called 

G 4 Zwelvers^ 


$9 O B s E XYAt I Oft is Tcpdgra^cal, 

Zwdiuirs^ bfit^aiiie twdve of tbem ;only aie rogeAt at 
once« TwdV^ faDamrs, cbofita* out of the oompanifiSy 
one out of e^h icompaiiy by tbo gitaixr council accor- 
ding to our in&^rmapon, according to f/w&r by the lcfler«; 
^ix, elected by* thn (me gregtsr council as we were in- 
$}rmcd, but %ccx>rding.t<» ^/rr by the kfibr» out of the 
people indifferently wbs£9 tb^ pleaft ^ four Trihum Mt- 
lium ; .cbt(^. by tHftgfti^tlefiQ^n ; two Stnotares nMUtm ; 
and tvKo burgfim4fitx:t or CQnjtuI& the council 
qf 2Q0. Tbe«oftfi|]9J»ivi half tU&cottncH rule by tiini^. 
^'3;. twely^ 2t(yfti^ri and twdvp SiMffons witkoneconfiil 
one half year, and th(i orher half . the jlexl:; and this hal£ 
that rute$ is Calfcd Cond&m Movum-. Allitbe fifty meet 
every weok» and> if ;iiiy deGre6:beto:fa&fnafieyit is dated* 
ii^ the priofiboce of th^ ConcUiuntfrnmrn^ veiuu Alt the 
6fty hear civil eawfes, , Simkr iakfa eight chofen by die 
fifty ; and the QonciliHm novum judge in xrriminals alooe. 
The greater council confifta of 2oo> viz. X44 eleAcd. out 
of the tribes, twelve out of eadi tribe.; eighteen choim 
by the noblemen among themfelncs 5 tnenty four Zcw/- 
vfrs ; four Tr'dfUfd Kobilium ; two Sinatnret nabilium ; the 
fix eleAed tndi&rently, and the two burgonaafters. Why 
the twelve chofen I^ the greater counciLOiouU be left out^ 
we know not, and thenefore fufpe£l our informatioa was 
not good, about tlie making up the great council ; but 
of the twelve out of each tribe, and* eighteen out of 
the noblemen, we are fijre. This great coijnctl. chufes 
Landtvoghts^ and aflembles upon important occaflons that 
concern the whole common- wealth. They eled four 
Stadtholders or Proconilils out of the twenty four mafieis 
of the companies ; two Sekilmajiers or Treafiirers either 
out of the twelve fenalors of the companies, or the twelve 
tribunes of the dmcilium novum. Half the lefler council 
is chofen every half year at Chri/imas and Midfummir. 
The ConciBufn vetus goes out, and then the Cmcilium novum 
becomes vetus^ and chules a new. Consilium novum^ but 
for the mofl part the fame are chofen again. 
Schauff- Augujl 1 2. Fronr Zurich we travelled to Schaffhanjfev^ 
haujfen, pafling by a great cafcade or cataraA of the river RUnt 
called WaJferfaU \ near to which we firfl obferved Orobus 
fylyatkui purpunus vemus and HepaUca noiUit growing 



Moraly and Pby^obgical. S^ 

wild. This journey wc alfo found Vlmaria major Jive 
Barba capri^ hj a Uttk bridge not hx from Sctajf^ 


Schaffhaufm is feated ufioii the x\setjihin$^ over which 
there is here a bridge, part of wood and part of flone. 
All baats or flotes that oome down the riv«r muft here 
unload, there being no piffing turdier by r«a(bn of great 
ftones in the channel, and the precipitious defcent of 
the water at WagerfaJl. This town is well built, the 
hou/b being n)OK of ftonc, wiilled about and imrench'd. 
It hath two fair ftreets handibmely paved, befides many 
other finall ones. Hens, as at Zturicby the citizenB when 
tbtj walk abroad \^ear their fwords. As to the civil gp« 
VBrnmcnt, the citizto are divided mto twelve tribes or 
compHiies. Each bribe cfaoofes two Tribuni J^Mis, and 
tbefe 24 maiat the fe^, or osdinary council The 
great council conflfts of thefe and fidUiy more, chofen 
adib by the companies, each company choofing five. 
The adier and fbn, or two biotben, cannot be toge- 
ther of the council. By the greater council are chofen 
yearly two confuk or burgomafleis, two qusflors, one 
proGonful, and one JEdilUy but for the mo& part they 
cboofe the fame. All caufitt civil and criminal are tried 
before the leffo* couQcil. Evesy one of the twenty-four hath 
52 florins and nine modii frumtati allowed him J^early. 

Auguft 13. We rode ta Cwi/hne^. By the way wc/^^-o^.^ 

iA,a wobd, upon a mountun, PfroUfalU mucrmato fer^ 
raiffj PfiudoaJpMelim jU^ms^ jkmymm Jbre Colutiip^ & * 
Scncbus ccgrtoius la^Um. Cmftance^ is an imperial city 
plea£uitly iituate in a fair level by the Rhine fide, and* 
at the end of the BatUftzee,, or lake of Cmftancty cdHedSod^nzee. 
antiently Lacus BrigamtMus, and Locus Atrmus. There 
is a long bridge over the river or lake, made part of / 
wood and part of ftone; The flreets of the city are 
£ur, and the buiUingjS of fione. The council that was 
held here Anm Dtm. 14x7) at which John Ha was 
condemned, hath m^e this place wdi known. For 
what end this council was afletnbled, and what they did, ' 
the following infcription on the council^houfe will acquaint 
the itader: 


90 Ob 8E Kv A T I o N $ topographical^ 

Gaude clara Domus^ pacem popttio genirdJH 
Chrijiicolaj dum Pontifices tres Schifmate vexanii 
Tunc omnes abigit Synodus quam tu tenuifti, 
Jpfe fedem fcandit Martinus nomine quintus 
Vum quadringentos numerant poft mille Salutis 
Fejlo Martini decern i^ feptem Jimul anms. 

This town b alfo £imoii$ for the refiflance it made 
to the Swedi/b forces commanded by Homy befieging of 
it Jnno 1598. vid. Galeavaa. 

Yet it feemed to me but flenderly fortified, having 
toward the water only a wall, and toward the land 
an earthen rampart, or wall and ditch, drawn at 
a good diflance from the ftone-wall. It hath indeed 
advantage bv its fituation, having a lake on one fide and 
a fenny level on the other. 

-^ug' 15. We took boat, and ciofled the Bodenzee 
Lindaw, f^^g^ Corjianee over to UndaWy and by the way had 
a fair profpefi of the flrong town-^^f OberUngen, Lin- 
daw fbndeth in the middle of the lake environed with 
water. It » joined to the land by a bridge of 290 paces^ 
one h^If of it being ilone, and the other, that is, that 
next the town, wood, which may upon occafion eafily 
be taken down and removed. This city, befides its na* 
tural ftrength by reafbn of its fituation, is alio arti- 
fically fortified with fhxit walk and bulwarks (landing 
in the water, that fide moft which is neareft the land. 
On that fsde toward the lake are many rows of great 
flakes driven into the ground, to hinder the approach 
of any boat or veflel to the town ; (o that a man would 
think this place impregnable. The ftreets and houfes 
are not fo fpacious and fair as thoie of Con/lance, yet 
proper enough: fcveral fountains alfo there are in the 
ftreets. Towards the Bodenzee are two walls* and be- 
tween the walls a large vacant fpace of land wherein 
vineyards are planted, of the grapes whereof are faid to 
be made yearly 100 fudders, that is, 300 Engbjb hogfheads 
of wine. Eight villages belong to this city, their ter- 
ritory extending about three hounu 

For plants we found, not hx from Llndaw in the 
mountainous woods^ Erica frocumbens berbacea, Scabiofa 


MoraJy and Phj^hgicaL 91 

ktifiEa rubro Jhre^ Geniiana Afclepiadis f$lioj and in the 
mmfler places, Ubnaria major five Barktcafri^ & Laihua 
mmntana purfmrv-earuka major C. B. In the moift mea- 
dow% Pfuunwumtbe plentifully* On the banks of a fmall 
river running into the Bodenzee near Lindaw^ Mjrica 
Jyh. ahera Cluf, In the moift and fenny places near 
the lake both here and at Cwfiame^ Gratiola vulgaris 

^V' 17* ^^ i^c P^'^ f^^ Cwiftance towards Mun^ 
€hm in Bavaria. The leveral ftages where we changed 
liodes were (\,) JVangeriy a fmall imperial- town, twoWaagin. 
miks diftant from lindaw. (2,) Lofkirk^ another fmall ^ixW. 
imperial town, two miles fiirther on. (3.) Memmngen^Mtmmir' 
a free city of the empire, and one of the chiefeft of Sue^^* 
via^ both for greatnefi and ftrength. The ftreets are 
lm)ad, water running thro' them. (4.) Mundilheim^ zMumUl* 
finali town under the Duke of Bavaria ^ where we^i^- 
lodged. ^5.) Lawiirgt a pretty town, with a handfomel^iyix^;^. 
foanlain in the market-place, built in 1663. four GiT" 
man miles from Mwidelheim. From hen<;e we rode 
thro' no confideraAle town till we came to Muncben^ 
paiSng by the Ammerzeej a great lake about three G/r- Ammirxn 
man milo in length, where we had the Alfi^ or Ibmclake. 
very high mountains in profpeft. 

All ftrangierB that enter Munchen are firft ftriAly ex2L^ Mtinchnt^ 
mined at the gate, their names fent in to the governor, 
and they detailed till the vetum of the meflenger with 
leave for their admiffion. : Th» city is very ftrongly 
walled ami fortified, and, for the bigne^ of it, is the moft 
Iplendid and beautiful place we have feen in all Ger- 
maujti lb that well might Cluverius term it omnium Ger^ 
mamearum iukherrimam. The ftreets are broad and 
ftreight, a(K>med with fumptuoiv churches and cloiflers, 
and fbtdy houfes, Above all, the Duke's palace At^ 
lerves refpe^, not to fay admiration, it being the moil 
magnificent and fiimptuous edifice for a l^ufe, that 
we have any where hitherto feen beyond the feas. In 
the great g^en of this palace we faw many rare 
plants, among the n& we efpecially took notice of the 
Jtkt-trtet (for fo I may well call them, for the greatnefi 
and beighth of their fbdks which (hoot up in one year) 

af which ^h^re wore more) I verily think, in this ono 


^3 ObseTrvations ^opograpbicat, 

girdeti, than in sill Eur^i beiides ) I mean of fuch a& 
came to ftalk and flower. In this city, fo far remote 
from ^Hir native country, it leemed ftrange to us to find 
a cloifjer of BtigUJh nuns. We thought it worth noting^ 
that the bodies of the churches* here are fill'd wilh pews 
and feats, as ours in Er^land^ wherdas generally in the 
chuithes of the RMwn^CathcUcks there are no fixed feats^ 
or but very few ; the people either {landing to hter their 
fernton^, w fitting on moveaMe bcbches afid Aools, that 
(o when the fermon is ended, the body of ttift church 
may be agaift cleared. Having viewed Munchen^ the near* 
nefs of Augsburgh invited us thithef> where we arrived 
Auguji at. hiving pafied by the way a pleafiint littk town 
belonging to an abby of BemarJin^s^ called Pruek\ 
and i^ter that a litde walled town feated on a hill) 
called Fridbsfg. 
Jugshurgb Augsburgh is a great city ^bcfot eight miles in corn- 
pals, well walled and trenched about, ibitding upbn t\t 
river Ltch ; the houfes for the m^ part well-built, the 
ftreets adorned with feveral (lately fountains : the armory 
comparable to that of Strashtrghy confifting of twelve 
' rooms filled with arms and weapons of all forts; the 
Stadthoufe, next tQ that of Amfteri€nny th^ feirefl and 
mofl (lately of any we have yet feen ; in which there 
is one upper iMm, or chamber, very large and high* 
roofed, paved with marble, richly gilt and painted both 
roof and walls, and in all refpeds fcarce to be parallel'd. 
The citizens are divided between PafiJIs and LmAeranr^ 
thefb latter being efleenied double the number 6f the 
former ; yet have they feven cloifteff^ of men, and five 
of women, whereof one Englijh. Very few Refrrmed 
here. This is a free city of the empke, and governed 
by its own magiftrates. It ieems to me at prefent, for 
the bignefs, not very populous, and is, - 1 believe^ fbme- 
what ^cayed and (hort of what it hath been, both as to 
riches and multitude of inhabitaiKs : which may be at- 
tributed to the lofles and injuries it (iidained in the late 
wars. In a large plain not far from Augsburgh^ over 
which you pafs going thence to Munchen^ we obferved 
many rare plants, viz. Tiihfmaks vtrrucojus^ TrtfoUum 
fraUnfe album a Fuchfut depkhm fhe mas J. B. Pfewh-- 
afphod^lus Alpitm C. B. Thlafpi cypcfium ajperifaiium [m 


MQf4i% and PhyJiologicaL ' * ^J 

hijeutsium\ Hwmnum' fjih>. latifiSum Oct: Pbalangium 
fanfo fimi nm ramofum C B. Carlma hirbarmwn Lob. 
Gimiamtia Amtumiiaih fi^e earultQ ipanquifohd^ ' cdtfۤ 
pfiHagmB irandij, Floris tul>ii$ h cAy^i^ non eminet, 
ut in hujus generis aliis^ fed folia tantum exfondufttur 
fupia MaitgiiMs calyoS% ot in Caryophyllis. Geniianel- 
l^fficm mmmajhri unks aeruho ebgatttiffitn^ an minima 
Bavarica i Umtrnfftusfin latifoHum cauU viferfijkn ru-- 
Ar# C& forte. Folia habec piio£^ acuminata, tnodic^ 
lata, narvis quinque per longitudinem decurrentibis, 
lengitudine fetioniin Lini : flos quinquefolius, cotoris in- 
caniati, ut vocant, fiituntioribus & velut fanguintis line- ' 

db flriatus ; Radix ligno(a eft, & per plures annos du- 
nire ▼ideciir. CirfiifiuoarM iua jpec'm : Ptiori fios 
Qvfti noftri Anglican! flb#t finiHimus, & in uno^ caule 
pkniaq; unious ; verum fi^ paHide fiint virfctia, pfofundd 
laciniata t» fpinulis horrida, ad modum fere cardut • viaruni> 
vulgaiiflmi: alteri, qusa jam defloruerat, Mia viridta, 
non laciniata, breviora & latiora qu^m pnecedenti, in am- 
bitu ipinoia, & Hyeferis mafcuU fbUis figuri fua nonni- 
hil fiffiilia* Samtfraga Vennorvm^ Daucus nmtanm Apii 
fiSisy Jhne kitto ; Anolhtff fort of umbelliferous plant 
vary like to the figure ef Coucalis Pnuedani filiai Lo^ 
tus JiUqutfa tutea MMJ^UenJu J. B. near the river Lich^ 
as aMb &Ai ctfrulea M^^tiaca Ger. Dorycnio amge^ 
ntr flama- ; ^baliSrum anpf/Kjg^ fiilio. By the way- 
lide near the city in fiindy ground Rhamms frtmus 
Diajim£9\ and all about in ftony ^ces CaryoftijUus 
fframme$ filio minimus ; not to nwnticm thofe that we 
had eHewhere feen, v. g. ^fttr Atticus Itaknm jhr^ 
fmfurf ; Attwnm Girmanicum^. Afclepias firt' dA$y A- 
mmpmts JIare Cohtfe^y &c. 

Ai^» 28. We departed from Augshyrgh^ and b«ng 
loth to leave behind us unfcMi fo conTtderable a city as 
Nurmhtrgy which Clmfer catb G^rmanicarum fi^biffi^ 
mmiy we bcftowed three d^ys on a journey ^moft di- 
jeAly backwards to fee it.^ The-firftday, after the rid- 
ing of fix German miles, we ciofled the Danube over 
a wooden bridge to Danaverty a pretty town briong- j)^^^^^^ 
tag to-^DvLkt'Of Bavariay where we lodged. The fe- 
cand being the 29th. fAf Aagufty we pafled throu^ two ' 
walled towos) vtss* Minhaim and Pafinhaimy and tod^^c/thaim. 



9f OBSkRvATloM$ Top(^r*aphicaJ, 

Faftft^ ed it Wi^ifibtrgh an imperial town of fome note, the id-> 
haim, habitants whereof are all Luiherant $ it is five miks di& 
^^'JP^n- tant from Dpnavert^ Nigh this town is a ftrong fort 
tirgn. YjmWt upon a hill, belongii^ to the marquefs ofAf^ad^ 
who Is alfa a Latbiran. 
The thinl. day being the thirtieth, We pafled through 
P/iinfiUi. a finall walled town called PleinfiUu and at three miles 
diftance we rode clofe befide another walled town called 
Roiie. lUttij under the marquefi of An/pachy and, after two 
hours riding more through Woods of pine, we arrived at 
Nuren- tfurenbtrgy which city we found to anfwer if not cx- 
^^* . ceed our expeAation, it being the mod ftately and heft 
built that we have feen in Gtmuttrf. The houies are 
for the nK>ft part of free-flone, and, ware they but as 
uniform as thoft of the LmhCeumty^Xovin^y Nitrenterjr 
would not for beauty give place to any one of them. 
Befides it is rich, populous^ and for bignels I think not 
inferior to the beft in Germanjf^ though I am not ig- 
norant that in this laft refpedl fome give ColUn^ feme 
Erfurt the preeminciKe. It hath under it a larg^ ter- 
ritory, comprehendii^ above JOO towns and villages. 
The country round about is barren and fiutdy, and the 
city hx diffaint from the fea, and ftanding upon but a 
fmall river ; notwitblbuiding which difadvanta^es, by the 
induftry of the people, it is becpme one of the beft trad* 
ed ana moft potent towns in Qemm^j. The inhabi* 
tants are for the moft part Lutherans } they feemcd to 
us, in the oriuments of their churches and manner of 
their worfhip, more to fymboliee with the HjunM^Ca-' 
tUBcJts than any other people of that pioleffion we had 
then obferved. The Pa^s are allowed a fmall church 
within the walls, but the Refami§d none. The great 
Piazxay the Stadt-hmfe^ and other publick buildings de> 
ierve remembrance. This town wants not for walls 
and ditches, being every way well fenced and fortified. 
Finally, it is an imperial city or free common-wealth, 
being governed by a fenate and magiftrates of its own : 
but of the model or form of government, for vnmt of 
good acquaintance, we could not get a perfeft account. 

As for plants, we found no great variety near the 
city, but, by the way we came from Augdmrgb^ we 
obfervedj in ieveral v^oods near Pupttibaim, CarydpbyU 


Maral^ and PbyJiotogicaL 95 

us Jbri temiffime Mffiao C. B.\ Not far from Weif-^ 
fenbtrghy Draba lutia fiUfuisJIriSltffimU C. B. Gentianula 
lanugine mdfingulorum foRorum lacinias donataj Jkre qua^ 
drspartito J. fi. BugUffunf anguftifi&um^ Cytijus Gejhiri 
ad Jlmres fere fpicati J. B. and a kind of phnt like to 
our Meaiwu Saxifrage^ but taller and larger. An Sefeli 
fratenji Lob.? 

Sepiember 3, From Nurenberg we began our jour- 
ney to Ratisbon or Regensbirg, This day we proceeded 
no further than Jldtdorfy a little walled town and an 
univeriity belonging to the Nurenbergersj where there 
is a pretty phyfic-garden. This infcription in a cloii^ 
ter in the college contains the hiflory of the founding 
erf* this univeriity. 

Hoc Putatis 6f Do^rittorum omnium laudandum Doni* 
cilium incfytus Senatus Noriberg. liberaliter extrtd cu^ 
ravit die qme BB. Petre & Paulo Jiicrei ; inauguravtt 
& fublicavit^ Jnm Saktis MDLXXV. impsrante D. 
MaDcimiliano IL Caef. Aug. PP. Curatoribus Ecdef. 
fi ScbolarMm Geoigio Volcomero, Philippo Geudero, 
& Hieronymo Baumgrafihero, Oppidiqi Prafedio Bal- 
thafare BaunfigraflFnero. Ades Deus i^piis conatibus 
voUns propitius/avej ut cert i favor exinde mtminis ebixitj 
dum Amo qtddem MDLXXVlII. fubfcribcnte votis lau- 
datijjiinn Senates autoritate & dementia auguflijfimi CsT 
inviHiJJimi In^atoris Rudolphi II. Curatoribus Hie-^ 
ronvmo BaumgraiFnero, VilibaldoSchli(Ielfeldero,Bar- 
tfaolomaeo Poemoro & Julio Geudero in cubnen Aca^ 
denude Gymnafium evexit : tondemq; Anno JExx Chri- 
ftianae MDCXXIIL ejujdem Senatus deftderhan fan^ 
nifJimuM profperante divinitus amplijfima indulgentid 
facratiffimi Cse/aris Angufti D. Ferdinandi 11. Scholar^ 
cbii ChriftophoroTurero, Georgio Chrift. Volcomero, 
Udalrico Grundero CiT 00*010 Schliilelfeldero Univer- 
fitatis titulo privilegii/que perbeavit. ^Fac preprium hoc 
bonumy o Pons aterne bom. 

In the college are raaintain'd 36 ftudents at the char* 
ges of the city of Nurenbergj which alio pays the pro- 
fetfbis their ilipends. The d^rees conferred here are 
do^r of law, phyficy and poetry, batchelor of divinity, 


$6 O B s E R V AT 1 K s ^opogtaphtcat^ 

and itia{!tr of art^. As for plants, there is a double ca^ 
talogue put otit by Dr. Mauritius Hofinan : one of fuch 
as are nurled up and preferved in the phyitc-garden ; the 
ether of fuch zs grow wild near the town ; in the com- 
tx>(tng of which he feems to hate taken mifch pains,' 
ib that I believe this catalogue is vtrj full and exa^. 

Dr. He i nan (hewed us feveral Cornua AAmonis^ Or fcr- 
pent-ftones, and fome petrified cochle and mufde-fhells. 
found rn tlie fields and hop-gardens near jOtdorfy of which 
we ourfelves the day (bllowmg as we travellM from thence 
to Nieumartty in fome fieWs we pafled through, obferved 
and gatb'et'd up good ftore. Of thefe kinds of bodies, 
lihall here take leave, by way of digfeflion, to difcourfe 
a little. And firft I (hall make a parti(!ular enumeration 
of fome of the moft remarkable places where they havo 
been found, as wril in England as beyond the leas, partly 
of my own obfervatibn, partly out of good writers. Se- 
condly, I flialF give the opinions of the beft authors ooa* 
cerning the original and produAion of them. 

I. Pfrfl! then-, tfcofe places of England which aflJ)rd 
plenty of thefe petrified (hells are (r.) Whitbjy or Whke- 
bay in the N»rth ridh^g of nrk/bitiy where (as Canuten 
relates in his del&riptron of dut country) LapkUt invent-- 
untat firfe rr ttt m inj^am tcvoluterum mlgiiy natune bi" 
dentis mraadonty — —Sertentes oRmfuifi crederes qu$s Af- 
f ideas cortex intexrffit: %fides there ierpent-ftones, which 
he alone mention?, we foimd there both upon the (hores 
and in the rocky efllft by the fahfide petrified mufcles and 
Bekmnites rn great pfcnty. (2.) HuntUf-naiby on the 
(ame coafl, not far from tvhitby to the northwards, where 
(as the fame Camden relates) up6a the (hores under the 
cfills He (tones varia magniiudine tarn affahi Jpbaricd 
jigurA a narura efftftmatiy ut glohi arfificis manu in maJ9^ 
rum termentorum ufimt tornati videantur, Li quibus if- 
fraeiii invmuntur Serpentesfaxeiyfuisfpiristvotutiyfedqui 
pleriqi capitibus dejiituti: At this plaCe I never was j 
but, upon the (hore at JVhitbyy I obferv'd many of this 
krnd of balls, that Is, ferpent-ftones ciufted over with or 
inclofed in another ftone, as in their cafe or Matrix^ 
and leaving therein, when broken, their itfiprcffion ; but 
none of that exa£t fjp^ierical loundnels he mentions, but 


Moral, and Pbyjohgical. 97 

nther of a lenticular figure. (3.) AlderUy in Ghcefter- 
finriy mention'd by the fame Author in his defcripticn 
of that county. Ad fmies Avon fluvioU (faith he) vix 
9£fo mill, paffl a litore in collibus prope AUerley viculum 
Utpides cochharum & oftnarum fpecie enafcuniur^ qua Jive 
vivafuerint aUquando animantiay Jive natura tudicra qua" 
rant Pbilo/iphi natura venatores, (4.) Kinejham^ox Cainfham 
in Soaurjet/hire^not far fromAlderkyy fo caUedf fkith Camden) 
fiom Keina^ a holy £n/^ virgin, quam Jerpentes in la^ 
fides mutajfe Juperioris avi credutitas muhis perjuajit^ eo 
quod ejujfttodi bidentis natura miracula tbi in latomis non^ 
maiquam invenianiur, Videmus enim lapidem bine del^tum 
ferpentis injpiram revoluti effigie^ cujuy caput imperfe£fius 
in circunferentia prominuit^ extremd cauda centrum occu-' 
pante. Of thefc (erpcnt-ftones we faw feveral forts here, 
and {owe of that extraordinary bignefii that (as I re- 
member) they were about a foot in diameter. (5.) Farn-^ 
bam in turrey^ mentioned by Dr. Merret in his Pinax, 
(b.) Ricbmend m Torkfiire^ mentioned by Camden. Befide 
which placed myfelf and friends havefeen and gather'd of 
ihetmtLymeinDorJet/hiref Adderbury \n0xfrrdjhire(vfl{\ch 
doubde^ thence had its namej about five miles diflant 
fiom Banbwjy Brickfwerth in Northamptmjhirey and in 
ieveral places near Daventry^ Verulam in Hartfordjhire^ 
Sbukherougb in fVarwickJhirk. And, which is moft 
firangie, Mr. Eyre of Highlooe in the Peak of Derby/bire 
ihew'd us a great lump of them amafled together by a 
cement as hard as marble, found in that mountainous 
country : and Mr. Martin Lijler aiTures us, that there 
are ftore of them found in Craveny the mofi mountainous 
and craggy part of York/hire ; and in a difcouHe of his 
concerning them, publifhed in the Pbilofopbical Tranf* 
aSionsy Numb. 76. p. 2283. he mentions for them Adder- 
ton in Torkjbirey thence denominated, Wansford bridge in 
Noribamptonjhirey and Gunthrop and Beauvmr-oziXiR in 
Lincoln and Nottinghamjhires. 

Befides thefe petrified (hells, there -are found in feve-* 
ral places of England other congenerous bodies, vi2. Star^ 
yfoneiy by fome called AJlroites \ by Boetius de Boot, AJle- 
rtas vera feu Lapis ^ellaris *, by Gefner^ Sphragis AJleroi % 
by Per. hnperat. Stella Judaica, (2.) St. CutJAerfs beads, 
or Troctites j and (3.) Cap-flones, oiEchimtes, called by 

H natu« 

^ Obseuva'^ions Topografbicaty 

natandifts Lapiiis BrontU, Of the Gkffopetra I baVtf 
not yet heard that there have been any found in England^ 
which I do not a little wonder at, there being (harksl 
frequently taken upon our coafts. 

I. Of thofe they call ftar-ftones (becmk they run out 
Into five angles like fo many rays as they ufe to piAure 
ftars with there are found at Sbukbwot^h in JVarwik" 
Jhire and Caffington near Gkucefiir^ where we alio have 
gathered of them. Camden mentions a third place, that 
Is, Beauu9ir'<s&le in Lhudb^irij Jidh quo (faid he) inveni^ 
untttr Ajirntii lafidis^ qui JieUai iftvicem coimexas rtprtg" 

. feutanty in qmlms radii emintntfinpdh angulis quiniy t^fin- 
gulis radiis eavitas media fuhfidit. We have had them 
aUb fent tis out of Torfift^irey but remember not where 
they were gathered. 

II. Thofe they call St. Cuthberis beads are found on 
the weflern fhore of the Htfly IJhnd. This hft Summer 
("1671.) Th. WUtifell AikovtttA them in the chinks of 
the ftones in the bottom of the channel of the river 
Tiesy which parts Yorkfhin and the biflioprick of Durejme. 
Thefe are round and not angular like the ftar-ftones. 
Both (if they be owing to the lea) feem to be the Spina 
dtrfalis or tail-bones of fifhes petrified, they conftfHng 
for the moft part of feveral plates or pieces flicking toge- 
ther like fo many vertehray though I confefi the particu- 
lar pieces are fhorter or thinner than the vertebres of 
aay fifb I have as yet obferved. 

III. The EMnitrs or Brontia are found fcattered all 
over England of feveral magnitudes and (hapes. I have 
not heaid of any bed of them or great number found in 
one phce. Beyond the feas we have (befides the place 
which gave occafion to this difcourfe) found of them at 
Brefcia in Ldmiardf on the fides of a hill adjoining to the 
city : upon the banks of the river Tanaro m Piedmont 
four miks bekiw JJky but moft.pfentifully in the ifland 
of Malta J where we alfo faw great flore of GhJJipitrdf 
or fliarks teeth petrifkd of all fc^s and fnees. 

For the Gl^gjhpetrgty Ratins df Boot lib. a. cap. 168. 
faith they are found in the iands near Daventer in Overjffity 
and ia the aUum-sMacs near Lunenbutgh m Germany^ 
Goropkts Bmamts in Orig. Antverp. 1. 3. fiith that they 
are often di^ed up in the ditches about Antwerp ; ancf 
found m fo great plenty in a hiy near Ak^nxvi Germany^ 

Morale and Ph^btogical. ^ 99 

Aat he thinks it a gobd afgaxtient to prove that they could 
not be the teeth of diarks : tn colU iUo qui Aquifgydno im^ 
mitui faniwH id g/tfUS pifciutH fmjfe quis credent quantum 
ii Gtoffopetrarufn copla coftje£iari debereU 

Fbr petrifted cochles and other (ea-fliells, Geo, Agricola 
&ith there are fciund of them in the Aonft-quarries of 
Ga^irrg and thofe beyond mount Maurice in the terri- 
tory of Hildijbeim in Saxaf^ ; and fometimes in the new- 
part of the city itfelf in (Hgging of cellars and iii the 
town-ditch. (2.) At Jlfeldln the fame SaxoHy between 
(he Watch-tower and the town as one goes to Embeck. 
(3.) At Hanovir In the lime of chalk-ftone pits, ani 
tie^ a village called Unddiv. 1 ^4.) In Mifnia in the vil- 
ll^ Xabfcfys ntix the brook frebiiia. (5.) In a certain 
place of Prtjl/Ui called the Rofi garden. (6.) In Haffid 
hear the caflk of Spangeberg. (7.} In Italy in a 
mountain near Veroftd. (8 J In the banks of the river 
Elfa \ & prope oppidum ex Florentinis cotiditdribus nomind" 
turn. Of theft fhells anufled together into great (tones 
hf a petrifial cement are found (as Paufanias relatesj ia 
die quarries of Afegdra, which kind of (tone is there* 
ibre called Ctnchites, They are alfo found In ^ejfdfyf 
Heffdomaj Macedonia^ the mountains of Calabria, &r. 
And StefU in his Prodrbmus faith, that in thofe huge 
ftones which lie (battered in (bme places about the town of 
Voberra (bdng the femiiinders of ahtient walls) there are 
found all forts of (hells, and not long fince in the middle 
at the lAai'ket-ptee there was cut out a ft6ne fiill of 
Areaked cochles. Jo. Bauhine faith that in the (late-- 
ftone digged out of the fountain of Boll, whereWlth the 
inhabitants covered their hpufes, there appeared feveral 
figures, whereof fbme reprefented (erpehts,fome fnails,fenie 
fiallops, ibme cothlds, feme mufdes, Cs^r. and that there 
were di^ed up many petrified (h6tls of cdchles^ muf- 
des, fciuo^, periwinkles, Cornua jtmmonis, &c, 

ScaUget Exercitat, 196. Scft. 9. feith. In /axis La- 
tiarwH [fraffus eft hie Agri Vafatenfu) adpagum qui Cohors 
idiciiu^^ faxeoi cdncfos rriullos vidimus, procul a ntari plte* 
rimkrhy a Qarumna 36 circlter miltia pdjjiium. 

Berhardus PaliJJtus names ftcfe places in France where 
petrified (hells are found ; the fubtirb of St. Martial next 
'^'^ U } Ae fl56untajns of the foreft of Arden^ efpecjally 

Ha ' near 

100 Observations Topographical^ 

near Sedan ; the province of Valols ; the mountains 
SoiJJom \ the province of Xantogne and Champagne. 

Joannes de Laei in his fecond book de Gemmisj cap. 29. 
relates how Bartholomew Morifot wrote to him from Dijm 
in Burgundy^ that in a rock near that city, at that diftance 
from the fea, called le Fort aux Feos^ were found great 
numbers of ftones. imitating fea-lhells, his words are» 
Ubique projiant lapides forma rotunda acjiriatd^ qui ipfam 
fupertnduijfe vldentur Conchyliorum marinorum materiem, 
■ nefcto quo/ale per infirmiora crefcentium lapidum penetrante^ 
' paulatimque tta crefcente ut ambienti undiq; lapidi uniform 
man Conchyliorumformamfaciat^ niji quod alia aliis majora 
Jint, ita ut Ji lapidi laptdem attnverisj e medio utriuf- 
que conchylia lapidea erumpant^ obverfay tranfuerfoj mixta^ 
inaquali quidem proportione fed forma una^ bfc. 
N The fame Joannes de Laet gives us another relation 
from Jacobus Salmafeus uncle to Claudius Sahnafsus and 
lord of Sauzngnacj of great ftore of thefe petrified fhclls 
found in the ftony fields about Sauvignac^ which I (ball 
here exhibit to the reader in his own words ; Pagus ilk 
Salviniacum uno milliari diflat ah Avallono, ut nunc apptU 
latur^ vel ut prius vocabatur Aballono, Csf 3 aut 4 miL a 
Vezelio patria Theodori Bezae. Hujus pagi agerarahilis 
montofus ejl & lapidofus totusy qui tamen eft feracijjimus. In 
lapidibus Hits reperiuntur inferta quaji ex differenti hpidis 
materia omne genus conchylia aliquando plura^ aliquando 
pauciora prout ejl ipfius faxi magnitudo, Vifuntur ibi PiUi- 
nesy Ojlreoy SoleneSy Cornua Ammonis & alia gemra* 
In toto illo tra£fu per fpatium trium aut quatuor milliarium 
hac KoJ'xv^t'iJ^n in agris reperiuntur ufq; ad oppidum vel 
cajirum Montis Regalisy nomine Mont- real, cujus ditioms 
ager conjitus eft totus hujufmodi lapidibus varias conchyEorum 
f^cieSy partim interius infertasy partim in fuperfaii etiam 
extantes praferentibus. 

In Italy befides the places already mentioned, we were 
told, that there were found of thefe (hells in the terri* 
tory of Modena in a mountain called Monte Nicaniy and 
in the channel of a river near Vdine in FriuU thence called 
Rivus miracul^umy and doubtlefs in many other places. 
And for the Low-Countriesy Goropius Pecanus faith, Apud 
vicinos noftros Limburgosy Leodiosy ChondrufioSy Namurcos^ 
Hamwncsy Atrebatesy Tornacenfesy bf alios multosy a qui^ 


Morale and Pby^ologkal. loi 

iut vil fnarmora nobis vel alia lapidum genera advihun- 
tuTy non parva eft cancharum copia ^ varietas^ Vidi in 
Jilice durilfimo Bethunis advelio^ quo via apud msjiemun- 
tur^ tat cottcfmlas lotas lapideasj & conclufis vahmlis inte^ 
grasy magnd ut curd ^ arte ex illisfinffe tammto aliquo 
coimpa&as judicaretur. 

Befides all which places and others mentioned by writers 
I doubt not but in Itafyy Germany^ France^ England and 
the Lew-Countries there are many not taken notice of 
where thefe bodies might be found, were diligent fearch 
and obfervation made. That they have not been difcovered 
or taken noticb of in other parts of Europe and in jijia 
and Africa is certainly to be attributed to the negligence 
and rudeneis of the people who mind nothing that is 
curious, or to the want of learned writers who (hould 
communicate the hiftories of them to the world. 

I come now to give an account of the opinions of the IJ, 
beft authors concerning the original and production of 
thefe ftones. 

The firft and to me moft probable opinion is, that they 
were original the ihellf or bones of living fifhes and other 
animals bred in the iea. This was the general opinion 
of the antients, infomuch that Steno faith, it was never 
made a queftion among them, whether fuch bodies came 
from any place eUe but the fea. It hath of late times, 
and is now received and embraced by divers learned 
and ingenious philoibpfaers, as in the precedent age by 
Fracafioriusj and in the prefent by Nicolaus Steno and 
Mr. Robert thok^ after whom I need name no more to 
give it countenance and authority in the world. In his 
Micrographiay Obferv. 17. He thus difcourfcs concern* 
ing tbefe bodies. Examining fome of thele very curioufly 
fi^ued bodies (found about Kein/ham^ which are com- 
JDonly thoi^htto be flones formed by fome extraordi- 
nary plaftic virtue latent in the earth itfidf } I took notice 
of thde particulars. 

Ftrft, that tbefe figured bodies were of very difiering 
fiibflan^ bs to hardnefs : ibme of cky, fome marl, fome 
foft ftone^ almoft of the hardneis of thole flones, which 
maibns call fiie^flone, othcxs as hard as Portland fione^ 
others as hard 9s jkiacbl^ jmd fome as hard as a flint or 

H 3 Next, 


I0£ Ob seilvaTioks TopJigraphical^ 

Next, they were of very differing fuhibmcoB as to 
tranfparency and colour ; fome white, fome almoft black, 
fome brown, fbme metalline, or like marcafites, fi>rae 
tranfparent like white marb]e,.othen like flaw'd chryflal, 
fome grey, fome of divers cx>bur6, fome radiated like 
thofe long petrified dropSy which are oommonly found 
at the Peakj and in other fubterrancous caverns, which 
have a kind of pith in the middle. 

Thirdly, that they were very diftrent as to the mait- 
ner of their outward figuration : for fome of them feem*d 
' to have been the fubflance that had filled the fheil of feme 
kind of (hell-fifh ; others to have been the fubihnoe that 
had contained or enwrapped one of thefe (heUi, on both 
which the perfe£l impreffion citlier of the inflde or 
outfide of fuch ihells feem'd to be left, but for the moft 
part thofe impreffions feemed to be made by an imper- 
fe«Sl, or broken (hell, the great end, or mouth of the 
ihell being always wanting, 2Uid oftentimes the little 
end, and fometimes half, and in (bme there were im- 
preffions, jufl as if there had been holes broken in the 
iigurating, imprinting, or moukting-fheil : fome of thefti 
feem'd to be made by fuch a ffaell very much bruifed 
or flaw'd, infomuch, that one would verily have thought, 
that very figured ilone had been brokeik or bruiftd wkilft 
.a gelly as 'twere, and fo harden'd, but within the grain 
of the flone there appeared not any fign of any foch bniife 
or breaking, but only en the very utterpoft foperficics. 

Fourthly, they were very difiefient as to their outward 
covering, fome having the perfeA (hell both in figure, 
colour, and fubftance fticking on its furfiice, and adhering 
to it, but might very eafily be (Stated from it, wi like 
other coifimon cocl^y or ftathpf^nXk^ which fome of 
fhem tnofl accura^ refeaibbd, were very dilfohreddrfe 
in common vinegar: others of them, f^pecially tho(b 
foxpeatixe or ^eUtal ftopes, were coveii^ with, or re- 
tained the fhining or pearl-coloured fobftance of the in^ 
£de of the fhell, which fiibfiance, on fome parts of 
them was exceeding thin, i aiid might very eafily be 
subbed cf ; on other parts it Was pretty thiok, an4 
fetaij^ed a white coat or flaky ftibflattce on the tofs juft 
like the fides; of fufih fiieUs ; fome of them had large pieces 



M6ral^ end Pbjffialegkai. loj 

pf the (btH very plainly ftkking on to them, which* 
w»e eaiily to be brokeq, or flakod off by degrees : they ' 
likewife fope of them retained all along the fur&oe of 
them, very prttty kind of futures, fmch as arc 
obfervcd ia the sbilb of ievend kinds of Uving crea^ 
tures, which futures were moft curioufly ihaped in the 
manner of leaves, and overy one of them in the fiune 
ihell exafily like one another; which I was able to 
diirovcf plainly eiioHgh with my naked eyt, but mors 
oerkSdy and diftindly with my microlcope: aD tbde 
fimires, I ^Mmd bv broaking ibme of t!bk ftoiM^ Hd bo 
the TerMuni^ or ooundings of certain Jaipktagmi or 
partitions, which laemed to divide the cavky of the 
{heiiy into a multitude of very proportionate and feg^dov 
ceHs or caverns: thefe diaphragms in msny cf tfaom I 
fiamd very perfeft and compnt, of a very diftinA iub<» 
ftaace from that which fitted the cavities, and exaftly 
of diQ (feme kkid with that which covered the outfide^ 
heiiig for the moft |iart whitifli, or naAir-cf-piari . 

A# ibr the cavities between tfaofe diaphragms^ I fannd 
tom€ of them IIB*d with marl, and odiera with feveral 
kiadi af ftoiies, others ibr the inoft port hollow, osiiy 
the whokcavi^ was u&aBy covered ever with a kind 
of imrUr^ms p0irifad ittfaAanoe, which ftuck about th^ 
(^des» and was thm ftot into vetj curious mgidar figiiici, 
Juft 9$ tmrtm'^ or Other diflolved toks are obferved to fiidt 
iM chrg/lalGke about the fides of the comtaining vefieki 
^ hke ihoie httk dhnmndsy whkh I bcfons ohfenred ta 
Isaif^ covered the vauked cavity of a ilint y others bad 
Aef: GiMricies aU Imd with a metalHm^ at fiiianaja$-4h^ 
fuhflflicr^ wdi^ii I ooiM %rith a mcr^egp$ a6.|dainty fee 
fsiriouAy end Mgu]^ily ignred^ as I had cbne tJhoft in 
a ffau. 

Ffltim aB sAmk^ and feveral other partkarian whidi i 
tikferwfdy I cannot hut think, that all theft, and moft 
•ibsr fcinchof lb«qr bodies which aie found thus ifaangely 
f0Md, do owe. fehoir fimnation snd iiguracbn, not t# 
any kind of fk/Utk mrtm inheecnt \a the earth, but so 
rf^Mis of oertaift (Mtdlfln, which, either by htm 
ddics^ muudaiiwi» ieacthquakei or fame foch other means, 
<»iK t%hQitaiitriitothi^phux^an4tfaerocobefilled 

tl 4 with 

J 04 Observations topographical^ 

with fome kind of mud or clay, or petrifying watery 
or fome other fubftance, which in traA of time hath 
been fetded together, and hardened in thofe fhelly moulds 
into thofe fhaped fubftances we now find them ; that 
the great and thin end of thefe fhells, by that earth- 
quake, or whatever other extraordinary caufe it was 
that brought them thither, was broken off; and that 
many others were otherwife broken, bruifed, and disfigu- 
red ; that - thefe ihells, which are thus fpirallied and fe- 
parated with diaphragms, were fome kind of Nautili^ 
or perulanc'Jhelh ; and that others were (hells of mufcksy 
sochlis^ periwinkles^ fcallops^ &c. of various forts; that 
thefe ihells in many, from the particular nature of tho 
containing or inclofed earth, or fome other caufe, have, 
in trad of time, rotted and moulder'd away, and ovUf 
left their impreffions both on the containing and con- 
tained fubftances; and fo left them pretty loofe one 
within another, fo that they may eafily be feparated by 
a Icnock or two of a hammer. That others of thefe 
Ihell-fifbes, according to the nature of the fubftances^ 
have, by a bng continuance in that pofture, been pe- 
trified, and turned into the nature of ftone. That often- 
times the fliell may be found with one kind of fubftance 
within, and quite another without, having perhaps been 
filled in one place, and afterwards tranflated to another, 
which I have very frequently obferved in cdchU^ nui/clej 
periwinkle^, and other {hells, which I have ft>und by the 
fea-fide. Nay further, that fome parts of the fame flidi 
may be filled in one (dace, and fome other caverns in 
another, and others in a third, or a fourth, or a fifth 
place, for fo many difiering fubftances have I found in 
one of the petrified (hells, and perhaps all thefe difiering 
from the encompafiing earth or ftone : the means how aU 
which varieties^ may be caufed, I think will not be diffi- 
cult to conceive, to any one that has taken notice of thofe 
(hells, which are commonly found on the fea-(hore : 
;uid he, that (hall thoroughly examine (everal kinds of 
fuch curioufiy form'd ftones, will, I am very apt to think, 
iind reafon to fuppofe their generation or formation, to be 
;iferibable to feme fiich accidents as i have mentioned^ 
^d not to any plaftitk virtue. For itfeems to me quite 
(Ontrary to tfa(^ infinite prudence of Nature, which it 


Morale and Pbyjiological. lo^ 

obiervable in all its works and productions, to defign 
every thing to a determinate end, and for the attaining 
that end makes ufe of fuch ways as are (as far as the 
knowledge of man has yet been able to reach) alto- 
gether confonant and moft agreeable to man's reaibn, 
and of no way or means that doth contradiA, or is 
contrary to human ratiocination ; whence it has a long 
time ban a general obfervation and maxim^ that Natun 
doth mtbhig in vain: it feems, I (ay, contrary to that 
great wifilom of Nature, that thefe prettily fliaped bodies 
liiodd have all thofe curious figures ana contrivances, 
which many of them are adorned and contrived with) 
generated or wrought by a plqftick virtue^ for no higher 
end than only to exhibit fuch a form ; * which he, 
that (hall thoroughly confider all the circumftances of 
fuch kind of figured bodies, will, I think, have great 
reaibn to believe, tho' I confels one cannot be able pre^ 
fendy to find out what Nature's defigns are. Thus far 
Mr. Hmk. And Steno agrees exadly with him, and is 
far more pofitive and confident^ for (faith he) that thefe 
flieUs were once the parts of animals living in a fluid, 
tho' there never had been any tefbceous marine crea- 
tures, the very view of the fhell itfelf evinceth, as may 
be evident by the inflance of bivahe cochk-Jhells, Con- 
cerning thefe fhells, his obfervations and difcourfes are 
very confonant with Mr. Hoolfs, One or two particu- 
Isu3 not ytt mentioned, which may further confirm 
this opinion, I find in him, viz. ( i.) That there was 
found a pearl-bearing (hell in Tufcany^ a pearl yet ilick- 
ii^ to the fhelL (2.) A piece of the great fea-nacre 
[Pirma marina] in which the fdk-like fubfbnce within 
the fbell being confumed, the colour of that fubftance 
did remain in that earthy matter which had filled the 
flicl!, (3.) That about the city of Volterra there are 
many b^ of earth not ftony, which do abound with 
true cochle- (hells that have fuflered no change at all, 
and yet they mufl needs have lain there above 3000 
years; whence it is evident, that part of Tufcanj was 
of old time covered with the fea ; and why then might 
not as well all thofe other places where thefe petrified 
flidls are founds 


ap6 Obsisrvations Topographical^ 

Againft this opinion lie two very confiderabk ind 
material obje£tion% which I (hall here propound. 

Firft, It will hcoce follow, that all the earth was once 
covered by the lea, and that for a confiderable time: 
for there being found of thefe fhells in the middle of 
Cermanj^ at lead 200 miles diflant from anv iea, as 
as my (elf can witnef$> ' nay, upon the higheit moun- 
tains in Bur^em even the JIps chemielvesp as may be 
proved by (ufficient authority, the fea muft needs 
nave covered them» and conlcquentlyp the water keq>- 
|ng its level, all Eurojbe and the world b^esw Now 
that ever the water mould have covered the earth to 
t|iat heiglith, as to exceed the tops of the higheft 
xnountains, and k>r a confiderable time abode thcre^ i$ 
lord to believe^ nor can fuch an opinion beeafily rrr 
conciled with the fcripture. If it be £ud that theft 
(hells were brought in by the univerial delugs in the 
time of Noabj when the mountains were covered* I 
anfwer, that that dehige' proceeded from rain, whick 
was more likely to carry inelk down to the fea^ than to 
bring any upwards from it But h^caufe lome aigue 
from what the icripture iakh, IThe/omUaim if tie gn^t 
itip ofi hr9k4uup^'\ that the delugj^ proceeded partly froni 
a breaking forth and overflowing of the &a^ and coa« 
iequently m^ht bring in thefe fbdls : to chat I anfiver^ 
that had it b^en £>, luch a flood would hav^ been more 
likely to icatter fuch (hells, as it broi^ght Ia indiflcBeittly 
all over the forface of the earth, than to lay them ia 
great beds in particular places; inch beds htm, tohav* 
been the efie^ of ^hofe aatmals breeding there for fome 
^onfiderable time. If it be faid, that tfaofe mouotaim 
where fuch ihelis aw found mkbt at ficft have been 
bw places, ajid afterwards xaiioi up by earth^iakes, 
that foems not likely, becaufe they are fonnd upoa ib 
many mountains, unleis it be iaid> <hat all mmmfains 
were at firft fo raiied, and then the focmcf dificultjr 
will recur, and it will folkiw^ that before the laifii^^ 
of the fkft mountains, the whole earth was covered 
by the foa« Befides, this h^Affii feema to me in it&If 
improbable, for that tho* them be n^eation made in 
l^iftories of fome fuch mountains raifed by tn'-thT^'ak'^j^ 

Moral^ and PbyJhiigicaL 107 

jtt thqr tre but vtry few, and of oq confideobJe 
iienhth gr gratnds, aompared with thofe chains of high 
ana vaft mountains, the jCpSy Pyretua^ Jppennine^ Ta^* 
rm^ One^fifiy fmam^ Hamm, Mhs^ &c. In general^ 
fioce the moft antisnt times reconled in hiflory, the 
§90^ of the earth hath fuflfer'd littk diange, the fame 
mouooum, ti|ande,[irQiiiQniDries, hlces, riveri ftill remain- 
ji^, and ytry few added, loft, or removed. Whence it 
wdl lolknv, that if the mountaini were not from the 
iKgjiuiingt either the world is a great deal older than is 
imagined or believed, there being an incredible fpace of 
time required to work fiich changes as nifing all the 
Bwwmmiffw^ according to the leifiirdy proceedings of N»- 
flmr, lA mutations of that kind, fince the firft records 
of hiftory : or that in the primitive times, and ibon after, 
the onadon of die earth fuffisrM far more concuffions and 
nutatiom in its fiiperficial part than afterward. 

IL Among tbefe petrified (hells are many fiMrts, 
which are not at this day that we know of any where 
to be found ; nay (bme proceed £> for as to affiam, that 
there 19 not the Uke to any one of thefe fimpofed pe* 
tfifiod ibells to be found among our pident iiieU-fifliek' 
If it be £ud, that thefe ^ics be bft out of the worU : 
that is a fiippofition which philofcphcns hitherto have 
)>rttt nnwtlUng to admit, efteeming the definition of 
WKf one Ipedes to be a difmembring the univeife and 
rendrmg it uapeifcA, whereas they tUnk the divincf pro- 
irideaoe is e^ially concerned to preferve and fecure all . 
fte works of the creation. Yet granting that fome 
fsm tpcKM might be h>ft, k is very unlikely that fo 
laany fliould, and ftttl more unHkely that fiidi a& were 
fe dmifed aU over Europe and found in (b many ph- 
CIS; but wioft of all that a whole Gmms^ of whkb these 
were lb many feveral fpecics, and tbofe fcatfiered in b 
mMXif diAinA and from each other remote places, flxxild 
be f> utterly extinA and gone, at kaft out of our feas, 
Aat there ftddd not one in an age be found. Such 
we, for example, i^SerpenAu ftonea or Cmma Amm^ 
mi$ fijppoftd origimdly to have been NMutiUj of which 
J mvMf tftve ften five or fix diftinA fpecies, and doub^ 
lift tnere aie-yot^ m^ny mere. Add hereunto the gtfealh 
kela ef teie of tlleib-fkdk, ««s. tbp Cmma Anaauit, 


,io8 Observations Topographical^ 

whereof there are found of about a foot diameter, far 
' exceeding the bulk of any {hdt-fi(h now breeding or 
living in our feas. 

The fecond opinion is of thofe who imagine thefe 
bodies to have been the eiFeAs and produ£b of fome 
plaftic power in the earth ; and to have been formed 
after the manner of diamonds and other precious ftones, 
or the cryftals of coagulated falts, by (hooting into fuch 
figures. Of thefe bodies my very ingenious and learned 
friend Mr. Martin Lifter diicourfes in a Letter of his 
infciicd in the Phikfoph, Tranfaif, numb, 76. to this 
purpofe, upon occafion of Mr. Stend's Prodromus. We 
will eafily believe, that in fome countries^ and particu- 
larly along the ihore of the Mediterranean fea, there 
may all manoer of (hell- fifbes be found promiicuoufly 
' included in rocks or earth, and at good difbmces too 
from the fea. But for our Engli/h inland quarries, which 
.alfo abound with infinite numbers and great varieties of 
(hells, I am apt to think there is no fuch matter a&pe- 
trifying of (hells in the bufmefs (or as Stem explains 
himfelf^ pag. 84. in the Englijh verfion CsT aUhi^ that the 
fubftance of thefe (hells, formerly belonging to animais, 
hath been diiiblved or wafted by the penetrating force 
of juices, and that a ftony fubftance is come in the place 
. thereof j but that thefe cochle-like ftones ever were as 
they are at prefent, Lapidesfm gemrity and never any put 
of an animal. That they are fo .at pre(ent is in dhEt 
*confefIed by Stem in the above cited page; and it is 
moft certain, that our Engli/h quarry-(hells (to continuo 
that abufive name) have no parts of a different texture 
from the rock or quarry they are taken, that is^ that 
there is no fuch thing as (hell in thefe refembhuices of 
(hells, but that iron-ftone cochles are all iron-ftone, lime 
or marble all lime-ftone and marble, fpar or cryflalline 
(hells ail fpar, £s?r. and that they never were any part of 
an animal. My reafon is, that quarries of different ftone 
yield us quite dii&rent forts or fpecies of (hells, not on- 
ly one from another (as thofe cochle (loiies of the iron- 
done quarries of Addertm in Torkjhire difier from thofe 
fofatiA in the lead-mines of the neighbouring mountains, 
and both thefe from that cocble-qufury of Wansfrrih 
bridge in Nfrthamfitonflfirf^ and all' ttvee from thofe to 


Morale and PhypologkaL 109 

be found in the quarries about GuHthorp Sind Beauvoir-^ 
caftle, i^c) but I dare boldly fay from any thing in 
Nature befides, that either the land, fait, or frefh waters 
do yield us. 'Tis true that I have picked out of that 
one quarry of Wamford very refemblances* of Murices^ 
TilUnaf Turbims^ Cochlea^ f^r. and yet I am not con« 
vin<fd, when I particularly examined fome of our En-- 
glijb fliores for Ihells, as alfo the frelh waters and the 
fidds, that I did ever meet with any one of thofe fpe- 
cies of (hells any where elfe but in their refpedive quar- 
ries; whence I conclude them Lapides fm generis y and 
that they were not caft in any animal mould whofe 
ipecies or race is yet to be found in being at this day. 
Thus far Mr. Lifter. The like argument alfo Gor(H 
fitu Becanus ufes to prove, that thefe bodies are not 
petrified (hells. ScaUop-Jhells {bXth he) are ib rare up- 
on the (hores of Flanders^ that they are brought thi- 
ther by pilgrims from the coaft of GalUcia in Spain^ 
and (hown for (Irange things \ and yet in the ditches 
about Jntwerp there is fixch plenty of them, that in 
digging there they throw up heaps of them like little 
mountains, fo that he that would gather of them need 
not take the pains to travel to Gallicia^ or fb much as to 
theiea-lbores. To thefe he adds another argument which 
yet to me feems of little force. In fome places about 
Antwerp digging for water, they meet with in the earth 
a cnift or layer of two foot thickneis and in fome parts 
thinner, wholly* made up of fea'(hells, whereas there was 
never found fuch a mafs of (bells upon any of the fea- 
(horesi (b that no man can reafonably alTert that they 
were thrown up by the fea and there left, the waters 
receding and forlaking them; for then without quef- 
don we (hould hear of the like heaps or beds of them 
found on the coafts of Holland^ Zealand^ and Flanders, 
But to this I anfwer, that the reafon why at this day 
there are not fuch beds of them to be found upon 
the (hores may be, becaule they are gathered up and 
carried away by men, partly out of curiofity, partly to 
burn for lime, or other ways to make ufe of. Be- 
fides we know that in the bottom of the fea, thefe 
(hell* fifhes many times lie in great beds, and there breed 
in great abundance, and it is not altogether unlikely, 


tto ObsIrVAtions Toj^ogf'tiphical^ 

Uutt the fea might on occafioh fuddefily recede and de- 
iert fuch beds, and they afterwards come to be bu- 
ried in the earth. 

But to argue ftirther in defence of this Opinion. There: 
are found in the earth many fiich like figured fioAes' 
ti^iich we know not whither to refer, as re&mbling 
neither any part of an animal, nor of a plant : fiich 
sire thofe that naturalifts eall Lapides Ljncutu^ Bebm" 
nitefj Lapides Judaici^ . TVoehiUi^ Afterit and otfaera, 
to which if there be at prefent any mells, bones, fruits, 
roots, (ffr. like, I am as yet whoUy to feek for them. 
And if there arc now no fiich things in being, they 
that defend the contrary opinion muft have retour/e 
to that gratuitous fuppoution, that fuch fpecies are loft 
out of the world. 

Befides I have been told by a perfon of good credit of 
a flone of this nature reiembling a cochle-fliell found in 
the ftomach of a beef ; where in all likelihood it muft 
be bred and (hoot into that figure ; which, if tnie, dierc 
can be no reafen to doubt, but thofe in tne flone^quar- 
ries and other places are fo generated. 

A third opinion there is, that (bme of thefe bodies are 
itally fhells petrified, of the caib of fuch bodies ^r their 
contents ; and that others of them are ftones of th^irown 
kind refembling foch {hells, fo (baped and figured % feme 
I^ftic power. That fbelk may be, and are fometimes 
petrified (as are alfe bones and wood^ cannot be denied, 
alkl I myfelf hare gathered fuch upon the fea-{hore ; and 
on the other hand, he that afierts^ that there are bodiei 
naturally growing m the earth, which do imitate fea* 
fbetb, delivers Mmlelf fronl the trouble of anfWering 
the arguments which urge the cdntfary opinion. But 
yet methinks this is birt ^ fiiift and refoge to avoid 
tiouble, there not being fodicient ground to found fuch 
a diftinftion. For my own part, I confefi, I pf6pcnd 
to the firft opink)n, a^ Ming ihore cotifonant to the nature 
of the thing, and could wifh ^hat all external arguments 
and objeAiens againft it were iationa% and folidly an- 

The namft of the profcfTors in each fiiculty, and what 
beoks they read, together with their exercifes, the fol- 
lowing $ftin Lc&imm will acquarift the reader. 

Mor'ai, and PhjifioU^icai, 1 1 7 

Catalogus LeBionum atq\ Mxercita- 
tionum Academicarum ^uas incly- 
ta Norimbergenjium Unsverfitatis 
Altdorffina Profejforesj cum Deo^ 
fojl ferias Caniculares hujus Anni 
CI3 I3C Lxii. coeptas ufque ad 
proxifnefuturam Panegyrin Petro^ 
P aulinam puhlice prvoatimq\ conti-^ 

ReEiorB Mauritio HoiFmanno, A/. D. 
Anat, Cbir, ^ Bo fan. Prof, pubL 

Suh f^elicihus aufpiciis virorum nobi- 
liffimorumy perfirenuorum atque 
prudentiffimorum Dn, Leonard! 
Omndherri ///. Firi, Dn, Jodoci 
Chriftopiiori» Bte& a %ttXklX» 

tatmttnstiiaib, Dn, Geoigiisi- 

gifmiiiidi jftltCttf ab i^ttttUtUs 

^^^ fbMX^\fi^ Dm Gabri- 


i,ia Observations Topographical, 

elis Nuzelii ab ^ in dtttlDtt^0^ 
lltl|)l, Illufiris Reipuk Norimb, 
Senatorumy ^ Curatorum Acade- 
mic benemeritiffimorum. 


Johannes Wcinmann D. Evangelil S, Johannis ava^ 
Ku9Xf edy qua ha6fenus ufus eft^ methoaoy adfinem uf^ 
que^ dvuind opitulante gratia ^ cwUinuabit^ {ff pngterptdh- 
licas difi>utationeSj etiam privata exercitia^ cum USioria^ 
turn di^utatoriaj ex libris BibUcis ^ locis Tieobgids partim 
tnftituta^ partim ififiituenda^ frequentabtt. 

M. Lucas Fridericus Reinhartus Contreverjias ad Ux^ 
tus Evangelicos Dominicalis agitari filitas ; turn Exegeticas^ 
turn Dogmaticas & Morales mori/frat^ isf optimam finten" 
tiam, qudpotiy anfirmaU 

M. Joh. Conradus Diirr Introdu^wmm apborifticam 
in libros Symbolicos Ecclejia Narimbergenjis intra vertentim 
bunc annum ad finem perducere aUaborabiU Gnmnologiam 
Ariftotelicam fimul cum inUrpntatione libromm Nicwuubi^ 


Wilhclmus Ladwcll D. i 7it. lib. 4. C. diObUg. isT 
ASfim, ufque ad tit. de Ufur. infigniores ^ difficiUores /r- 
gesj adioq\ materiam Migatienisy probationis ^ compenfa^ 
tionis explicariy l^ Ji Deus vitam i^ valitudinem cvnceffirit^ 
intra annum abfohere conabitur, AdjeStis etiam iis quig 
ex jure Canmcoy & Feudali hue pertinere wdebuntur. 

Idem caepta Collegia cwtinuabtt^ & petentibus mva ape* 

• • 


Morale and PbyJidlogicaL 113 

Mioolaus Ritterihufius D. ExpEcatimes noUllmm Legum 
Ubri xxviiuff. bf fequentium^ publiei contmuabitj prhatim 
veri Cellepa babeiitj unum Inftituthfam Juris^ alterum 

Emeftus Crcgcl D. AhfiiuHs Ehri W. Inftitut. Impp. 
tiit£$ XIL Mms^ de integro earutn interpretationem ag- 
grediar^ ff atm ftudiofi^ ea praprimis^ qua ad Tbforiam 
JpeGanty in ilEs obfcwra adhuc iUuftraverim^ thulas dein^ 
cepi in Praxi friquertAurn imrafefjmannum^ cum Dec^ 

Ad PttbScum yus quod attinet^ meain eofunt defixa co- 
gifatktus^ Mt ilbid juxta firiem Juris Civilisy Pertonarum 
fcil. Rerum tf A^onum uH iibro Vlh ac VIIL Juris- 
prudemiig Publica Georgii S}aulllfit|t fr^is {/f impofitus^ 
X^ ^ i&ff'jf traffetur* Privatim querhadmodum ex- 
pkcarkb ac difputando accuratas ExceUentiJJinii jCii 
& fideUffimi oSm mei Do^ms 2). Joachimi Scnno- 
belii, &r. in Digefta Dijputatimes imprafentiarum evolvo : 
ha pro viriEy in aliis tarn privatis Collegiisj quam publicis 
dretdaritujqi Exerciiiis qua dijputaturis^ qua audituris non 


Mauritius Ifaflbian D. ^uoadper negotia Magiflratui 
Academui Bahiij poft ahfolutas demonftratimus Botanicas^ 
in fraleffimhis jmafomicis h. o. matut, fnfloriam par-^ 
than corporis fcemimm nuperrimi dtjfe£fi phyjiopathobgice ex* 
fScabit, In CUrurgicis traStatum de Pra^furis proponet. 
Privatim veri Aphmfmorum Hippocr. ex naturd fanguims 
htUrpretatimitm (fJinguKs nunfibus dijputatioms jamiliares 

Jacobus Pancratius Bruno D. diebus Luna & Martis 
b. 3* ponur. Inftitutiones Medicas perjpicud brevitate ex^ 
ftcabit. Diebus veri Jevis bt Veneris morborum parti- 
cnlarium cegmtu bf curatu diffkiliorum traifationem fufci- 
piit^ eptraqui fu& navd ftudia Auditnrum privatim quoqui 
proviribus dsjputandoprmovebit. 



^ 14 O B s E E V A T I o N fi 7fpQgrapbicaI, 


M. Abdias Trcw in Maibmaticis Elmmfa Bh/^U 
in Syllogi/mos refoluta repetet. SubjunSfis peft denas chrciter 
proMtioms Problmatihfs ^ Mfthf/l jffsi^fi^ fa im itu- 
diofi fimul 13 ftmiavmimm MiUhimfiUc^wn rf;/>«M^ 
V fortrndetn ujum ppjpi(iant. / 

In Phyftcis dmfimm hrtvm> potimm (sT $^9(^ fr0 f#- 
lijuis hakentium contro^irfianqn^ n^^Pfr incbtaUfm p^rUfctU 

M. Job. Paul. Felwmgpr Cmp^nJUtm L^i^€ ^i/ohfct : 
In Metaphjficis tr/ffhiiisdi^mn^ 4ff^WI0i MnUt: In 
Ppliticis, in traHatu de M^iJirqtUy pfrgif. CMikf l^ 
gicaj Metaplyfita IS Pditica qpfriit ; W Di/pMf0fipnds 
Metaphyficas mAriftoUUm^ ft qiii futuri fint RMfpfm4'9US9 

Georgig$ Maftbi^s Kpnig prmmi Syntagma dt Viris 
Utaratis ^iw Oif ftii^icabitur. fn Epi/Ula od G4tkut$ 
itiam pergct^ iaq\ finita^ ad Epijlolqm ad ^ptfffm fi c^n^ 

M. Job. Lconhardt^s ^iiraegpr tjepjqnflbit Ci^eronis 
Brutuni de clans OraioribuSy ejufqui Oratorentyfeu de^er- 
fi£!o Oratare ad M. Brutim : Cbar^/^prg^ fi#rf, quos 
ha£fenu4 fub ^xplicatime textus Virgtiiani fparfan nfttndif^ 
ac porro oftendetj in unam etifimjimul cofU^^ iib^iuf^ 
diduHosy priorum e.3(mplQ ixcfUuris^ ad cahmum diff^^ 
bit. Utrumqi p(r vifes ab iffi fiet bor4 p^f^diana Ur* 
tia, atqi ittfupcr (^s opfra ad Exiratia Or^tori^t tarn 
pubVua quam privata^ in profa parity af ligata pt^tiUfris 
parata eriu 

M. Cbriftophprus MoHtor dUbuf Lun^ti Martisfpfci- 
men Philo!ogf?natum Sacrorum^ ju^fta ifuffum Sfhiciar^iatfi 
horologii vfl Afrii Dilherriani di^biu diebus atdefn 7^* 
vis & Venmsj qu0 in y/rabicis refianU^ epntimabiu rri^ 
vatimy Ji futurtis jufius Audit4rt(m nump'HS^ C^Uigi^m 
tarn Rabbinicumj quam Ebraifum opfrieiy in Ra^b, ex* 
plicabit tsT continuabit Theokgiam Talmudicam Dn. Hack-- 


if uti hgSffims fie nmfuam cmittei arfubm Oratmum* . 

HahAuntur pnttnw^ m Supincrum muHifientti^^ fin$ 
Sttt^rfotumfumtUkmj qumns hdfJamadf diffnoationes^ 
fUMs voumtf clnulara in Tiealfifd^ JuriJica^ Mi- 
iuM ffVhiJefct^ci FaadtaU^ niciimfinguli$ wmfi^ 
hi$ ExiTikia Qratma. 

Sipi. 4. We proceecbd on our jduroey to RatHshiH 
tM fiOU tl^nMifh Ntmiwrh^ % Iktk wall'd town bee 
kngiiig to the Duice of Bavaria. 

5. We f)allbl AcQuoh Htinmawy a foiiU wall'd town 
fJ^pSt to the JMu w Ntuburg \ and^ at night, pafling 
tlie river DamAi^ hf a fair ftofie bridge, we .enter M Ra^ ^ ^ 
tirimj or R^gmtiirgf (o called from thft river •^^«^^^'%r 
«rhich heM filb iaio the Da^iuh. SMsbcti* 

Thii citjr it hige and wdl built (the houfes being 
§m tbe aK>ft part of ftone) adorned with many fair pa* 
boo of Aobkitnio, well wall'd about ^nd foctiiied. The 
ftrorcs am hut narroWt The roofs of the faoufes are not 
built b Aeep aa at Augiiurgh^ Nunfiktrghj &c. or as 
oun ia Eiigkmlt but Aubti^ after the Italian mode. The 
Ditt of the Entire is ufually held here, it beii^ an im- 
perial dijr, a«d goirem'd by ita own magiftrates, though 
ill the Diikeef Bvuarisfs country.This city hath a bifliop, 
who ii of the Em^ religjon, but he hath little to do^ 
%|1 tibe oiagiftntes and the greatcft part of the iahabi«» 
tpRts faaifig IftttbirauMs Yet fome cloiflers there are of 
OMXiJv and nuns, and a college of Jifuits. 

Upon di9 fodbs, not fiur from Ratisbm^ a litde be* 
low the sown on the other fide the river, we found, be-« 
fides many of the rarer ibrt of our EngU/h pbnts, Afclifiot 
Jhre aWo, Daycus mmtanus Apii folio maj^r C. B. Jifi* 
mm m$ntamim ^^gmm J. fi. Caucahs Psucidam folio QtT4 
aa I take it : It hath a fine kaf, a fmall root (which I 
beUeve yearly periflies) leddiih ftalks, an umbel of white 
lowers, to which iuceeed finall round feeds with purple 
apicft : Am Daums moaiams Apii folio j fUro bitoo C. B ? 
I^ hath winged leaves like to Bipenmllaj but burger, the 
fivend wing» of each leaf being as large as and like nnto 
Ibe intire haf of the laid BifMulla i a great rDOt» b^t 

t 2 sot 

n 6 Observations Topographical^ 

not hot in tafte as the Burnet-isudfrages are.; the ffadk 
rifeth up to the heighth of a man Sinoft ; the feedi 
are round, ftriate, cover*!! with a hoary down, reddifli 
toward the top, and of a hot ipicy ta^e. TitbymMbis 
verrucofus J. B. Stopbe major cOlycms non AUndeniibus 
C. B. Hepaticum frifiilium Lob. Flamnada Jovis ; C#- 
rinthi major florilutio.\ FraxineUa\ Cytifusfupinus Jytoefl. 
^atijponenjis flor* lut, ad exortum foliorum frodeuntilnts 
Cat. AUtdorf. Cytifus Gejhiri cut floros fere JMcati ]» B. 
Eupbrajia pratenjss bitea C. K which we firft found not 
far from Heinmaw ; Phalangittm ramofum ; Chanutdrys 
vulgaris {ff Cham.foliis laeimaiis\ After montanus luteusbir-- 
futofalicit folio ; After Auftriacus 4 Quf. i. e. Linaria au- 
rea Tragi \ After Atticus Itabrum flore purpureo Park. 
Oxyacantha five Berheris ; Bugula carulea Alpina ; Otb- 
banche minor purpureis ftoribusj Jive ramiofa^ in the corn- 
fields. Chondrilla cserulea J. B. Folia huic valde lacinia- 
ta, glabra, glaaca. Flores longis infident pediculis, dilute 
caerulei & ad ruborem inclinantes. Securidaca dametorum 
major flare varioj ftliquiz articubiis C. B. which is com- 
mon all over Germany. Veronica fupina facie Teucrii pra^ 
tenfes nolefs common; Lepidium aunuum gxowiagisooTi^ 
radiflies ; and Foemtm Gracum^ which I fuppofe was fown 

Sept II. We hired a boat fox Vwma: Firft, on 
our left hand as we went down the river, we pafloi by 
a little village and a caftle flanding on a hill, called 729- 
naftan. About three miles and half below Regensberg 
we pafled in fight of M^ert^ a caftle belonging to the bifliop 
of Ratisbortj feated on a hill by a river called WlfefU^ 
which here runs into the Damibe, This night we lodg- 
ed at Straubiftg, a very handfom^ pkaiant, walled town» 
belonging to the Duke of Bavaria, five miles below Ra^ 
tisbon. . 

Sept. 12. In the morning we paft Pogen^ where rs 
a church flanding on a high hill. Four miles below 
S/raubif^, Straubittg we rowed under a wooden bridge which there 
crofTes the Danube. Here on the left hand as one goes 
down ftands Dreckendorfj a walled town belonging to 
the Duke of Bavaria. A little further off we paifled by 
the mouth of the river Ifer. Then we had a profpeA of 
Ofterboven on our teft hand, and not far thence a fmall 


Moraly and PhyfidogicaL 117 

vflb^ called Hsfkircbm^ and pn the fiinne fide ftill a little 
caftle called ITtlitrsbergy where the (hores along the river 
beg^ to be rocky. This nigh^ we lodged at a pretty 
litde waDed town built of ftone, called Vtl/hoveny bebng7 VUJbwem. 
Ing to Bavaria. 

Sept, 13. At four miles difl^uice from Vll/bcven Yf^Pafanu, 
came to PaJfaWj a confiderable city for its ftrength and 
greatiieisy formerfy well buUt with many fair flone houfes. 
But about three quarters of a year before our being there, 
a mod dreadful fire burnt down, ruin'd, and deflroy'd 
admoft the whole town, churches, publick buildings and 
aQ. It is iituate juft at the confluence of the rivers 
In and Danubg^ ana fubjed tp the archduke of Infpruck^ 
who, we were told, gave 50000 .dollars towards the re^ 
building of it^ Here is a bridge oyer the river In to a 
town called Inflate Hitherto the river Danube flowed 
gently down, but below Pajfaw it beg^n to be ilreighu 
cned by hilb oq both fides and to run with a fwifxQi; 
ftream. Seven fniles from Paj/avj we pafled by Naybonfi 
caftle, and this third night lodged at .a pretty little y^^ 
lage belonging to th^ Emperor c^ed Jfcay (landing o^ 
the right fide pf the river. 

Sept, 14. We had, an open country .again, no hi}ls, 
being near the river. At four miles end we landed at, 
Lf'nfz, and viewed the city, which we found to be a ve^ £/>/«. 
ry elegit place, well budt with ftone houfes flat roof 'd!^ 
after the Italian fafhion ; having a large fquare Piaza^\ 
with two fountains in It, and on the highefl part a faicr 
palace of the Emperor, whence there Is a pleaiant prof^ 
peA of the Dambe and country adjacent. About three, 
miles below Unt% we pafled a pretty village on our 
left hand, called Mathaufin. Tlien we had a pro%£t^ 
of a town on our fight hand fltuate upon the river Ens^^ 
called Intx, . Seven miles below £m/z are^ills aga^oa^ 
both fides the river. Hereabouts is a village called Gnuu^ 
where the earl of Ucbtenjiiin hath a hpafe fituate on a , 
hill. Below Greine^ on the left hand is a little village, 
where we paft a dangjcrous place \t\ the river called Stroniy , 
where the ftream being ftreighteoed by hills on each hand 
runs very fwiftly, and befides is J\x\\ of rocks : a little 
further below a rock, which jets a good way out Into the 
rivcTj Wt pafled a violent whirl-pool' called the Wtrbkn 

I 3 At; 

J |8 O B s- £ !l VAT 1 d K d f9po^rap6icaly 

At fome diftance Hxtthet on the kft hand ihriids a foidl 
village under a Hgh hill, half v^hettdf M\ down abotrt 
two years before oar being there, which midd fd gt«9t a 
noife that it was heand two Getnam hrifes 6fF, at Ay, 1 
little town we palTed by on the right haM. W^ ioog« 
ti this fourth night tt a fmiH Village called Ma^pachy z i 
miles from £/«/^. 

5^/. 15. In the ntorfriiip we vii'cm by it rich doifter 
called Melk on 6uf rigM. At fix n)iles.dtf!ai\ce from our 
lodging We palled a faff hoafe 6{ the dul of Dirn/ieh^ 
on our left hand, and hereabouts had a.^oipcifit of lufWiiB 
t rich abby ftrongly fiti4te oh a hfll^ attefmpted by the 
Swedes withdut fucceTs. About nine lolles'firom MartacB 
we pafTed under a wooden bridge by a Tf^ftf imOed eown 
failed Stiht, where the ^ttW^x (they tdd ns) Wcr^ nota- 
bly beaten and' cfriven dot again After th«y had enter'rf 
the town ; Which repulfe they aftft^tdsrtevcng^, wh^ft 
they took the placcf, by plundering and fl^biftng it. Not 
Krembs. fer hence We landed to view Krmbiy i cArriiderabJe dtjr 
feakd on t\tc fide of 91 hill, well built, Willed labout Mt 
^fenefaed towafdi the river. From heiice vt^e cifne imo^ 
an open country, and the river being, nf-fibefty, the 
channel grew much Vs^dir, Six nrifcs Mow t[femt$ ti« 
pail^d by a fmaD walled ttiwn oh thifef i^i^ht hstfid called 
peuh ; then we hid the profpeft of GnHeH/ftin^ a caltte 
fltuatp an a hill at fome diftance /torn the river on the 
left hand ; next we had a fight of CsrHbir^^ a wall'd 
toWn in a plain not ikt from t\)t DafitAir *y taken hy cfitf 
SiBedes in the late Wats "aitiA by them notably defended a- 
gkirtft ihe Emperor. Here and ^Iterward at feveral other 
l^acts'We ol?ferved mlfl^ buih tipon two kriitfi, the wheel 
lying between the bo^ts, which ^e fixed « a tonvenlcnt 
cnfbmce one from the othet, and fo the ftr^frt coming 
between the hoats, and hy tfeafdn it Js flreightetled by 
d^ee^' irunnlng more'fwiftly, turns the wrcel. One 
of the boats is DV itrdpg cables or cfetlrts* at (ttCh e<iid 
faRen'd to the bdnk,^ and fo the bbats itt^l and all rite 
arid fall with the Wate/i* About a mile mid hilf befbre 
we reachM Viewia^''<Nt Went by a fair rich al*f cafted 

Civtijfernaiberg^ with a Kttle walKd town 0/ tie fime 
name; ahd.atthc end of nineteen Gitwah hiite, which, 
the fttiftncfs of the current ^ftiftg- itf, wr «xarfe tfcV 

- dav, 

dtff "we trrhrftd at HiftPiif tfie chief dty 6f Jujtridj Vienna, 
and at prefent the imperiail feat, fo called ffMn the rive^ 
Wim whidi fnfttiilto the DamAt on the 6ift fldi of the 
ton^. It is for the Ugnefi of it the moft freqtietit txA 
USi <yf fidple that we hare yet ieetl ^Offd the feas. Tf}^ 
Witt is iM above foutor five fn^/^ iKiki iii cirtuit^ hot 
there are largp fuburbs at a little diftance from the toWfr^ 
thflife hnefei that were vdr^ near being lately ^\lStA dswn 
t0 cUar tnk. wall and worlD for ftat of a fiege : the 
7uti$ it tfie time of our being there havlfig taken Neu^ 
fkiufil^ ind fiew$ coftiim chat tUisy were ni^rehing with 
thtif #)tBle arihif xamtim Pntbi^ 'm Huf^ary, fM ab6vef 
ftfVf Mpigli/b miief dHbmt fraui plinfUii This dty i^ 
reeilarijr ai^ ffrotigly fertMied with a high and impeite' 
ti9M watt of earth iboed with briefer a hrdad and deep 
tiMth, into #hkh dief canr (as th^ toU us) when they 
pkaiy draw the WM^r » baftiGfn^ bsdf-ilioons and horn-* 
worilff t^c. that k il ^ftly refuted one «f tbe ftrOngeft 
holds of ChriftendooK The inner wall^ which wai faid 
to be butt witii the latifexit 6f Ruhafd I. King of Eng-^ 
Uhd4 m of Hftle ftiengch or eefnfider&ttori ih' comparrfdit 
wtab tit new aM oiMf one* The h^ufts sire fufficiently' 
tal and wdl boift df flmet the rObft iattith after f he^ 
JmSOn noRrie : the fbtet^ falth«f narnyw than bro^d ; the . 
riMrfcev wdl ftoied with aH nee^i&ie^. Hef c we firft 
mat ^iVidi tdraDifes to be fcM^ at the rate df Ax-penc^ 
a siece : tlwy are found in muddjr ditches in thefe parts.' 
Ifcre aMr Wo firft took nottce of the fruit of S$thut UgU, 
timr I and ^ firw in tike fifli-marked the Slkrus or 
flaM-fiAy Ae gkateft of att frefli^watet fi(h that we hav^ 
tmtii 6hM of rMm weighing abcKre loo poutfd. The 
EMaror^s pdtee^ the cathedral elMrch, and other publick 
b t miHp Mkf9% MiMfAbran0t,^/e it tny deftgn minute- 
ly «o Mfite fkMi. The Eftif|ierof is of a mean ftature 
and dark t»ffiftaiieiiy iMn^ifiligedi his hair Mack, his 
iMfap^Ap Aidk mi baafgifte down a fittfe, much like hb 

dj^ls M Ma Coifl» Av M phmtA wd found here-about, p/anf, ^ 
OndfftUi ffiMa Jkfi fkrpufi^i PfiUHim vutgate ; Kallfer<vtd a- 
nhUfMj ac tMn dtftmOb froth the fta. ScaMofafolih dif-hout Vien* 

i# gnat ffiamy. AbrfyHam 4lhum atiguftlfolium pere- 
g rtm m 0,1^ mk ftematt u> me. In the ifland of 

I 4 Danubius 

J20 Observations l^opographical^ 

Danuhius near Vienna^ Art/lokclna Clemaiitis bf S$laman 
vcftcarium five Alkekengi plentifully. 
Sept 24. We hired a coach for Venici and began our journe7 
thitherward, and this night lodgffi at a great village called 
Trayskerk four miles di£int from /^ffimtf : by the way* 
fide we found flore of MJmihium Auflriacwn tmuifiUym 
21;. At four miles end we came to Niuflat {Ntapo&s Att^ 

Neuftat. Jlriaca they call it) well walled and trench'd about, 
of a iquare figure,, mean bignefs, handfomely built, having 
ftreight ftreets and a fair ^uare market-place. At three 
of the corners are nKmnts or baftions, and at the fourth 
a cafUe. In the lanes near this town I firil found 
Afpirula carulea. Two miles bevond Neuftat we be- 
gan to leave the open country and to come among hilb. 
We lodged this night at a village called GluhutZy four 
ipiles difbnt from Neuftat, The boufes in thefe villa- 
ges are for the moil part covered with (htngles of wood : 
the hills clothed ynih woods of pine. 
25. After two miles riding we came to a village called 

Scbadwyen pr Sbadwin^ feated between the mountains 
and inclofed with a gate at each end. Here we alighted 
and our coachman hired ten oxen ^which flood there 
ready, for that purpofe^ to draw his coach up a fteep 
afcent to the top of the hills which part Auftria and 
Plants Stiria. On the fides and top of this hiU we found thefe 
^r"»?-i?" ^^> Ubamtis Tbeo^ajii mmr Park. Cyetamem au- 
Sbadwin^ /iwifftfi of two forts. Tuffdago Alfimf^w rctimdo. A 
.a 'Win, ^^ ^^ ^^^ji <i*jracbeliwn that I have not elfewhere feen. 
A fmall fort of Mufcus clavatus^ with leaves like juni- 
per, Larix abundantly. Iqfimachia lutea in aUsjMiiOtm 
florens, A kind of GUwx with a rough cod. Gentiana 
fplio Afclepiadis abundantly, and many others that we had 
before met with. In this journey we alfo found Mm^ 
denticulatus major in the (hady lanes in many plaoQS : and 
in watery and fpringy places Alfim nutfcrfa J. B. fiinther 
on we came to a little wall'd place near the river 
Muera&y called Mertzufchlag. Herealxiuts are many mills ; 
and fcithes and lickles made here : then we palled through 
^ a village called Langenwaf^^ where (lands a caftk on a 
hill : after that another called Kriegla^ where we crofi'd 
the river. This afternoon wc pa&d durOMgh.a.p]^aiant 

"" valley 

Moraly and PbyJiohgtcaL I2i 

vall^ among wcoJf mountains, arid at night tcx>k up 
our lodging at Kimberg^ a laige village fix long miles 
diflant firom Ghchuiz* 

We travdled along the fame valley, and pafled through 27. 
a great village calkd Kapfubifg \ befides many other 
villages, caiilcs, and gentlemens houles on the fides of the, 
hiOs, which wc rode, near to; and at three miles end. 
came fo Pruck mh der Mattj i. e. Pons Mura^ a feir fruck an 
town forthb country, and walkd about, having a large^'^'"'^'** 
marict'place with a fountain in it. Proceedii^ on in. 
the fiune valley fofiie two leagMes further, we pafled* 
Liwkeiij a very neat, pleaiant and well built walled i>«^«. 
town, better than. we expedled to. have found any in. 
this mountsunous country. It hath- a &ir market-place. 
with fountains. And we obferved much iron jying m, 
the ftreets, which is here made, and wherewith the 
inhabitants drive 'a great trade.- - Here we crofled the 
Mwra twice, and loon after we were paft Lewbm we * 
rode over a hill, and following the courie of the laid 
river among the mountain$, at ^ening we came to 
a village called St« A^cbael^ wher^jwe lodged. We (aw> 
in thefe parts many men and women with laige fwel- 
lings under their chins or on their throats, called in 
Latin or rather in (ffmi, BronelmeU^ and by fome in 
EHgE/by Bavarian Pokeu Some of them were fingle^ 
othen douUe and treble. This isa difeafe which thefe 
A^mt nations have of old been fubje£t to. S^is turn* 
dwn guHur nmttur in jUpibus ? Yet among the Grifins^ 
who live on the higheft parts of the AlpSj I do not re-' 
member to have feen any of thefe-: I dare fay there are 
not half fo many thenaraouts as in thefe countries. What^ 
ihould be the caiufi^ of thjs evil, whether the drinking of' 
foow'-vrater, or water infeded with the virofe fteams 
and pMttcks of mercury, or other minerals and metals, 
wherewith in all probability thefe mountains abound, is 
no eafy determine. For on the one hand, in 
fome mountainous countries, where the fnow lies as long 
as it doth here, and confequently their waters are little 
dfe than fiiow diflblved, we ihaU find very few ]nfc<5)ed 
with this difeafe,: and on the other hand, as few in 
HnngarjjTraf^hania^ and other countries abounding with 
mercary and other minerals. Wp mud therefore fufpend* 


i22 OB«»RVAf Ions ^opo^rapbical^ 

till tMit ingehlous ph^fieian of diefe ooyntrio^ by bhj^ 
and diligent ebfefving whair csufts o^ ootafionar tUeft m- 
mours, and likewife what prevents sttid cute thditiy in- 
^ni£ts tis b^tf€r. 

We alfd obierred in thcfe countries Aicve idioti ind 
delirious perfdns fltin any wtefe elfe ^ which i»0 ijiiiiotdt) 
fbmetinM^ t6 th« fitow-ivatery ft«lMtilM9 to the irtcmiiMM 
eating of cabbage, of which in all the mnrkrt-toiwni we 
Jaw monftrous heaps lying to be AM. Btii opMi fm^ 
ther confiderfldon I think With Pulmrtuh it dli|^ 
rather to be srtt^ibiited m die lAltiend ftesths thtt id 
their watery e^isdl/ mi^reiirlal/ For wer fee the 
|tour of qmck-filv^r doth prtflCfpnUy aAA the b»ain Mtf 
nenrbfe part^« beg^ting palfies &iA Mirimns in puiters^ 
gilders, miners atid thdfc thM are much CMtteffiMl 
about It. 

28. We traveHed ai^ by the rh€i Muti% fide 16 K^nlh- 
KntttU' fields a walled tov^ft f hfetf miles Aroiti 8r. Mkhdel^ aoiA 
/fiV- then proceeding sdong thti time rtiky^ ^^ ftSkA hf 

fbme noblentem hbt^it^ 2ihd caflles, atid tddgbd at a tit' 
l^e up»n the itAr^, caHed St. Gedrghf four inik» tenf 

29. We travelled on tfi the feme vbllejr by d« ri««i^ 
New- Mure J till Wc* came to Nrtvmarkt. i Mtle waHdt p^B^ 
irutrkt. four miles ffom ^t Georgio. Thtn w« foHowed cho 

courfe of another little rfver^ Wttdh ruMi n^td the 
Drams about Volcknmtky in & nafr(^ valley herw^i^ 
high hills, and a mile from Niw^arkf Sfrt caMe w 
Frei/acb, confideraMe walled Uy^fi called Freifikl^i m which tt6 
four cbifters. A mile further we itMi/t to Hritif ii9 
Carintbiaj where wt lay this nighf. 

30. We rode rocky wayi thn/ vaBies f* Sf. J^V^ or ^1/,. 
St. /7/, a walled town of ^Mt note, th<l« milc»> diftant hbttt 

Heift. The Empcjitoi* hath a itlinr^hbtife for coining 
money here. Proceeding att three jMilesi further We arrh^d 
at Vlikifckeny which had bee^ a inaHPk^-t«fWi% of note, 
but about three years (ince a lameyifobt^ Att ho^m it 
down to the ground. 
Odob. r. We rode very rugged way among the molmttfm an* 
rOcks, pafDug the whole length of a lak# edited (hft-- 
fukerjey^ and at the furtlier end of if oMerVcif a ft/Ofig 
c&ftle fcatcd oa a high hill, belonging «c>llie eard oi 


Mora f J dnd Phyjiologkal ti^ 

toinrlib/tdHy a Prince of the empirt, who coins money. DtHrUi- 
Thetk we came dovm into a pleafant vall^, and (cyftein. 

over the river Dravus^ whkh Is here iiavlgabld, and 
mug by the ii^ails at t^iUa^h^ a well btiitt town, and oncf^iHaek, 
of the chief of this country, three miles diftaht from 
VtVtMk. A good diAance, fbm Fillacb we pdfTed the 
Cm^p^ a conAderahte river falling into the DrOims ; and 
hail very rockv Way among high mountains till we 
dftie td OrUhtih&y a villa^ whete we lodged. 

We tmvelfed among high mountain^ very^ had wa]r2, 
to 1 i^U^e called A&/ix T^fv^, two miles, 2tA proceed- 
ing on ffill among the mountain^ we came to the ri* 
t« TimefiU ^hich roits into the AMdtic feaj and 
fedgNi this night at PbkUU\, the laft town we pafTedi'tf/r/iV&i. 
in the Emperor'^ tobhtr]^, jiart of it \% fubje(!l to the 

Emperor, called Pantiela Irftperidle^ and part to the Ve- 
hetldmiy tdled PoHtiiha fkefaj Where we took 1 bill of ' 
health Ibr yoiUe. Between Klem Tarvh and Ponthba^ 

we iaw z herd of gciats.fbllowin^ the goat- herd like fo 
towy itegs : in .other plices we hav^e feen fiieep In tliat 
manner Allowing' their Ihepherd, which, no doubt, was 

qfual in Judaa; for our Saviouf, John lO. 4* com pa* 
tiit^ hinftelf to a (hepherd. and his difciples and ier- 
trarttt to (hecf), &lth, Jnd hi ioeth hefou bis Jhcepy and 
ihfjf /oU&w htm^ for they tmw his voice y hut a Jiran^ 
git flfiy wib Mfdibtv^ for ihiy knew not ihe void rf d 
jffMgifi Which WOirH have feemed ftrange fo the 
hearers, had the (hephercis beeii Wont only to drive tbcif 

ihee^ ai with us they do. 

We pafi'd ovei* th^ river Tithini by a bridge that part^3. 
Cdrimhid from Frlutt. AbOuf a German mile off we 
came, eq.a little fort b a village called Ciaufen^ where 
are tWd tfraw-brldg^, which We were not permitted to 
pa^ tifl we had delivered our bill of health. Hcncd 
we travelled ai)ng by the river, and obferved timber- 
ffdes floaftd dowri the (tre^il)i, and when the rocks (lopped 
them,' merf with hooks put them oiF, and dire^ed them 
into the force of the current. This is the manner all 
ol^er me jftps^ and ofbeir high mountains, they fell trees^ 
aiif'^gee them to. any little current of water and eicpea a 
good (hot 6f li^, \4nd then float them down to the 
greater rivew, TbU'dSty Wf I^Ocd Venfonga, a pretty r«i>y4r. 


124 Observations Topographical^ 

Hifitta- little walled town, and lodged at HofpitalettOj a large 
littQ. village, where we got quit of the mountains, and came 
into the plain country of Friulu 
4. We palled by Limoniaj a walled town fituate on the 
Li'monia, fifing of a hill at the foot of the mountains. Some miles 
St./>«»/VZr further we pafled St. DanUk\ then we forded the river 
Tlment in feveral places. The river hereabouts in a 
time of rain, or when the fnow melts on the moun- 
tains, fpreads itfelf to a very great breadth, as appears 
by the empty channel. Sjoon after we had pafled the 
* river, we afcended a clifF, and enter'd the walls of a 
SfiUmier^llttk town called Spilimberg^ where were rows or cloifters 
on each fide the ftreet under the houles, which we after 
found in many of the towns of Lmibardy ; ten Italian 
miles further riding brought us to St, jfvegio, a village 
where we refled this night. 
5* We rode along the plains, and at ten miles end came 
Sortie, to SariBi^ a walled town, where the river Livenza divides 
itielf and encompafleth the wall. From hence we dpve 
Conegiianoon about two Dutch miles, and lodged at CcmgUan^y a 
walled town (eated on the ridge of a hill \ a place of 
good account, as is aHb Saribe. 

All the way we travelled in Itafy hitherto, we had 
little other bread than what was made of Sorghum^ a 
grain, the blade whereof arifes to (even or eight foot 
neighth, and is as great as one's finger, bearing a larg^ 
panicle on the top, the berry or feed being bigger than 
that of wheat, and of a dusky colour. 
6. We rode a Dutch mile, and then ferried over the river 
Anaxus^ or Piave^ and at ten Italian miles further came 
Trevifi, ^o Trevifoy a large town, the head of a province called 
Marca Trevifana^ an important . place for ftrength, but 
too near, and too obnoxious to Ftmce to be rich. ' From 
Trevifo wq rode thro* a very fertile and well cultivated 
country ^o Mejire^ a little town by the Laguru (fo 
they call the Hats about Vemce^ which are all covered with 
water when the tide is in) where we took boat for 

Upon the mountains we pafled over this voyage, we 
found a great number of plants we had not before n>ct 
with, as ^mquefolium album majus eaulefcens C, B. ^wf- 
quefolium album majus aU^rum Q0 % Ttucrlum Jlpinum 

Moral, and PbyfiohgicaL 125 

Gfti Jhri ; Epimediym vulgare\ Linaria purpurea parva 
J. B. And not &r from Pmtieba on ttafy fide, upon 
the rocks. Ledum Jlpimm'hirfiitum C. B. Ledum Alphmrn 
biffiaum mnus^ An Cijius Auftriacus myrtifolius f Auricula 
urfi\ Seeban ferra turn alterum foliis longis angu/lis; Se^ 
dum Alpimem mtnimum^ fiBis einereisy fore camdido J. B. 
Siler mmtanum and many ochera. Helleborus niger verus 
plendfuUjr all over the bigheft mountains. Scabkfa ur- 
gentta angufiifeliuy in the channek of the torrents in 
FriuH: and GalegOy by the rivers and ditches every 
where in lialj. In Marca Trevifanoy ibme part of 
Frhdi, and the greateff part of Lomhardyy we obferved the 
com-fieUs to be &> thick fet with rows of trees, that if 
a man from an hill or high tower Ibould look down 
iqnn the country at a difl^ce, he would take it to 
be a wood. Againft ''every tree is planted a vin^ 
which runs up the tree, and the branches of the neigh- 
bouring vines they draw^ firom tree to tree and tie toge- 
ther : io that their com-fidds are alio woods and vine- 
yanfa, the lame land (iifficing for all thefe produdions, 
and not being cxhaufted with ib much fpending (as 
one wouU be apt to imagine^ bv reafixi of the depth and 
richnels of its ibil. Neither m this hot country doth 
the corn receive any prgudioe from the {hade or dropping 
of the trees (which in our colder climate would quite 
Biarr it) but rather advantage, there Ming little hiin 
in fummer time, and the trees keeping oflF the fcorch- 
iflg fun-beams, which elie might dry up and wither it; 
die heat notwithfiandii^ fiiffidng to bring the grain 
to perfeA maturity. Whereas with us, all the fiin we 
can give it is little enough, and the very grafi which 
grows under the trees is fowre and crude : for that ufually 
we have too little heat for our moifture, and they too 
much. This part of haVf hath been defervedly cele- 
brated for fertility, and may juftly, in my opinion, be 
filled the garden of Europe. 


H6 OBSEHVATiowe ^"^raphical. 

t^mmmi'^m — ^—^wpw rn n iii^%n^>||p^|»^pt«^^iiwp^^^«^py^|j^pi^pii^ 

O F 


T^Bnia is built upon certain little iflands in thr middk 
^ of the fea, or rather in the middle of certain ieta 
or flifllbwa covcf'd all over with uiaeer «t iiiil (a^ hut 
about the city, when the tide is aut, in inaajr piae^i 
beie, called by the Italians^ lA^e. Thefe Lagum aM 
iocldfld and fisparatad from the main gulph^ or jUH^tk 
iisa by a bank of earth (i7 Liio or Liii0 diey call it) ex« 
tttiding, acoDiding to C<mtarim^ about 60 milo, iccond- 
ing to Leandsr JSiifiusy and othen (who mme oeanr 
the truth) but 35, and micmble the ipace cantaiocd in 
a bent bow, ths bow being the ftom of the Sam land, 
and the U^ the ftring. The city ftands at on e^ual 
^jftanee from the firm land of /f^^ and iiom tYmLido^ 
vis. five miles from each« This Lid^ ferves at a good 
fence 01 rampart to Acujne the city and other included 
lAandf agginft the raging waves of the fta in flarmy 
ireather. It is diicontiaued by ieven, (ay iinme) lay 
others by five breaks or apertures, and thw net very 
wide ones, which they cadi ports or havens, and by 
which the Lugune communicate with the gulfk^ Of 
thefe inlets, two only are deep enough to admit Mof 
veflels of confidecable burthen or bulk, vim, thofr of 
Malatmcco or £fs» Into, or not iar from the Lagtmt^ 
mod of the great rivers of Italy empty tfaemfciyes, ei^. 
Padusy now called Po^ Athefii^ now A£§i^ Miiumtut 
tnajor^ now Brtnta^ Meduacus minor^ now Bacchilioniy 
Tiliavintum^ now Taiamento^ Liquentia^ now Livenza^ 
Silisj now &*/f, Anajfuiy now Piave; which, efpecially 
in time of floods, bring down with them from the 
mountain^ a great deal of earth and fait, which will, 
it's probable in proccis of time fill up the Lagum^ and 


fl^ dnr bi}4 9f tti^ip, Fqrl bdior^, at the fiiU burU- 
lAg of ^mics^ oopai^ of thpm by bsw at low water 4$ 
uow t\m^ ilptb* GiapftUi fiMtb^ that anticntly th^ city 
iv9$ tmi wk9 diSt^t Uofn the iira> bud, tb« i^^Kn^ 
^xtcodii^ as ii»r «p Omgh whicb> a$ fome thiak, wa9 
fo called fiafi Orakfcfu ^ ^ that all that fpacp b^twwi 
Qrf^^tf 9M /^^^ ^where th^ now ccdsad^ th^tgpfrom 
Paiiiui IP V4mct) h^ been juw4 IP (he fijrii^ land, not'* 
withfbudiii^ JiU ihc eaiJavoviiip tlie Fmtfam could uiir. 
This ci^y W3I9 4f A foundry 9«vor<li|ig tp th^ beft aur 
thors, about the tinm that ^//^^ wth bis Hanw yvmitd 

Jiaih bivping ^4 ikftroying ^ b9f<m km i by iim» 
&wlies who, fi^iqg no f n4 pf theie irn9i;ipQf of kmr^ 
haBOMs fUUP9«, fiwigbt m^ig^ for themfelv^ in ehefe 
deiblate iflands, in the year 456, or thereabouts. Othem 
make the firft beginning of it to have been before that 
time in tbcy^f 421. or 423. But tho' in the limed « 
of fofiner irruptioPSy many of th« neighbPuring people 
fled hixher to ibdter themfelves from th^ pif fent ftorm. 

El believe tliey did not think Qf fettling themfelves 
e, or mal^iog thde iflands their fix'd haiMtatjpn» tnd 
uniting thcmifelvQB into one city, till the expedition of 
j(ttifa. Whenever i( hsgm, i% hath continufd a virgin- 
^y (having never been fiivifb'd qor attempted by any^ 
enemy j fince its firft foimdgtion fi^r at leaft 1200 years, 
wbic^ is moie ibm any other city of that antiquit^^ (q 
£ur sf I have read or h^^ can boaft of. Yet is it not 
atpreient,norever was it fortified, or lb much as wall'd 

about ', neither JDijbed doth it oe^ it, being fuffeiently 
ftfong by itB fifMttioo dipm^ which is fwh, thai ii is not 
likdy fqr the fii^ve ever t9 be Ukep^ vokfs the lea 
<iute leav« it, and tjie J^w*^ become dry bod cen«- 
joia'd with the .contiowt. For by fea great flups can 
oomc PQ nearer ihm the hs^ven of Maknwto^ and tbele 
eperturo in the Uds^ where bo^ts and lefler veird9 may 
enter^ ete de&od^ by ftrong iorts and a^Ie9 : befidea 
that, every tide the channel doth lo vary, that, without 
the gMida^ce of an e«pen pil^tf they will net be eUe 
to find the way ip^ bMt be in diUi|«r «f being ftranded 
vgqu the ftits, 


128 Observations Topographical^ 

This city is in circuity taking in the GituUchaf eight 
ftalian miles. Viewing it from St. Marias tower, we 
judg'd it to be about the bignefi Amfteriam was then 
of. ft is divided into two parts by the Grand CanaUy 
which pafles through the middle of it in the form of 
the letter S. It is alio divided into fix parts or regions, 
called thence Seflieri ; three on one fide the Canalty viz. 
Caflelhy St. Marcoy and Canareio ; and three on the other 
fide, viz. San Paolo, Santa Croce, and Dor/o duro. It 
contains 70 parilhes, though fome make them 72 ; 67 
jnonafteries, whereof 33 of firiars, and 34 of nuns, ac- 
cording to a furvey taken in the year 158 1. fince which 
time, I believe, the number hath been increafed. Ac- 
cording to the iame furvey there were then in the city, 












1843 Artifiuis, Men 32887 

1659 Women 31617 

1420 Boys 22765 

1230 Girls , 18227 

21 17 Beggars, Men 75 

1936 Women 112 

1708 Monks 945 

1 4 18 Nuns 2508 

3732 Priefts 516 

5753 P<x>r of the Hofpttal 1290 
Jews 1043 

The fum total is 134871. Sanjovtnus reckons the 
mimber of ibuk in his time to have been 180000, but, 
I fuppofe, he takes in Muran and the other iflands, which 
in this furvey are left out. - I am not ignorant that fe- 
veral late writers make the prefent number of inhabi- 
tants to be at leaft 300000, but I believe they fpeak at 
random, and by conjeAure, upon no good grounds ; (zi 
I have been often told, that there are in Paris a millk>n 
and half of people, whereas it is well if there be half a mil- 
lion) there being no reafon to think that the city is much 
increafed fince Sanfovinus*s time. I find the fum total of 
the number of males to exceed the total of the number 
of females In this furvey by above 3500, which omes 
IMT to the account of the exccfs q{ males in England^ 
' givani 

Mora/, and PbyJiologicaL 129 

^▼en us bv Capt. Graunt^ in his Obfervations upon tbr 
weekly biUs of mortality in London. And I doubt not 
but if exa£t obfervations were made in other places, there 
would be found the like proportion between the number of 
males and females born into the world in hot countries, 
as in cold ; (o that from this topick^ the Afiattcks have 
ilo greater plea for multiplicity of wives, than the 
Eunfeau. Little channels of water crofs and divide 
the city into many iflets, and may rather be called tlie 
fireeti of it, than thofe narrow lanes and alleys (CaUt 
they call them) thro* which you pafs on foot from one 
place to another* By thefe channels you may convey 
yourfelf and goods from any one place in the city 
to any other, by boat; which is the only way of 
carriage, except mens (boulders, there being neither 
coach nor litter, cart nor wain, horie nor afi uled, or 
if^ much as to be feen here. For pailage on foot, tfaeie 
are built about 450 bridges crofs the channels, moft of 
them of ftone, and of one arch, among which, the 
moft famous is that over the Canal grtrndi^ called Pontt 
di Rialtc: and- for paflage by vrater, there are a great 
number of Gmiial/% and other boats; fome fay eighty 
fome ten, fome twelve, nay, fome fifteen thousand, bub 
I bdieve all is conjedure ; and they ¥^re never numbered*- 

The buildings are generally tall and £ur i the palaocB> 
of noblemen diick fet all over the dty, but efpecially^ 
upon the Cawal grandt^ which, tho* not vaft, are hand* 
iovat and well built. The foundations of the houfes 
are great piles, or mafts, driven into the ground, as 
at Amfttrdam. 

The arfonal is faid to be three miles in circuit, they 
that fpeak modeftly allow it but two ; well ftored with 
arms, ammunition, and all provifions for war* Here* 
the gdlies are made and laid upi of which the republick 
hath (they lay} at leaft 200. Here alfo lies the famous 
vef&l called the Bucentoro^ in which, upon Afiitnjim^ 
day, yearly, the Dukt^ accompanied with the lenaton^ 
and attended by fome thouiands of GmdaU% bravely ; fe€ 
out and adorned, goes forth v it were in folemn 
proceiSon fome two or three miles to fea, and cafting 
thereinto a ring, faith, liffwfethtt, in. token of perpetual- 
iemmem. Here are ^d to be kept 20000 pieces pf 

K •rdnance 

130 Observations Tofogrdphicaty 

ofdnance great and fmall, and arms for above' 25000a 
inen. A great number [1550] of artificers, as flup- 
vrriglits, carpenters, fmiths, founders, &r. are conftand y 
kq>t to work at the puUick charge. 

Of the other publkk piaoes and buildings of die dty", 
as the piazza of St. Mariy the church of St. Mmrky with 
the treafury ; the tower of St. Atmri ; the pdace of 
the Duke ; the chamber of the great council ; the pri- 
vate armory ; the theatres for ading the opem^ with the 
contrivances for moving the fcenes, the Pshte di Riak^ ; 
the ichools or halls for th^ fraternities ; the mint-houfe, pil- 
lars, ftatues, and other ornaments of this city, I ftall forhear 
to fiiy any thing, but refer the reader to Saf^imtSy Laffels^ 
and others, who have minutely defcribed thofe things. 

Fitticey according to the old epithet Vnutia k riVr^r, hath 
been efleemed the richeft city, not of half only, bu€ 
of aU Europe: and doubtleis was fo before the paflage 
to die EaJi'IndiiSy bv the Cape tf Good-Hepey was dif- 
^svered : when, befides a large fliare of Lmhardjy the 
heft country of kalyy FriuGy Ijhia and Daknathy the 
ilands of Cyprus and Candlay Zanfy Cephakma and Cerfu^ 
with others' in the Jrchipeiage fubje£l to them, they were 
chief, if not foie mafters of the Eaft^IndtM Ircd?, fur- 
niihix^ the greateft part of Europe with the commodities 
Gomtng from theixe, which were thtn brought by mer- 
chants to Alexandria in Xgypfy and there by them brought 
up. So that then it was a proveih in Itafyy 11 Hemco t'l 
9tegro han fatio ricca la Venetia. White and black, 1. e. 
emott and pepper have made Fetike rich. Since the I06 
of that trade, and by the vaft expences of long wars with 
the Turksy wherein they came off kfers at hft, having 
parted with firft Cyprusy and lately Candia to them, their 
treafures, I believe, are well exhaufted. Yet the ricbea 
of private peribns muft needs be great, the city having 
never been fack'd, nor haying ever undet]gone any fuch 
change of goveratnent as that one confiderable party of 
thepeople hath been opprefs'd, and their goods confifcate. 
Atfd .tho' the publick is not fo rich as it hath bec»)» 
yet will it foon recover kfelf and grow wealthy again, 
iqpoii the enjc^ment of^ peace and free commerce. 'Ilio' 
the wings of this commonwealth have been a litde ciippM, 
ytt hath it enough ftill remainiDg undor its dominioa 
• ' to 

Morale and PbyJoto^icaL I3I 

fb cfenominate it 1 potent ftate, viz. In Ttafy (i.) The 
D^aiby of which tht tity of Venice itfelf is the head. 
{2J The city tnd terfltwy of A74&«» called Paioam. 
(3O *^f Vicenza called Vicentino. (4.) Of /^^«tf called 
f4rw/yj. (5O Of *r^«» called Brefdano. (6.) Of 
Betgams called Bergdtnafco, (7.) Of Cr^w/t called Cr^-» 
m^tf. (8.) Matca TrevifanOy under which are com- 
prehetidai Fettrim and Bmufufe the territories of the cities 
/WSrr^ and Btttuno, [Leander jtlbertus reckons the 
territories of Virtnn^ flcenzAj and PaJua in Marca Tre^ 
^fana ; and of Brefcla, Bergamo^ and Crema in Z^m- 
A^A.] (9.) Frinli. (10.) ^r/^. (iij The territory 
of Kmdgo called // Pelefine de Rouigo^ formerly belonging 
to the dukedom of Ferrara^ the whole in length being 
extended 250 miles^ and above half fo much in breadths 
Out of ftMfy they haVe a good part of Dalmatian the 
Iflands of Zant^ Cephahnia and Corfuy befides others of 
tefi account. 

The ordinary annual revenues of this republick, ac- 
cording to our information, amount to about five mil- 
lions and three hundred and twenty thonfand Venetian 
ducates yearly. A ducat is fomewhat le(s than a French 
crown. Of which 

Venici itfelf yields > ■■ » ■ ■ ■ •■ 1400C00 

Bnfiia loooooo 

Paiua ■ * 140000 

Vicenza — " 200006 

Vertma — _ *— 250000 

Birgamd^ * ■ 140000 

Crema 100000 

// PiUftm 700CO 

iftria ■ ' ■»■'■ 150000 

II Friuli ■ ' ■ 100000 

La Marca Trei;ifana 190000 

Gli flati di man ■ — -^ — 450000 

La Zecca >* — 150000 

This city is wellfcrved with all provifibns of vidualb^ 
efpecially mh and wild fowl. Frefh ¥rater they hav^ 
lione but what is brought from land; and r^in watef 
which they preferve in ciftems, a^ which -Terves well 
enough for the o*lrdinary ufes of the boufe. The air b 

K 2 very 

132 Observations Topographical^ 

very (harp in winter-time by reafbn of its vicinity to 
the Alps, Venice is noted for the beft treacle \ the beft 
both drinking and looking-gjafles, made at Mutany a 
large burgo or town, about three miles in circuit, and 
divided in the middle by a broad channel, like Venice^ 
in an ifland about a mile diftant from the city, (b that 
It may pais for a fuburb of it : for paper, for turpen- 
tine, for needle- work laces called points; and if that 
be viTorth the mentioning, for courtezans. Here is al(b 
made foap, not inferior for goodneis to that of Cajiile. 

The gcntlemens and citizens wives are kept clofe, fel- 
dom walking abroad unlefs it be to church, and then 
with an old woman at their heels to guard them. Moft 
of the gentlemen and citizens of quality put their daugh- 
ters, {o foon as they come to feven or eight y«ars of age, 
into fome cloifter of nuns, to be there educated ; whence 
they are not taken out till they be married. The fuiter 
feldom fees his miftrefs before they go to be married, or if 
he doth fee her, it is only at the grate of the cloifter 
without fpeaking to her, all things being tranfaAed by 
the parents on each fide, or by the mediation of an old 

The government is ariftocratical, but among the gen- 
tlemen themfelves, were there no citizens or fubjedh, it 
would be purely democratical. As for the Doge or Duke^ 
though they call him Prince, yet they do but mock him, 
for he hath only the title and (hew, nothing of the power 
or authority of a Prince. The form of government as 
as it is exadUy and particularly defcribed by ConUtriniy 
Gianotti and Sanfivinus out of him, becaufe it is much 
talked of, I (hall here briefly fet down. 

The government then of the commonwealth is chiefly 
in the great council ; the fenate or council of Pregadi i 
tl:e college ; the council of ten ; and the Signoria. 


The Great Council is as it were the bajts of the cqm- 
jnonwealth in which the fupreme power refides; and from 
which as well the fenate as all the magiftrates derive their 
auubority. It is made up of all the gentlemen of the 
city wh^ have paffed the twenty fifth year of their age ; 
i ' the 

Morale and Phyfiological. 133 

the number of which is about 2500 in all. But yet be* 
ibre they can be admitted to give their fufFrages in council 
they muft before the f Atevogadari di Commtms^ by 
the oath of their fathers or mothers, or if they be 
dead, of their neareft Icinfmen, prove that they have 
attained that age; and by the teftimony of two wit* 
Defies, that they are the legitimate fons of fuch gentle^ 
mtn as they profe& or pretend themfelves to be. But to 
iatisfy the longing of fuch young men as deiire to tafte 
the fweetnefi of government fooner, there is a way for 
ibme of thofe who are but twenty years of age complete 
to get into the council, viz. Before the fourth of De^ 
cembefy being St. Barbara's day, all fuch young men muft^ 
in the manner we have already mentioned, before the 
Auvcgadori prove themfelves to be full twenty years old, 
and the i^itimate (bns of gentlemen. Which done 
the Secretary of the Auvogadori gives to each a fchedule 
fealed by the three Auvogadori^ fignifying fo much. Thefe 
ichedules they carry to the fecretary of the ^arantia 
ariminaley who writes the names of them who brought 
the fchedules, each in a fqroU by itfelf ; and on the fourth 
of December carries all thefe fcroUs before the Duke and 
Counfellorsy in whofe prefence they are all put into one 
um, and into anotlier are put fo many golden balls as 
are equal to the fifth part of the number of fcrolls, if it 
be lels than thirty ; if it be more than thirty, there are 
yet put in but thirty balls, and fo many filver ones as 
with the golden (hall be equal to the number of the young 
men competitors. Thefe being fhaken togetlier, the Duke 
out of the firft urn draws a ^roU and reads the name ; 
then out of the other he takes a ball, which if it proves to 
be a golden one, fuch an one whofe name was written 

K 3 in 

t The A^vegfidori di Cammune are thoCt who bring in all 
canies to the 40 criminal judges, called the ^arantiaCriminale^ 
to whom aracUs are made in criminal caufes from the fentenccs 
of inferior judges as well vvithin the city as without. Thofe 
then that would appeal muft firft h^ve recourfe to the Au^vaga^ V 

d0rj I who are all diligently to examine the catife, and con^r 
whether it ought to be brought in. and if they all agr<|$ that ^ 

ic (Hight not, then he that would appeal hath no remedv, but 
to expert apother fet of Aitvtgad^fi but if bat one o/.them 
Li it, i^ is enough to brin^^ it in. ^ 


134 OBSEKvAtioNS Topographical^ 


in the icroll is underftood to be admitted into the councils, 
And fo he proceeds, drawing out firft a feroU and then 
a ball, till all the golden balls are drawn out ; and 6% 
without more ai-do thofe thirty whofe lot it is to havo 
the golden balls may go into the council and ballot : the 
reft muft ftay till another year and then take their chance, 
if they are not before come to the age of twenty five. 
In troublefome times when the common-wealth wants 
money, they have alfo conferred this honour upon fiich 
as are under twenty five years for affifiing the pubUck 
with the gift or loan of a certain Turn of money. 

At one end of the ^reat council chamber (or hall as they 
call it, though it be an upper room) fits the Duke on a 
tribunal elevated above the level of the chamber, with 
tiiTcc of the counfellors and one of the heads or chiefis of 
the court called Sluarantia crifmnak (Capi de ^uaranta) 
fitting on his right hand ; and the other three counfellors, 
and below them the other two chiefs of the ^aran* 
tia on his left ; and on benches on each fide the tribu* 
nal, which make right angles with the end, fit the great 
chancellor and fecretaries. The fafliion of the hall and 
benclics on which the gentlemen fit, and the places of 
the chief officers and magiflrates, J (hall omit, as being 
hardly intelligible to fuch as have not feen the place, and 
not very material to be underftood. 

The council is aflemUed every Sunday^ and fbmetimes 
oftener, by the tolling of a bell, which begins at noon 
^nd ceafes not till one of the clock \ and eldSs the ma- 
giftratcs and officers in this manner : Firft of all the 
eleiSbrs or nominators are drawn by lot. After that 
thofe that are nominated by fuch ele£lors are balloted 
in the council, and thofe that have above half the fuf&ages 
of the gentlemen prefent are underftood to be deded. 

Now becaufe there muft be at leaft nine magiftrates 
created at every meeting of the council, therefore it is 
necefTary to make at leaft nine ele£brs : and becaufe fbme 
/cme magiftrates places may have but two competitors and 
feme four, and in fome.days ar/e created of one fort, in 
fonie of another, and in fome of both together \ when 
there are only fuch created as can have but two com- 
petitors (which ieldom happens^ then there need be 
but two fets or compani^ of clears made: but when 


M$ral^ and Pkyfiological. 135 

amy fiich aie to be created as muft have four compcliton, 
thea tbeic are km iets of eledors made, of nine in each 
fet While the bell tolls, all the gentlemen that caa 
with convcoknceare to repair to the counctl,which being . 
once af&mbkd, the doors lock'd up and the keys brought 
and laid down at the Duke's feet, none can afterwards be 
admitted to enter, except be be a counfelkn*, an Juvo^ 
gad^Tj one of the heads or chiefs %A die council of ten 
(caHod Cafi ds Duel) or a cenfen 

tl.B. (i.) For the cieatbn of magiftntes there is no 
^mrum or delernMnate number of gentlemen required to 
be prefent to make a oouncil ; tho«^ it feldom happens 
the counciUchaniber not to be full. For other bufineis as 
the eflabUihiflig new laws, determining anjr fentence, &V, 
the SijmvM is 600, without which number nothing can 
be done. (2.)Unle6 there be four of thecounfeUors prcient, 
there can be neither officers created nor any other bufineis ' 
ag^ted in the great councils 

The £Xike» the chief magiftrates and officers, and all 
the gentlemen being fet down in their places ; before the 
tribunal on which the Dlike fits, in the plain of the coun« 
cil-chamber, are placed on a row thiee urns tolled Capilli^ 
vpon ftrads fo hi^h above the floor thai no man can look 
into thesH and yet for greater fecurity they are alfa 
mveied> only the two otitermoft have two holes in their 
coven to put in the hand to draw out the balls. The 
jBiddlemoft that flands over*againft the Duke luth but 
Qtfie hole. In each of the two outermof urns are put 
about 800 baBb made of copper and giMed over with filver 
(which I iball take kave to call fdveribaUs, asthofe that- ' 
are gjMed with gold, golden balls, fo tint the whole num* 
ber in both amounts to about 1500 or 1600, for fo many 
gemkoiBfli are commonly prefent at each meeting of tbs 
great council. Befidcs in thefe urns together wkh the 
filver arc mingled fiicty golden balls, thirty in each urn, 
Itk the middtamoft urn are put fixty baVs, whereof 
thirty ftx are goMen and twenty four filver. Then 
the great chancellor (who is ahvays a citiaen and no 
geatlonan) goeth to his place appomted for that porpofe, 
nod reads what magtftraties are to be created that dav, 
which done, he returns to the trH>nnal, and calling tne 
AMVfgnihni tbc Cfi^ ^ DiVr/, the cenfoia and the 

^ K 4 ol4 

J36 Observations Topographical^ 

old and new auditors, he adminifiers to them an oath 
Co obferve the laws of the council, in which iscontain-r 
cd, that all {hall fit, that none (hall change his bench at 
. prohibited times \ that none {hall feek any m^iftracy by 
diihoneft means, or favour and abet any other in io 
doing, i^c. When they are fworn, they return to their 
places, and the three junior couniellors ariung up, the eldefl 
of them goes and fets him down over-againft the midT 
dlemoft urn, the next before that on the right hand of 
the Duke, and the youngeft over-againft that on the left. 
Then there are lots drawn what bench fliall come firft 
up to the Capslloy ("the whole council being divided into 
five benches of g^tlemen) and what end of that bench, 
and what fide of that end (for all the benches are double) 
in this manner. There are put into an urn ten filver 
balls, five of them marked with the five firft figures 
or the charaAcrs of the numbers i, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 
by each number is written fuch an end and fuch a fid^. 
The other 'five balls are marked with the fame figiures, 
but on each of them is written the contrary end and con«r 
trary fide. So that if under the figure i in the firft five 
be written, the end towards the Broil and the fide to- 
wards St Georges j under the figure i in the other five 
is written, the end towards Caftello and the fide next St, 
Mark^s. Then they draw out of the urn one of thefc 
balls, the figure and infcription whereof (hews what bench 
and what end and fide of that bench is to come firft up to 
the CapiUo, Then they look into the urn and take out 
that ball which is marked with the fame figure and the 
contrary end and fide. After the fame manner they 
draw out by lot another ball, and fi> a third, fourth, and 
fifth, calling up the benches in order, till all the elec- 
ton are made. Of the bench that is called firft, each 
one in order comes up to one of the exterior urns, and 
draws thereout a ball, which if it be filver, he puts it into 
another urn fet on the floor at the foot of that out of 
which he (hrew it, and returns to his place, having ob- 
tained nothing y but if it be a golden one, he delivers it 
ipto the hand of that counfellor who fits by that urn, and 
gpes prefently to the middle urn, and thence al/% draws 
out a ball; which if it be filver, having prefented it to the 
fpunffUor whp fits b^i^ the urn, be returns tq his pbce : 


Morale and PbyJiohgicaL 137 

but if it be gold, be delivers it likewife to the couniellor^ 
and is underftood to be one of tbe eledors of the fjrft fet ; 
and fits down on the bench on which the l&id counfeUor 
fits ('which ftandsacrofs the Duke's tribunal) with his face 
toward the Duke, that none in the hall may by any nod 
or other fign recommend themfelves to him. Then a fe- 
cretary pronounces bis name aloud, that all of his fiuni- 
ly or near to him by affinity may take notice of it. There 
be continues fitting till all the other eight of the firft iet 
of cledors be in like manner by lot created. And if 
by chance two of one fiimily are drawn in the firft fet, 
the lixond ^of them is referved for the fecond iet or com- 
pany, and be that is firft taken for the fecond fet comes 
in his room into tbe firft. And then for that day none 
of that fiunily nor any that are of near affinity to him 
can come any more to the Capello, becaufe it is provided 
by the laws, that in all the four fets of elediors which 
make up 36, there fhall be no more than two of tho 
fame family ; and that thofe two fhall not be in the fiune 
fee, fb that the nine that are of the fame fet mtift be of 
nine feveral families. To the youngeft of the nine of 
this firft fet is by one of the fecrecaries delivered a fche- 
dole fealed by the publick feal, wherein arc written in 
order all the m^ftrates that are to be that day created. 
Then all the nine take an oath, to chufe thofe whom 
thev ihall judge moft fit to ferve the common- wealthy 
and go forth the council-chamber into a private room 
appointed for them. In like manner are the other threo 
iets of defton made, who being fworn do likewife take 
their fchedules, and withdraw into their refpedive rooms« 
When all the four fets of eleAors are chofen and with-* 
drawn, then any of the gentlemen in the council-cham- 
ber may change his bench as be pleafes. [ N. B. When 
there are only fuch magiftracies to bedifpofedof ascan 
have bat two competiton, there are but two fets of ^ 
leAon made.] When the firft fet is withdrawn, they 
fit down, takif^ place according to their age. Then a 
fbcretary appointed for that purpofe reads to them the 
laws amd conftitutions which they are obliged to ob- 
ferve in the choice of magiffaates : after which he puts 
into an urn nine balls, marked with tbe nine numeral 
cfaaraaen or figures, and e^ clfAor according to hia 




:[^t OystJRVATioNS topographical^ 

age dfaws out one till they be all drawn out. He^that 
. draws the ball marked i, is underftood to have theiKK 
muoation of thecooipetitor for the firft oiagiftrate's place 
isX down in the fcheidule, and he who draws that marked 
%^ to luive the nomiDation of the fecond, and fo in or- 
der of the reft. When there are eleven magiftiatcs U) 
fce made in a dajF, be, that hath the nomination of 
the firft, . nominates alio the tenth, and he that hath 
the fecond the eleventh. \N. B. One of thefe elec* 
ters may nominate btmfelf to any office : they may al« 
io change their votes among themfdves, as for exam- 
ple, he that hath the nomination of the campetitor for 
the firft place may change witli him who hath the no. 
manaticti for the fecond or^ thiid, lie. and £> of any 
•ther.} He then, who hath by lot obtained the no* 
^ mmat ien of a competitor for the firft mag^ftrate, names 
«ne whom he pkafes, who i» balloted among the nine, 
and if he hath two thirds of the fufiragcs, he i& under- 
ftood to be dented ; if not„ he names a fecond and fo 
a third, till he comes to propound one that gets two 
thirds. His name that is fo approved is by the fecre- 
tary fet down in the fohedule wder the name of that 
pface ID which he is nominated, with the name of 
lam who propounded him» and the fet of ele£for> he was 
•f *y beeaufe; if the noflftinated be to a place wherein 
)ie is entruAed with the management of pablick monies, 
he that nominates is furety for him, and is to make good 
what he defrauds the common- wealth of. Then he that 
kMdi the fecond voice names his man, who is balloted an4 
approved in like manner, &/. The fame order of n9« 
mcnatioHi and approbation is d>ferved in the other tfaxw 
fet&ef eledoffSL Only Hk the third and fourth fets wbeit 
them are fome of tbofe places to be diipofed of whidi 
eao have bni ti|H> competitors^ it's neceiTary that fome of 
the ele^ters^ ts whofe lot the nomination to fuch places 
foy$) nominate imt at sdl \ beeaufe the competitors to fuch 
flaeefli are akea^ nominated and appcoved in the two 
frft feis« Yet is not their being clears altogether ufe- 
lefi and inficfiifki^ty beeaufe they have power to ballot 
thofe that are nominated by the other eleAors. If any 
diAculty arifep ampng the eleftoiB about any perfoit 
wminatedi. ti, g, wh^tb^ ^ WKJ be Iniltoed or the 
• . likc^ 

Mtralj and Pbyjiohgical. 139 

Ifte, one of the Auvogadors and one of the Capi de Died 
go into the room where thofe ek&ors are and deter^ 
Biine it. 

The competitors being in this manner chofen, none 
of the eledors returns any more inio the council-cham^ 
her, unlefs he be one of the counfellors, or one of the 
Capi di DieeL or of the Auvogadirs, or of the cenfors. 
The (ecretario then of the feveral companies of elt£tor$ ' 
preifent to the great chancellor the fcheduks in which 
are written the magiftrates to be eleded, and under everjr 
one the competitors for it. Now it may happen that 
one and the £ime gentleman may be chofen compe- 
titor for a magiftracy by two or three, or aft four of 
the fets of eleAors, and then, though he -hath no 
compe ti tor, he may be balloted, becauie he is underflood 
to be competitor to himfelf. But if for one place there 
be chofen in each of the fets a competitor, then they 
look firft whether he be not uncapable of fuch a phce^ 
either by reafen he hath had fomc magiftracy lately, 
and the time not yet expired that is requirea by tne 
faw before he be capable or another, or becaufe ibmeof his 
kindred is in an incompatible place, or becaufe he is indebted 
to the pubKck or the like. Now if of four competitors 
three are found uncapable, the fourth remaining without 
a competitor cannot be balloted. But if one be ele£bd 
in two fets and his two competitors uncapable of ftand- 
'ng» 7^ ^^7 ^ be balloted, for the reafon before al-* 

The great chancellor, havrng received the fcheduTes, 
leads aloud the names of all the magiftrates places with 
their competitors ; and then beginning from the firft he 
propounds the competitors for that, and firft him that 
was nominated by the firft fet, and if he were nomina* 
ted by any otlxr of the fets, he mentions that alfo. 
And when he hath read the names of all the competi* 
tors fbrone place, they all that are nominated, and all 
of their family and near affinity go our of the council- 
chamber into a private room, where they fhy tilld)ey 
have been all balloted, and the fecond place propounded 
with its competitors; and then they return again and 
ballot. Asfbon as tltey are withdrawn, the great chan* 
cdlor, with a loud voicp^ puts all in* mind, that both 

J40 Observations Topographical^ 

by the divine and human law every one is obliged to 
favoui: him whom he judg^ to be beft of all and fitted 
to ferve the common-wealth in fuch place as they (hall 
choofe him to. Then he nominates the firft competi- 
tor, and little boys, appointed for that purpofe (having 
firft delivered to every gentleman a ball) run about the 
chamber with balloting-boxes in their hands to gather 
- the fuiFrages. The balls are made of liniitn, that they 
may make no noife when they fall into the boxes. 
The boxes are made double, the one painted white, 
the other green. The white is marked with f/, i. e. 
Yea, into which they that accept put their balls ; and 
the green with No^ into which they that refufe the par* 
^ ty propounded put theirs. The boxes are made in that 
XtitMitx with a hole in the fide to thruft in the handg^ 
that no man can fee into which box you let fall the 
ball. Thefe little boys, as they go along gathering the 
balls, repeat ftill aloud the name of the perfon that is 
then balloted. When they have gather'd up the halls^ 
they carry them to the Duke's tribunal, and put the 
Tea's in a white veflel there {landing, and thciV^0*xina 
green. The affirmative or Tea*s are told over by the 
counfellors fitting on the right hand of the Duke, aivJ 
the native or No^s by them fitting on the left ; and 
if the Sr^ are lefs than half the whole number of fuf- 
fi-agesy'fuch a perfon hath loft it ; but if they be more, 
he may obtain it ; and therefore the number by which 
it exceeds the half is fet down. In the mean time the 
other competitors are named and balbted in like man- 
ner \ and at . laft he whofe affirmative fuffragcs, or SPi^ 
exceed the half by the greater number, is underftood 
to' be chofen to that place. The like method of pro- 
ceeding is obferv'4 in the choice of the fecond, thirds 
and all the reft of the magiftrates fpr that day. When 
the balloting and counting is done, the great chancellor 

inves notice who are eleded, commanding them to pre- 
ent themfelves before the cenfon, who take an cath of 
them that they l^ve not done zx^y thing contrary ta 
the laws to obtain thofe places; which done, the 
council is difmiis'd. N,B. If none of the competitors 
for any place have above half the number of fufFrages, 
tjiere ijs none as y^t underfbod to be chofen to that 


M$ral^ and Phypotogicat. 141 

place* And becaufe, by an antient law, the great coun- 
cil b to break up before fiin-fet, if it happens any of 
the competitors are not before that time come to the 
ballot, the names of fuch magiftrates and officen as are 
chofen arc read, and they that remain to be balloted 
lofe the benefit of their nomination, becauie the next coun- 
cil day all is begun anew, and there are other compe* 
titors made. It is permitted to any ftranger to be prefent at 
the meetings of the great council (as we were feveral 
times^ to fee the manner of proceeding there, and there 
is a particular bench appointed for them to At on« 

Of the P R E G J D I. 

In the coundl of the Prtgadi are debated and deter« 
min'd all the great and weighty affairs of the common- 
wealth. This council, in former times, confided of no 
more than 60. Afterwards they began to add thereto 
fomctimes 25, ibmetimes 20, infomuch that it was at 
lafl concluded, that there (hould be made an addition 
to it (Aggiunta. they call it) of as many more. The 
caufe of fuch additions was^ I fuppofe, the greatneis and 
importance of the af&irs then to be confider'd and treated 
of that, fo great a number of gentlemen being prefent 
at fuch.confultationsand debates, matters might be bet- 
ter difputed, and more thoroughly fcann'd and examined. 
In the number of the 60 Pregadi^ there can be but three 
of one and the feme family ; and if there be three in 
the Pregadt^ there can be but two in the Giunta ; if 
there be but two in the Pregadi^ there may then be three 
in the Giunta. fiefides the 120 we have mentioned, 
this council takes in alio many other councils and ma- 
giftrates, whereof fbme have fufFragcs and fome have 
not, only to add reputation to them, they are permitted 
to be prefent, to hear the debates, and underftand the 
ailairs of the common- wealth. Thofe which enter in- 
to this council with power of balloting are, the Duke \ 
the /ix counfellors ; the council of ten ; the auvogadors ; 
all tiie procurators of St. Mark^ which in Sanf(nAnus*$ 
time were 24 ; the fortv judges in criminal caufes ; that 
three counfeDon thatt fit with them, called the CQnfigli^ 


t45! Obb^kv ATI OH t Topographical^ 

m du Baffo*j the twoccnfors^ w1k>, after they have fi-- 
niih'd their magiftracy, have poinw to enter into the 
ooundl and ballot \ the three that are over the ads of 
the SopracaftaUi^ who, after they hare ended their of- 
fice, have power for a time limited to enter into the 
council and ballot \ the three Signori atte hiave^ that is« 
thofe who are to take care of bread-corn and of mills, to 
make provifion thereof for the city, if need require, {^r^ 
the four Signori al fale^ who take care of the making of 
fidt, and htm out the exciie of it ; the three CamerrmgU 
di commune^ who receive and disburfe all the publick re^ 
venue, we might Englijh them trcafurcrs ; the three 5//- 
mri alk Ragioni vecchie, who are to disburfe what is 
neceflary for the entertainment of foreign princes and 
^mbafiadors coming to the city, and what elfe h ap- 
pointed them by the common-weahh ; the three affg 
Ragi0tt nudve, who are to exaft what is due to the 
common-wealth of thofe who have fiirmed the pubKck 
cuflom and excife, and to puniih them that are Hack 
and run behind-hand ; the three Provedittri di cmtmune^ 
who take care that (hips be made of juft bigne&, and 
Hot freighted beyond their meafure, ovcrfee the high- ways 
and bridges, as alfo all the arts of the city, and the fmall 
ichools or fraternities, for the Capi de Died are fet over 
the great oties ; the three that are over the arfenal j the 
three Proveditori fopra k Camerey wfco take account of 
the general coUeAors of the revenues of all the cities 
lbbje£i to the common-wealth ; the three proveditors <J 
Dieci Officii^ who cxafl: and gather up fcch monies of the 
pubKck cuftoms or excife as are not fully and abibhitely 
fifted and examined by the cuftom-officers, the three 
Cataueri, who have alfb to do with patrt of the publick re- 
venue, as efcheats to the commonwcaFth, in cafe a man 
dies inteftate and without heirs ; xmil&s of fiich as are 
taft in a fuit : they judge aHb concerning txeafures found 
fcither at fea or fend. 

Thofe that enter into the coundl, and have no fuffra- 
ges, are the college^ or company of rhc Savi ; the pttivc- 
dltors fipra k yfcqaey who are to take care of thcLagufUj 
and (coiiring the channels, ^c. The Duct Saviij who 
fee that tithes btt duFv fct out and paid, give poflcffion, 
legifter bargain* am? litlc^, ifc. The t*ree office^ of 


! Morai^ and Pbyfitd^icaL 14 j 

bddth, who take care' that the citj be kept dean, and 
■oifais^ noiibmc or offotftve left ia the ftreets, nothing 
tkat is corrupted, or that may caufe (ick«(s and in^ 
fcdbn bought and k\A either by hnd or water ; from 
thefe, snoitntdMnks and pfayfictans take Ikenfes, aiid they 
keep account of the number of whores who aie hcenfed, 
and in time of any epidemical difeaie, they have abfolute 
power of Ufe and death. The three over the Datii^ or 
publkk caftoms and excife; the provcditois over tbo 

of Alixtmdria ; the twelve over 
that of Dam^fiu^ and the twelve over that of Lmim^ 
The Pffgmdi v«re i^ called, as (bme think, becaufe 
antieniiy they were ailembled by publick minifters, and 
by them, as it were, prtyed and intreated that they would 
eome and consult of die affiurs of the commonwealth*. 
The pngadi^ properly (b odied, are chofen by the great 
cnuMcU, as the other magiftnttes are, in the manner 
before related. They begin h foon to dioofe them, 
that all of them nay be deAed by die beginning of 
Q igtfgg, at which dfhe they enter upon their ^ce. The 
Ghmta, or bther 60, mre chofen both by the council 
of the old fregadi^ and the great coancil in this man- 
ner. Upon Mkbadmss-sby the council of the old fre-^ 
gadi is aflembled, wherein each one of thofe that havtf 
AfliagjBk nominates the peribn whom he would have 
tB be of the ^urttM. All the nominated are writeen down. 
Xhe next day the great council is convened, and the 
names 4>f all die perions nominated by the pregaM^hAvm^ 
boca fijft read, are put in»D an urn, and thence one by 
one drawn cut by one of the fecretaries, and balloted 
by the council ; and he that obtains libove half cf the 
iuffinig^ is reckoned to be one of the ghmtn. The 
other magiftratcs coffi^hended in this council, it mat^ 
(ennoeac what tinieithey be created j becaufe, when 
the f^efgkdi enter upon their adminiftratfeh, thc^e, who 
at {irdent exercife fuch offices, are numbered among v 

daem as members of the coundl ; and if their ciifices s 

dctemia* befc^re the pn^di\ their fucceijfors enter in 
their phces. Bdides, <hofe who aflift the common- 
wealth in a time of need with their eftates, lending fbch 
a film of money as the bw determines, have liberty 
franted them to be prdem in this council, and to un^ 


144 OBsfeRVATiONS Topograpbtcat^ 

derftand the management of pubtick afEiirs (yet with* 
out power of ballotting) till fuch time as their monies 
be repaid, and (bmetimes longer. For the law pre- 
itribes them fuch a time to enjoy this honour; tho* 
their money be repaid them before. By this oonftitutiony 
the commonwealth reaps a double benefit. Firft, it fei- 
dom wants money upon any exigent, many being wil- 
ling to lend, that they may enjoy thb privily. Se- 
condly» it trains up young men to the knowledge of 
fhte-afiairs, and qualifies and. enables them to manage 
publick bufinefi, when they (hall be thereto called. 

The pregadi are aflembled as often as it pleafes the 
c^IUgi^ A council is alfo granted to the mSigiftratcs 
when they would confirm any law, and to the ativo^ 
gadorsj when they have any difficult cafe to bring in 
to be determined. The time of their meeting is figni- 
fied by the tolling of a bell } it is alfo a cuftom to 
fend to give notice and invite them by publick (er*« 
jeants or minifters. They cannot enter into any con- 
ililtation about publick bufineis, unlels there be prefent 
four of the counfeUors, and 60 at leaft of fuch as have 
fufFrages. In this council are confultadons had, and re- 
folutions taken about peace and war, truces and agree*- 
jnents, and ways of providing money for the ncceffities 
and ufes of the commonwealth, novr thefe afBuis are 
treated of, will appear when we (hall come to fpeak 
of the collie. Laws are alio confirmed in this coundl, 
which are firft confidered by thole magiftrates^ who 
are over that bufineis to which fuch laws appertain. 
Such magiftrates come firft to the college, and there (hew 
either the neceffitv or the benefit and utility of fuch 
laws as they would introduce ; and if the coUege ap- 
proves of them, then they are permitted to bring them 
into the council of pregadi ; and if thqr pais therc^ 
then are they valid, and publiihed by puback batido or 
proclamation ; after which every: one is obliged to take 
notice of them and obferve them : and the magiftrate 
that introduced them, is to fee that they be put in execu*. 
tion. They ufe alfo fometimes to get their laws con« 
firmed, not only in the council of pregadi^ but alfo in 
the great council. The which thing (faith, xny Author) 

Mtiral, end PhyJIohgicaU . k^J 

ts I Tuppofe principally \ti the poWer bf liim tl^Ko brings 
in the hw to do, and id uiuany done to gain more xt- 
tnnation, Md itfd ftrength to the liw. Befides, in tile 
couricH of fr^^ttdi \s chofen a captslin of the Arfriata^ ih 
cafe, the commonwesdth hath occafion to make Svar by 
lea ; and a proveditor 6f the camp when they make 
iHrar by bmd : thofe three kinds of magiftrate^^ which 
they call, i, >. Savl grAriils^ Sain £ iWraferma,, feT ^M 
m mare: IfMcYi ele£Hons are made after this mannen 
Each one of the pregaetl nominates one whom he pleafe^^ 
All that are lb nominated are ballottcd, and he that obtains 
-more than halt the number of ftifFrages is underftooci 
to be didi!;n to that office or dignity^ But becaufe it 
ittxj often happen that he who is judged fitteft for fuch 
an office may be known to be unwilling to acc^t it, 
end no man^ ibr fear of dlfeleafing hinl^ may dare pub- 
GcJdy to nbmlliste him ; therefore to avoid that incon- 
yenience, each of the fregadi t^rites d(Jwn in a pap'^f 
die name of htm whom he #ouId chafe to fach a place ; 
l^bich Icrdlls are aH together put into an urn, ^d drawh 
out by the great chancellor one by one ; and the names 
Svrittcn therfein bring opetfly read, they are put to th'e 
ballot, and on him who hath mole than half the fuf-^ 
frages is fiicH dffice or dignity cbi^erfed. But when 
there is a captain of the Airmata 00 be maide, A'e thit 
is in this manner choffen in the 'council of pregadi 
moft be afttrwards btillorted in the great coutidly and 
have competltoTs given him by the four fcts of clcSob 
in iKiamier before related, krA he who hath mdft fuf-^ 
fragC5 abtfve the half is Kaii€r^6oi to be eleded. This 
counfeft)ts aVo, and thb celifor^, &re eleAed partly by 
the couAcft' of prigadU a^d p^ly By thl^ gi'cat cmdniiL 

tff the COLLEGE, 

*rhc college li the third nicttber of the tbmitiofi* 
iveahb, and of great xtfputation. It is' made up prin- 
cipally of th^ee fcts, or Kirfdi* of fHsTgiftritcs. Firf^ 
thofe tfity eall Savi grdnde. 2. TbdTe they call Sat)i 
a tirta firm. And 3. thoftr thdy call tiavi i} mirL 

146 Observations Topograpkicai, 

The number of the Savi grandi is fix ; of each of the 
other, five; in all fixteen. And befides thefe of the 
fi^nmay that is, the Duke, the fix counfeUors, and the 
three heads or chiefs of the forty criminal judges, called 
Capl di ^uaranta. The &avi of the fea, who are othec- 
wife called Savi a gli ordiniy take care of all maritime 
afFairs, as well fuch as concern peace and war, as other 
matters. The favi of the land manage and govern land 
affairs, fuch as appertain to peace and war, and their 
efpecial charge i^ to keep account of all foldiers that 
are in the commonwealth's pay. The Savi grandi over- 
fee and take care of both, as well at home as abroad^. 
And their particular charge is to make provifion both 
for peace and war, to write to and anfwcr Princes letters^ 
and finally to counfel and govern the whole common- 
wealth. It is to be noted, that anciently the Savi grandi 
did include the authority and adminiftration of the Javi 
of the land, whence the Savi grandi might intermeddle 
with the af&irs belonging to the land, tho' not excluding 
the favi of the land. In the fame manner the favi of 
the land included thofe of the fea, but were not included 
by them, ai]d therefore, with the favi of the fea, could 
take into their conflderation fea-afiairs. So that the Sa^ 
vi grandi included both the favi of the land and the 
fiivi of the fea ; the favi of the land only thofe of the 
fea. But in our times, and not many years fuice, the 
way of managing fuch afialrs is a little altered. For 
that by law ic is determined, that the authority and ad- 
miniftration of the y2rvi of the land (hall be equal to that 
of the grand faviy only that of the favi of the fea 
remains in the fame terms it was. In old time there 
were no other than the grand favi ; afterward the na- 
val power and command at fea being increafed, it w*as 
found neceffary to create a council for fea-afEiirs, or 
Savi di mare. The like happened afterward when the 
republick began to grow great on the land, the fenate 
being contained to create Savi di terra ftmta^ which 
was prcfently after that Trtv'fa came under their do- 
minion. Anciently, tfic Savi di mare were of greater 
reputation than thofe of the terra femuiy but after that 
the dominion of tlie commonwealth began to increafe 
upon the land, tKey bent their couniels and endeavours 


Morale arid Pbyjiologicat. 147 

t)iat way, and (b the Savi di mare loft their reputation^ 
and thow of the terra fernia gained it. Thefe thrfee 
kinds of magiftrates are chofen by the council dl pre^ 
gadi^ in the lame ihatiner as the proveditor of the camp. 
None can be made ^Sa^grande^ vnlefi he be of mature 
age^ and reputed of the gre^Wft abilities. The favi ot 
the land ane allVays mth of reputation for prudence, but 
not b great as the Savl granai : ^favs of the Tea are 
flill of lefi eftcem than they. And at prefetit this ma* 
giftracy ki^fei rather to give young-men occafion to ex- 
crdfe themfelvcs in flate-bufinafs, than for any other 
purpofe, becauie in matters of moment the Savi grandly 
and Savi di terfa fermay are always employed. Each 
of thefe companies of liiagiftrates chule one of them^ , 
iHves Prafbjitusj or provoft, whd is cUiefof that ma-^ 
giftracy for one Week ; he propounds niatters in the col« 
lege, and records thofe things which are to be executed, 
which appertain to his ihagtftracy. 't^he manner of 
ph)ceeding and tranfading publidk afiaiis in the college 
is this: every morning, two hours after fun-riiing, the 
college is coiivened. [N. S, Whenever we Ipeak of the 
college^ we underftand the three (bcieties of magiftrater^ 
before-meotioned, together with th6 Duke, the coun- 
ieUofs, and the thtee Ca^ de quaranta^ that is, with the 
J^naria^ who have thdr places not only in this college^ 
but alib in the grand council, the council of pregadi^ 
and the coundl of ten : fo that nothing is debated with-^ 
out thrir prefenCe sUid intervention.] The college being 
aflembled, ^ thofe letters are read that were received 
iince their laft meeting: siudlenc^e is given to publick 
otators and ambafladors, if any require it ; and each of 
the three focietits oi favi difpatch fuch buflnefs as ap- 
pertains to them, and was propounded and recorded by 
their pravo/l. If therefore thdre be any bufine6 to be 
dd»ted, appertaining to th^ grand y2it//, they^t;! of th« 
land aiiid of the fea may be excluded : but if it be not 
of very great imt)ortance, they do not ufe to prohibit 
them to be prefent at fuch deliberations, but their part 
is only to bear and hold their peace: or if they do 
deliver their opinions, yet are they not noted down to 
be brought Into the council of fregadiy but only the 
opinions of the grand favi^ the counfellors^ the Capi 

L % di 

14:8^ OBSERyATio^^ %opogrq^cal, 

is a cohfultatlon to be had abbut foixig, afl&irs apper-i 

tainmi "to theT^i^/ of the fea^ ^\^^"?7''^5%^ W^^?'^ ^^ 
fivVi^tht land, and thfe grand ^^'-yiVrf.'thcy. pleafe toi 
ihterpofe and itieddlc with that afeir, * After confulta- 
tfori Hjaid the/eupoo*/ not only the jl&i// of the fe^ hut 
tfic^ of "the 'land, a,nd[. the grand favt'^. th^ Puke ajfo, 
and' the counfellors^ arid Capi dt^!^aranta^'tifSff ^'^y^ 
theiropinions lY they pleafe, and accorduig as. th^y. arc 
or one or i^bre different opinions,' make oixcl *or feveral 
parties" [by parties we meaii nothing * but propofttiona 
or fentences.l For that each favio and counfellor, muclt 
liiore th^ Duke, when they dp not agree to th^ opi- 
nions of others,' may' each bring in a' party (that is^ 
pfppoun^ his fentence or judgment about a buiui.e&}. alone. 
All thefe parties arc noted by a feipretary, each, one with 
the name, of ihit faylo^ or ot;hei: perfon that wa^ the 
author of it,' And; becaufc no matter belonging to, the 
publick adminiftratjbn can b^ det^rminqi without the 
approbation and' confent of thp cogiicil of jJr^W^/ j tljcrc- 
fcfrfe that council, bping aflembled^ the atbrelaid iri^iftiatej^ 
come with tHeir parties or proppfitibns 'noted,^ a^d pr.o^. 
pound them ia Order. If the parties oe more, than one, 
(35 fujppple, fo^rj they are all proppifiided. togeth^r^ but^ 
that fs "iirft read, tlie author i^fhpreoF is th<5 *mo|;Q hp-' 
nOiirable njagiftratc, and therefpre thofe of tl>c Dijkc ani^ 
counfelldrs oiigHt to precede th^. reft, "thpfc of th^ Savi 
grandly them q{ t\\t favi of the land; and theirs tlw)lc 
of the Savl dl mare. And if any, of the tfire^. iocietics 
oi favt^ in matters appe/ taming, to tjieir charge* hav^. 
taken feveral parties, that pafty^ ought fuft to be pro- 
pounded, of* which' he is author, wIkj m that fociety 
is'moff honourable. The parties b^]g propound^, if 
any ' of the y2?W will fpeak againft^ tH^ "h^ ougjit to 
precede the reft of the />;yr^?^/V and among thcnjfifft 
tXrsit faylo who is of greatelt" authQ,rity. After that any 
of the *^r/2'jii hath liberty tb.dq.'tfic./a|nef" After! fuffi- 
cient debate upon^all the.'p^rtie?, *th^y|'ar^ alfhalloted 
together, in this' manner. ' S^ipPj?^?. th5.|jarues to *be /our. 



Mifhly and Bbffibbgkdt. 149 

th^ Ibbre sre. iburriecMa^ <t>ihe ii^^ liaving each |i 
white b(0S'iii' his Juind : ; after .them, ahother fecrdtary 
follows with: a^ grftfi. bo^» and after lum ftilt another 
with axcd.JbPX^ > 

The firft of the ^r 0)Qk ^l^^ ptrtaa to {lerfon, 
f^^ppaiing the oaitae of htm that was author 6f the party 
^iim {Kopmndod^: th^feoood, third, and-fsurth in li^e 
matooer itppdtisg;- tke itaiiks «r the . feamd,' third, ' and 
^reb» MI& i(adi .Ane of the Pregadi puts his ballot ihro 
^Iftt box he {ileafcs. . So that if he a^iproves not the ii)rft 
l^artj,- he pUtsh^rteHot hr hb boic that gathers die (aSvi- 
jges f6r. that partyv thaft pkfc&a h\m^ \ If he a)^roves 
oetie.of 1 the lbiir,[then be pats ib halfat i« the green* boK- : 
^t if tbctt^ttBTi ke not yet dea^ io him^ and he be'nibt 
AiUy iatisfied abillt^ it,^ he pink his baUot^into the red' bok 
that comes oSki aaft^iscafDedth^boxoftbe N^n/mcerij 


j» e, fitCh asneidier approiie or j^pdu^ The iuiFra^ 
heiqg.tfiiW frijheood^ i^ dich party are told 
4yer^- ftad that ^ich exceedfi'Che.ihalf by. mbfl-Aifiragqir 
b undbrftodd* fa^ be coiifirmcd.aod.iiitified ^ but if iy>nk 
come up .t6 tbb' halQ then' that: which hath the ledft 
nimlber o£ -fiAag^ being laid aiide, .the other threis 
are balldtol after -thd faiiie inanner^ *iMtb three boxesr, 
iSiA after tSwor .i gnen and a ied.<ine4 If none of the 
thrcK gst hal£ tbe nuknbec of fiiffii^es,' then that which 
iKith fe^iMl liing>again hid afide, the ieifaaining two ^ 
balloted in Uke daaonec ; and. jf neither oF thefe psiifeth 
the haify thtetbak iktisAk hath the mofl: &firages isbuDoted 
aJone :. and if tbi fdFii^a for thalt exceed: not the half'^ 
MMie pf the parties balloSad is imderfloodto be cdnfirhied': 
in which cafe neiw. pal^ties muft be brought in^' if the 
matter treated:. of be necei&ry, which niay be dofte thi 
hftkc day* iieanfe the Duke, ariy oneiof the<oounrellors; 
C0pt Ji ^mrdfita^ . or Sitvi may bring in' new parties. 
Sych a bufioefir.jnay aHb be xebriecTto^ aiibther day. 
But it feldom happens that of fi> nuny parties no on^ 
is approved. When none of them is confirmed, and 
the nutter rcquire^'J^flhfef debate, 'w^ (ball declare what 
order is taken when we come to treat of the council of 
ii^n. Bat ir is to -be noted, that the firft tinle' aB the 
parties are balloted together, it may. happen that there 
are m^e thiln half tl^ fufFrages ia* the box of the Non 

L 3 ftnccri^ 

J 50 O B s E & V A T I o w $ Thpograpbical^ 

Jincfrij i. e. fuch as fufpend, being not clear in the point ; 
and in fuch cafe none of the parties can be balloted, but 
the matter requiring new debate, ncvf parties are to be 
brought in. And becaufe it may happen that fomeone 
of tbt council of Pregadi may have upon fome matter 
under confideration a propofition to make, which may be 
for the benefit and advantage of the commonwealth, 
which came not into the minds of the 8avi or odiefs 
who have power of propounding their judgments or 
opinions in council, that fiich advantage be not loft, it 
is ordained that fuch opinbn or fentiment be communi- 
cated to one of thofe who have power to propound, and 
by him propounded to tlie council. ' But that none but 
the Savi and others before^mentioned fhouU have liberty 
to bring in parties, ^^is ordained to avoid prolixity an4 
.confufion ; it being alio unlikely that what comes not 
into the thoughts and confideration of the coll^, in 
which are the wifeft perfons of the city, ftouM be inut"- 
gined or found out by other men. But granting this 
might ibmetimes happen, yet it would be fo feldom, 
that no great account ought to be made of it ; and lb 
much the rather, becaufe in every conftitution the lefler 
convenience ought to give place to the greater. To every 
of thefe three focieties of Savi^ the fame time of fix 
months determines their office : but yet are not all the 
perfons in each chofen at the £ime time. For the grand 
Savi are chofen at. two ieveral times, three at once } and 
from the choice of the firft to the choice of the fecond 
Intercedes three months time. The Smfi of the land 
and the Savi of the fea are alfo chofen at two times^ three 
the firft time, and two the fecond, with the fame interval 
between. To the grand 5^ there is ibmetimes, great afiairs 
fequiring it, added an Jiggiuata of three more, and thefe 
we call Savi ftraordinarii. One may be chofen int6 
the council of Pngaii fiicceffively two or more years 
pne ^cer another. 

. « 

Of th<{ antiquity of th'is magiftrate, and what great 
^ower and authority he had in ancieht times, and }jow 
UK rward$ it came ta be moderated and diminifhed, I 


Maraly and PhyJiologicaL 151 

Hull fay notUng, only (hew in what manner he isele£ted, 
and what authority he hath in our times. So foon as the 
former Duke it ctead, the fix counfellors enter into the* 
palace with the thvee Capi de ^uaranta^ of whom we 
ihall fpeak hereafter. The fenior counfellor is underftood 
to be viceHlitke,.and tlierefore he performs ibme bufin^Ts 
-which belongs to the office of the Duke, as the failing 
of baUottines for them that are to undertake any new 
office, &r. The letters which the Sigmria writes to ma-* 
gifirates and commanders abroad go in the name of the 
Gcfwmat«ri^ The counfeQors once entered the palace go 
iiot thence till tlie' new Duke be created. The palace* 
g^tes are alfo kept lock'd up, and only the wickets left 
open to enter in and go out at : and befides there is a 
gpard ; more, for ancient ufage than any neceffity, for 
that there is no more alteration in the dty upon the 
drsath of the .Duke, than upon the death of any private 
g.-ntleman, that is, none at all. * It's true indeed the 
magifl39tes do not proceed in the adminiftration of their 
offioes» before there be a new Duke created ; but tliat is, 
bpcaufe it's fuppofed they are aA bufied about the eledlion. 
The body of thedecealed Duke, being adorned with the ' 
ducal veilment} is brought down, and placed in a low ^ 
reom called the Sala de Piovtgbi^ where it remains three • 
days; and there are twenty gentlemen appointed, who 
bei^ ckitbod with fcarlet accompany it when it is 
carrel down, s^nd fit round about it till night, returning 
again the next moming, and this they continue to do 
for tbre^ days* Then is the funeral celebrated with all 
rbe pomp and magnificence which the dignity of fuch a 
magUlr^te requires* The next day. aftdr the funeral the 
gnut council is co«iyeAed, and given to underftand by 
tbe ereat cliancf llpr, tliat being to give beginning to 
t^ de^on of a new Duke, they are. firft to make clK)ice 
of five GorredWrs and three inquHitors. The vice-duke 
ti)en fbinding up makes a fpeecb to the council, and 
|iaving oomoiended the life, behaviour, and government 
of the Duke deoeafedy exhorts and ftirs up every one to 

* A/V. Crajfus iaith, that it it now by law ordainedt that bcf 
fi<]e< the jiavo^fojQrs Ibme other magitlrates ihaU alfo^iit an4 ad- 
minlAcr jufticc. Anngt, ij in Gianot. 

L 4. mako 

l^Z Observations ^x^naplucuU 

ifiake choice of a perfon to fucceed him, that ma^ ba 
ufcful and honountbb to the otimnioiiwealth. Then 
doth he caufe the laws tp be read, which prefcribe the 
inanner and order of eleAing thenew. Dufce : and hft 
of- all the council proceed to eleA the faid five. xxmtSb' 
oh and three inquifitors after the feme manner tbef ufe 
ifi the choice qf other magiftrates. 

The office of the inquifiton is dil^Rtly to examine.* 
the life and aAions of the decealed Pxinoe) and if they/ 
find that he hath in any thing erred> or done ami&, they^^ 
are obliged to accufe Um ; and look what puntibment>' 
he hath delerved is infUAed on his heirs: but fuchi 
punllhments are never corponl, but oiily pecuniary mulda» 
And fuch a cauir, by reaibn it is a bufinefs of great imr 
pbrtance, is not finally determined, by the inquifiton^ 
but .agitated in the great council, and may alio be e)c- 
min'd. in the ^uarantia criffiinaU. Thew inquifitors 
fa^ve a year's time to finiOi their in^uifitioii io, 

The. office of the correAors is to fee and confider 
^1 if any new la^ to be obfervcd 1^ the fucceeding* 
Prir.ce is nieedfid to be introduced ; and, if ther*^ have' 
been ieiny error difeover'd in the adminiftration of tho 
precedent Duke that ought to. be corredtd. For tb» 
doing of which) fe ibon as they are created^ th^ are 
brought into a certain chamber, wheietbey meet i<^ 
often till they be agreed-upon what to them feem^ 
needful to be amended, or fit to be newly introduced ; 
and this commonly tabes up three or four days. Wheci 
they have finiih'd. their confiderations, they therewith 
acquaint the SigMorkt^ who caufe the gieat council to 
be convened, in- theaccuflom'd place and inanner ; whi- 
ther the faid correAors come, arid ther^ caufe all fuch 
laws and corre^ons as they judge fit to be made, to 
be publickly recited.; which Keing baik>Ced one by one- 
in the great council^ ar^ either confirmed or rgeAed. 
This done, the great counci) the day fdUowing is agvn 
called, to which meeting none can pome but- fuch as 
have 'pafled t))e thirtieth- year of their age. The 
doors being fhut at the appointed time, all that arc 
prefent in council are numter'd over, and, in an urn, 
pr Capelb of that fort which have but one hole in their 
coypr, arc put 30 golden balk, marked with a certain 
' ' ' note, 

Moral, imd Fiiyfioiogkali i^ 

note, aiid:aa many filvtr olies as tDgiccbeR wttfa.th9rgoUeti> 
are equal to. thoL Aumbei: ofitbe gondtmen pndonte Aftro 
this. the juaior# anmfeilon goesiout ifito.Sl. JUarJk obiirch^ 
ndnkh k juft by^ aiid,.havif^tiiKiide his KayoronGeito th% 
akar, takes a Uttie hcff whidihe fimbithtfe^and hni^ 
him ahm^ with.him into, the* ocmnail^. wboi i8:to dYum 
t;)s& ballots, out ofthe. urn fbn tha gpitlemeift whcnitheji^ 
oome up. to. the GapeUi^ thoyj nof Uotn^ perankted tm 
&am thenii out ttiemiHrcs, to* amidl fraud, lihis; hof? 
lacailadthe J3ff/(s/i;if^.and: is he tiha^iQ:ip|;oceffill^vgc>al 
bdbfie* the Duig^ whoi isj bopnd^. fo.fcltMi tm the boji^r 
comes to, be. ofr donvMii^nt age,. tOt mftke^ himutme cfi 
ibc' ibcratarics. The Baliatim^ being bmught ini beforos 
the Sigmria^ one couofcUfur, andiono 6ap0idi.i^w9ranta^!t. lot| go< and iet tfaemfelvos. dowR^beforet tfaB» 
Qopdk* Irhen .tbey> dotwi lots vshich bsndi^ is; to oaam 
iip£rft.. [jY. 5. Bccaufe: there/is.butc one^ C^r/i9| thai 
l|cnGbes do not come. up. by two. and two^ as in ther 
cfcationi of .magiftraies^. but; one . i^j our; and - tbarefiir^ 
theseuar&put in tcnJotrimortheurn, and dra(w»iOuira» 
\tS6^ and the bsncbss .oomer up . accordin^y.] If.OBQr 
of tfaofeim benches, on; thst fide i towards St Gior^'s beit 
diawn^ they/ are. ta.b^a. tocoomo up> at: that end' tbati 
is. tmrad. thei Bnih and if-onc^ q£ tfadfo fivfe.- tbatr axa* 
tDe«aidiSft« dnsira^ thqr. are:;to. begintto oomsi 
up At the: end tovvoid Gafiell^. T3heL* Ipts.bdng. dra^nvi^^ 
that, gcntkaaa that. fitsifitft, at that end loftboi bencht 
which. is. to bcgm, . arifesi aaid goeS' up to tY».^ GupB^e.. 
Then the BaUotive^ in his^name^ draws i out a^ball^. 
which^ if it be afilvcr;ope^ heputsJtinasiDther Ca^-i 
/cibibadtng at the. foot 4Qf\ that: out iof which he dresm 
it, and) he far waaidnunn. goesipadently outt 
of the councilHchaniber;. Bet if it ibe^gilded and:mark'd9 , 
he delivem it to thn comifeUor fitting ^r, andthegrea^i 
chancellor profioiiiNses.ak)|ul.the;name'of.faiin forwhomt 
it was dnma; whapvefently^ betweea twa&cretaciesf.i$i 
csurried intoa roomoutvof tbe oounciLiph^mber. Theai 
all thofe who ate. of his^ family,. hia. uncles, coufiaa^^ 
f|ither*(ia-]awi» and they ' that* am * of near affinity to. 
him are. called, and, botngcome. up to the tribunal, , 
numberfd by one of the fecretaries^ and fo.maoy. filveri 
hails tal(cn.Q0(Df..tfai^ C^r^tajh.a&.am .equal, to^ the. fumi 


1J4 Observations TQpogrdpbical^ 

of them, and £> they depart the cotincil*diamber. In 
the fame order all the reft of the henches' are called by 
lot, till aU the golden balls are drawn out of the Cam 
pello. And after thofe who have obtain'd them are w&h-> 
drawn into the foremention'd room, the coundi is dif< 
mifi'd ) a|id the 30 come all before the Signariay sbid fit 
down on two benches there flanding, half on the ones," 
and half on the other. Then in a certain CapeJU there 
placed are put 21 fdver balls, and 9 golden ; and tfaefe 
th'rty peribns, being called according to the order they 
were chofen in, come up one by one to the Capelby 
and the Ballotim draws out a baltot for each one, dU 
all the golden balls are drawn. Thofe then for whom 
the filver balls were drawn depart, and thofe nine who 
obiainM the golden withdraw into the foremention'd 
nx>m ; where, when they are all come together, they- 
are bv the Signoria conducted into another room, whero 
are (et ready all neceflary accommodations for them ; 
and having givpn x>atfa to make a good eledlion, they 
continue there lockM up together till they have chofen 
forty of forty different families : in which eleAion they 
thus proceed. So foon as they are (hut up, they draw 
lots among themfelves who (hall nominate firft, who 
iecond, who third, Uc. and accordingly in that ofder 
nominate. Thofe nominated are balloted among tfao 
nine, and if they have feven fuffrages they are under* 
flood to be of the forty. The dedion being finifli'd, 
they fignify fo much to the Signoria-: the which the 
(ame day, or, if it be too late, the day following, caufo 
the great oouncil to be called ; which when it isaflem* 
bled, the great chancellor with two fccretaries goes lo 
the nine for the fohedule in which the forty ekdors 
are written ; and returning therewith into the council, 
by the command of the Sigwrioy reads over the names 
of them that are chofen ; who, one by one, coming be- 
fore the tribunal, arefent out of the council intoacer* 
tain chamber ; and if any one of the forty happens not 
to be prcfent in council, one of the counfellors, and one 
Capo de ^aranta go to fearch him out, and, without 
giving him leave to fpeak to any body, bring him into 
the council-chamber, and afterwards into the room whero 
his companions are withdrawn. When the forty ar« 

Morale and PhyJiohgtcaK 15- 

dl met together, the council is difinifs'd, and then, after 
the manner of the former thirty, thefe forty come before 
the Sigmriaj and being fet upon the two behches fn the 
middle, they are likewife by lot called up to the Capello^ 
wherein are put 28 filver balls, and 12 golden. Thole 
for whom' the filver balls are drawn depart the hall| 
and thofe for whom the golden are brought by the Sig^ 
nffria either into the chamber where the former nine were, 
or into another as they pleafe ; where, having taken oath 
to make a good election, they are fock'd up, and by way 
of fufFrage choof(; 25 of 25 feveral ftmilies, in the fame 
manner as the nine chofe the 40, to which eledtion nine 
iiiffrages of the twelve are ncceflary. 

The de£tion being made, they acquaint the Signorta 
therewith ; which, if the time permits, caufes the great 
council to be aflembled the fame day ; if not, the day 
following ; and after the fame manner the great chan- 
cellor r^s the names of the 25 ; and thofe that are 
chofen^ when they hear their names read, coint up to 
the tribunal, and ^r'e fent but of th^ council irlto a room 
bythemfelvcs, as w^t^' th^ fortv : and iJ^ahy on^be not 
p^retent, he is fearched out, ana brought In likewife. 

When all the 2^ ' arc met, the council is broken up, 
and the 25 come before the Stgmria^ and fitting down 
ate called by lot, and cpme up to the CapelJo^ into which 
are put 16 filver balls,' afid nine golden. Thofe for 
whom the BaUatlne draws the filver balls depart ; thofe 
that giet the golden remain,^ and being lockM up to- 
gether, they do^ in the iatpe manner as the former 1%^ 
hf 7 fuffiages chufe'45 of 45 feveral families, wh6 af- 
terwards being called by the 'Signoria into the great cbun* 
dl, the prefeht and abfeht being ail come together, ai 
wefaxd before, the council is difmifled. And the 45 
being fot before the Signsria in form aforefaid, ^d 
called by lot, come up to the CapeUo \ into which are 
put 34 filver balls, and 11 golden. Thoib for whom 
the filver balls are drawn' go at their pleafure, thofe for 
whom the golden, remain; and having given oath to 
jnake a good ele^on, they ar^ fhut up as the former^ 
and by way of fufFrage chuie 41 of fo many feveral fa« 
milics, of whom each muft have 9 ballots, and thefe 
are the dedbrs of the Ditkc. After thefe 41 are thus 


J 56 OB&EltvATiows Topcgr/ipbica!, 

eleded, and in the great council pronounced, and alio 
all met in the room appointed, in manner aforeiaid ; 
]kft of all the mais of the Holy Gtioft is celebrated,' then 
every one of the eleAors promote by iblemn oath to lay 
aftde all humsin paflions, and to chufe, for Duig him 
whom to chufe im his confcience .he (hall judge to be 
knoll lor the intereft and honour of* tlie common-weaItii» 
^ like to do it moft credit and beft fervice -, and that 
"with the profoundeft ftlence he wiQ keep fecret whatever 
is done or hid among thenU After tkis^ they are lockM 
up together alone, without any other mincers or fe- 
cretaries, £> clofe that no perfon can be admitted tok^ 
them : and firft of all among themfelvo of the soicN 
enteft they, chufe three heads or chiefs which they call 
priors I and alTo of the vounseft among them they chufe 
two who perlbrm the office ot iecretarie?. The priors fit 
down, having before them a table, upon which are pb* 
ced two balloting boxes of that ibrt that are ufed in the 
^reat council ; in one of which are put ^ balls, mark- 
ed with a certain marl^ that no deceit may lie 4iM^» 
The reft of the 41 fit al£> dowQ, each where hp plfa^iL 
The two fecretarios make 41 fclie Jules, and' having fblde4 
them up give to each peribnoiie, they take alfo the hMlots 
and diftribttte them to alli Then ttcy- are called ooq 
by 6n6 before the three priors, and each one writes iq 
fiis fchedule the name of him whom* be w6uld have to 
be Duke, and leaves it upon the tahle. The two leci^ 
taries note the names of them that are written in : t|lf 
fchedbles, and by how many each one is. named. [The 
names in aU the fchedules leUom' pa^s 6 or 8, t)^u(^ 
there are never more who can bd judged £{ to be pio^ 
moted to fuch a digm'ty:}.. After which all the 1^0109 
fb noted are put into an urn, and thence by Ibtdrfiwn 
out. ' And he that is firft drawn, if; he he one of ch^ 
c!e<Etob is j>re(ently fent out into, the chamber of %h^ 
^Marantjoj and there {&st upi ahd liberty is then given 
to any one of tHe electors to ipeak any thing he hath to 
obje£l againft him; why He is notKt for fe great a place* 
And if any thing be I>^ anyone objeded, itis fetdowq 
by the (^cretaries : and he being. caHcd in, all that faati^ 
. been /poken againft' hiolis read t6 him, and if he will 
'^* fiaad upon liis defence lie inay mkkf his ^nfwer ; which^ 


^ppiQi^ be h^ doftp he n^rM% into the &ine otaaober 
l;|. T))^ bg^ <Hri^iF is Mfed till there be QQne left 
will aj^sA a^j t;hip£ ag^it him, 01: till be will 
i4 himielf na Ipng^r ; af^er which he i$ preTentljF 
^|ote4, ^p4 as, ftpiib ;vi that is done al} the cdc^lors gfy 
ijp bjefbre th^ Vi'^oXh. tbeelde^l of which with a littln 
$aff AumberB. oyqr tboi^ that are in the afBrmative box* 
9nd alfix thp4^h^ ^ ii^ the neg^ive ; and if the a^ 
£riutive ajoaqunt to 25, the {^fop balloted is uoder-^ 
^jood tobecJbp^n Dul^;. and thei» c^ik be no other 
fa)]l9ted. ThLv qird^r hath b^ fii^e chiai^» acidllQt*. 
igi^fbfein<jigg the firft, or aiay otj^r heve cobm tQ 15, 
fuffiages, yet hav^ the reft h^n baUiOited i and im thi^ 
hath obumed mpft fuffir^jep hgth be!S|i Q^e Duhfiit But 
if the affixma^ive. fi^^P^ages. dn not aitiouni to.259 thetw 
is taJcen by lot suioiher oM of the urn^ in wbieK tbr 
nfunes fet down each ^i%h the wniber, of its nonunar» 
tors were put, a^d the^ (an^ order, of proeeediflg ob» 
f^rved till th^ cqni^ whp g^ 2<i baUots. Itmay 
liappea that noi^e comes up tO' that number^ i^ whick 
caSc the: ek^r^ continue ttmt up^ and name aixd. hal-* 
lot the nofnijiatied. bj ofioei), till, one c<Nne9- to* get the: 
foreiaid number of fu/gag^ Th« Dakft being om this, 
tyile cieated, many <;ere|iionie$ are wont tct be pedprm- 
cd« Firii o( all the 41 by the: gre^ chanceUor fend< 
i«p£d to tbe.5fSiz<r/V7 who it jis that is croatod Quke^ who: • 
Rfft of al) go to oongr^tubtCi him>. and .give: hiimjay ; 
afjid, if it be in theday time^ omtk all the beUs toj be 
rung. Then his, kindred and friends come tQ;vifit: him^ 
2b4 at tJ^ fap^e time there is .mono)) coJmd wiith. his* 
napie upon i^. After- which the 41 ek&oxn with, the* 
&tif go intp^ St, M^k*9' churchy and having dcme re^ 
vcR^^e to. GqcIa. ali mpMiit up^a^fcafibid^ and. the zr^^ 
qoiceftof thein telli the people (who by rdbis time. have 
fvOfid the. chm^) that they have chosen a . Duiia in- the.* 
rqon) of thp^ de^af^d ; andioommendiiigrthf election,: 
Ak^ hiip^to th$ pecyAv whoJn token of confirmation 1 
ani};joy. giye him k)ud..aGclamations. The Duke then, 
iQp^.. t^^. tbn p^ople^ and eniaourages« thrna-. to hope.welb 
of htf goyeoviWit.; whMch.dooe, they go^dowi^.the 

t^Eal^ ai^ hiijig thViDukc befofe^e; altar:; wbete^ 



ijS OBSfeRvATioNS fopograpbicat, 

by the procurators of the church, an oath is tendered bint 

to obferve the laws, and a flandani put into his hand 

by the vicar of the Prhnicerius of St. Mark's. Afttt 

this, having made an offering at the altar, he comes 

to the door of the choir, where he b placed tipon a lit* 

de low moveable Icafibld {Pergoletta they caH it) ac«' 

companied by one that carries the ftandard, and by ai- 

nother of hi^ near friends or relations, who carhes a 

cup full of gold and filvef mohey ftamped i/rith his name ; 

and by the mariners of the arfenal he is drawn out (^ 

St. M€irk\ and carried liound about the Piavza^ he that 

carries the cup fcatterirtg rfionty among the people as 

he goes along. When he hath rounded the Piazza^ 

he enters in by the principal gate into the palace ; 

where being arrived at the foot of the ftairs he goe^ off 

the Pergoletta to go up. In the midft of the ftairs he 

finds the counfellors and Copt de ^uaranta who there 

wait for him. When he is got up to the top of the 

Aairs, the eldefl: counfdlor puts upon his head the du- 

^ Td putcal <^ap ; and thence he is led into the * Sala de 

him in PioVegbii and after he hath (itten a while there in a feat 

inind of appointed for that purpofe, he is conduced by them to 

hismor- his lodgings, and the palace being rfcfignM to him, 

*^*^* *^"they all go to their own homes. His habit miich dif- 

fcthc 'lace ^^J^S ^^^^ ^^^ common renders him venerable. On 

where the ^^ ^^ ^^ wears a ducal cap, called il Come^ becauie 

corps of i^ hath an jfpex or horn anfing above the top of it 

the decea- on the hinder part, and under thslt a white coif, with 

fed Dukcslittle firings, which from the ears hang down backward 

lie inflate. upon his neck. On his back a looie vefl or mantle 

without fleeves fo long that it draws upon the ground, 

of velvet, damaski firarlet, or any other rich cloth. When 

he goes abroad the bells of St. Marias are rtiilg: there 

are certain banners carried before him, and trumpets 

of an extraordinary greatnefs founded : then follows the 

cu&ion or piliow, and the feat of gold, and after that 

the Duke himfelf under an VmbrdlOy between two of 

the principal foreign ambafiadors or agents then in town^ 

and the others iMchind him. Afler him follow ahouC 

;o couple of the chief gentlemen^ all in cloth offcar-* 

let ; and he, that hath the right hand in the firft oouple^ 

carries a fword upright in his hand, 



Morale and PbjifiologicaL J59 


The Duke cannot determine^ nor fo much as execute 
any the kaft buiinefs abne without the preience of the 
counfeUon, who are in number fix, one for each Sejiuroi. 
Xhey are always chofen of the moft honourable gentle- 
men of the city, the greatneis and dignity of their office 
requiring it. Thciy are not all fix chofen at the fame 
time, but by three and three ; thofe for the three Sejiiari 
on one fide the great channel at one time^ and thofe fcr 
the Seftierl on the other fide at another. They are cho- 
fen by the great council, and are of the number of thofe ' 
magiftratcs that require four competitors : but the council 
of Pregadi for each of thef^ makes one competitor, who 
IS afterward balloted in the great council. So then 
when there is an eleAion to be made of three counfellors, 
the great council is ailembkd, and after that the four 
lets of eleAors are made, and withdrawn into their feveral ' 

nx>ms, to make their ele&ions after the order before fet 
down, one of the fecretaries gives notice to all who have 
votes in the council of Prtgadiy that they withdraw 
into the chamber adjoining to the great council-chamber, 
where the council of Pregadi ufes to meet. Where when 
they are all met, the Duke with the counfellors and Capi 
de^aranta goes in to them ; and it being by lot deter-^ 
mined for what Sejiiero a counfellor fball be firil chofen, 
tvcvy one names him whom he would have to be coun« 
fellor. All the perfbns nominated are written down, and 
afterwards balloted : and he that hath more then half the 
number of fufFrages is chofen competitor : and this man* 
ner of chufing in the council of Pregadi is called Scru^ 
iinio^ The council of Pregadi and the Duke being re- 
turned iiito the great council, and the competitors made, 
they are all balloted after the manner forementioned, 
and be that hath moft above half the number of fufFrages 
is underfiood to be chofen counfellor. It may happen 
that in the great council one only may come to be nomi* 
nated competitor, and fometimes the fame that is cho- 
fen by the pregadi^ in which cafe he ought to be bal- 
loted ; notwithflanding that by the law none can be 
. balloted without a competitor : becaufe, being nominated 


1^ OBSE*vATiONi ^opd^rapiicat^ 

in divers councils, he is undetfiood to be competitor 
ivith himfelf, a^ hstth been bbfoit lYitimat^d; and if he 
hath more than half the fuffrages, he is chofen. [N, B. 
Where there are woitrornpctitots thafl tint balloted for 
Uny pbce for which Afe pnga^i diufe a compcfcicor, It 
happens, lot the m6ft part, mat he is thdfen tvho was 
made -competitor ty the "pregttdi^ becaulc df the dignity 
and itpiftatixin of that coiihciL] The fix counfel- 
lors fit with the Duke^ land with him admin^r all 
idSain, and difpatch tfpetiklly all privatis bufine&: 
is tcft Otample, give audieiit^, read' publidt ktters, 

rnt ^hrih^es, and the li^ke \ which thihgs canndt 
done by tht buke^ if thete bfe not four icbunfellors 
prefent; and yet the (rounfellors msiy di{patch any 
the like huflii^ though the Duke be hot with theih. 
They have power* of ptopoutldiAg in thfe grfe^ council, 
*e council of pre^udl^ and council of ten ; which the 
Sm^/, ivho htvt power of ptopotinding matters m the 
CXWftCiI ttf pr^gadi^ arid the Capi di Dieclj Who have 
privilege of ptT»|)Ouridrlig ifi <he council of ten, have hot i 
lb th^ the authority of the counfetlors it greater than th^rt 
€Pf the StivU cfr Cipi a Bieci. TK B, That any oito 
coonfi^br, tho* no othef tbttm with him, ihfiay pto^^md 
in the council of ptegadt^ birt Jtot in the tbuftdl Of tfcn, 
titttefs three more concur i^Hh hifii in the fame opihioft.] 
This m^iil^acy cofftihttes f6r a whole year, bOt k cx- 
tPcHed hut eight rtioftths ; the othel- foiir months being 
fpent m the ^uantntta cfMndh^ herein three coun- 
£!flors continudiy fit; who, dufiiig that tihie, are called 
CmfigHeri de baj^^ i. e\ lowef COunfcllors. Th^ may 
fit in this court either t'he iltfl^feut mOnile, or thb lift four, 
or the two firft artd two Wit Atii flierefore it is ne* 
ceffary that there bfe al^Vil rtind <tounrdlor5, fix Wh6 
fit conltantly with the Duke, and the three nbw liifen- 
tioned : and when thefe ard to g0 fit Whh the Duke, or 
» out of theit olKte, three olf thofe Which fit with tlife 
Duke come down to fit in the' ^uirantia, or fini& 
^ir office, and there are' fliree new oftes created. More- 
over it is to be undefftood, that With the Diike aAd fix 
counfellori do ilfo fit tHr^ of lYi^^ardntid crSmlndk^ 
iie. the fiaty judges in crin^inal caufes^ whQih thdy eall 


Morale and Pby^ologicul i6t 

Capi it ^uMranta^ who hold this dignity two months : 
& that by the Signoria is underftood the Dukty the fix 
cotrnftllon, and the three Cafi it ^uaranta. Anciently 
the Duke, with his couniHlors^ was wont to be pre- 
lent at the judgments of the ^aranixa ; but Marcus 
CcmaruSy who Was made Duke in the year 1365. by 
reaibn of the multitude of bufine& which daily increafed 
in the common-wealth, left that care to thofe couit* 
lelfers we have been fpeaking of. The three Capi de 
^uaraMa fit with the Duke and couniellors, that as 
the ^uarantia participates with the Signory, having three 
counleifers joined with them ; fo the Slgnory may par«- 
take of the ^udrantta^ the three Capi ie ^uaranta fit-- 
ting with them. And (b the Sigmry comes to inteN 
meddle with the bufinefs of the ^arantia^ and the 
^mrantia with the affairs of the Signory, And now to 
acquaint the reader with all the Duke's management. 
Fim, he with the coun&Uors intervenes in, and is part 
of the odlegp, the council of prtgadiy and tht great 
counci], as we have already fignified. He is alio pre- 
fent in the council of ten, and hath power of pro^ 
pounding in all thefe councils; fb that no afiairs can 
be treated of without his prefence, tho' alone he can- 
not difpatch any bufine&. Publick letters are written 
in his name, as alib all privil^s and publick writings^ 
as th(f he were the author of them. All letters tfaac 
come from foreign princes and ambafladors, and agenta 
fait abroad by the common-wealth, are direfibd to him. 
When the Javi of the land or fea, or other magiflrates 
write letteis to their proveditors, they fubfcribe theni 
with the Duke's xiame thus, Dominicus Contarenui Dusc 
yinetutmm. And this mode is obferved in all bthet 
ferts of publick writings, as patents, privileges, obliga^ 
tk>ns, laws, &r. The councrl of ten varies this form, 
and fubicribes in two manners, for either the whole 
cxxincil writes, amf then they fublcrihe DominUus Con- 
tarenus Dux Vemtiafum^ &c. cu}h no/fro Concilh Dicem ; 
and thofe that atifwer fuperfbribe accordingly. Or 
only the heads or chiefs of the council of ten, called 
Capi M Diidj wtite ^ and then the fubfcription is, D(h> 
mniois Corttarertus Dux Venefiarunty &c. turn Capiiiktf 
Cinfiiii D$fim* And thofe that return anfwer fuper^ 

M fcriba 

i62 OfiSERVATiaNs Tcpograpbicalj 

fcribe accordingly. Every eighth day, that is, on fVea" 
fiejday weekly, the Duke is wont to go down and vifit 
the courts of juftice, making a tour round the two cor^ 
ridoresy where the magiftratts fit, ftcpping a while at 
each court, and fiirring up and encouraging the judge 
or magiftrate that prefides there^ to adminiilcr juftice 
impartially. And if there be any one that thinks he 
hath not right done him, be recommends himfelf to 
the Dukty acquainting him with his caufe ; and if the 
Duke judges that he is injured by falfe judgment, he pre- 
fcntly commands that magiftrate or judge to do him 
right ; but if the contrary appears to him, he reproves 
him that thought himfelf aggrieved, and goes on in his 
vifitation. Some Dukes have changed this order, not 
vifiting always, on the fame day, that they might come 
upon the magiftrates unexpefled. Multitude of bufineis 
fometimcs conftrains the Duke to intermit this uiage 
for a week or two. All the money of the commons- 
wealth is alto ftamped with the Duke's name, but not 
with his face or image. That he may be the better 
enabled ("faith my Author j to maintain his port, and live 
with that magnificence fuch a place requires, he hath 
an allowance from the publick of 3500 ducats per an, 
2l forry revenue for orfc who hath the (hew and title 
of Prince, being Icfs than fb many French crowns. And 
■yet he is obliged to keep a family that may be honou« 
rable and fuitable to fuch a dignity ; and moreover to 
make four feafts yearly at four feveral times, viz. upon 
upon St. Stephens day, St» MarKs day, Afcenfion day, 
and St. Vit^s day: to which feafb it is the cuftom to 
invite all the gentlemen according to their aees. To 
the firft, befides the counfellors, the Capi de ^aranta^ 
the Auvogadorsy and the Capi de Dieciy are invited thofe 
that are of greateft age and gravity : to the fecond, 
thofe that are younger ; and fb to the third and fo^rth, 
ftiU thofe that are younger and younger : befides which 
feafb, he is bound alio to fend to every gentleman that 
comes to the great council a prefent, which was formerly 
five wild ducks; but now a-days there is a fort of money 
coined for. that purpq^ ; upon one fide thereof is the 
figure of St. Mariy ijeaching Qut a ftandard to the Duke, 


Moraly and Phyjiological. ' 163 

on the other iide the name of the Dulce, and the year 
cunent of his dukcfliip, on this manner, Domnici Cm^ 
tanni Venetiarum Prmipis munus^ Anno IV. 

Tbi Council of TEN. 

The council of ten, tho' it be a member of great 
importance, yet is it rather acceflary or adjundive, than 
principal, and (eems to me much to refemble the diSfatery 
that was wont to be created by the Romans in times of 
great and imminent danger ; only difiers in that the 
common-wealth is never without this magiftracy. Th^ 
authority thereof is equal to that of the council of pre^ 
gadij and the whole city ; and therefore it may meddle 
with, and tran&£l any fiate-afiairs as it pleafes, without 
appeal, or being accountable to any fuperior power. Tho' 
this power be not ufed by it, except only in cafes of 
grcateft importance, and which cannot otherwife be 
remedied or provided for: as for example, to confider 
about making war, concluding a peace, or other nego« 
tiation fecretly, to fend a proveditor into the camp fpee* 
dily : which things, if they ibould be firft treated of 
in the college, and afterwards debated in the council of 
prigadij they could not be managed and tranfiided 
vndk that fecrecy, expedition, and other circumftances, 
as the time and conjun6faire of afiairs requires. When 
tlie college then intends to manage any buftnels fecretly, 
as fiippoie to conclude an agreement with any Prince or 
ftate, to attempt any thing on their enemies, or begia 
any new enterprise or defign, which ought to be kept 
iecret till the time of execution, then they caufe letters 
to be written to iiich agents, or other perfons as are 
to be emjdoyed in that bufinefs, with this infcription, 
Domimcus CoKtartnus Dux Venetiarumy &c. cum ConciHo 
nofiro Dearn : and they fuperfcribe their anfwen^ in like 
manner: and their letters are received by the Ca^ di 
Dieci^ who bring them to the college ; at which time 
the three Cafn di ^uarantiay and the Savi di mare^ are 
excluded : and then they treat of the bufmeis, and debate 
it as long as is needful; yet not they alone, for the 
Capi di Died call the reft of the council of tci^* fp*. 

M 2 uoci 

164 O B s E R VAT 10 K s Topogmpbicalj 

fides at fuch confultations are prefent not only the Duke^ 
the ccunfellors, and all the council of ten, but the grand 
Savi, and the favi of the land, the giunta which. Gonfifls 
of fifteen, the Auvogadors and nine of the procurators. 
* But all thefe have not power of giving fuffrages, but 
only thofe ten of the council of X, tht giunta ^ theDuke^ 
and the fix counfellors. The aggregate of all thefe, united 
with the council of X, is called the council of X with 
the giutttaj which is not convened but on weighty occa* 
iions, to debate and manage great affairs, and fuch as 
appertain to. the ftate of the whole city; which afiaiis 
might be treated of, and difpatched by the council of 
pregadiy but for the refpeAs albrefaid are undertaken 
by this council. The council of X vras eredted, ibme 
iky, after the death of Fitalc Mkhacliy to puniib fuch 
as had plotted treafon againft the common-wealth* 
Others fay it had its beginning in the time of PUir$ 
Grademgo, At firil its authority was but fmall, but by 
little and little its reputation increafed. It punifhes, b&> 
fides fuch as practice treaibn, or confpire againft the 
common-wealth, thofe that coin counterfeit monies^ 
thofe that commit fins againfl nature, as ibdomy and 
hefliality. It alfo difpofes of certain monies which are 
afllgned to it by the chamberlains and other officers : it 
hath the command of certain gallies in the arfenal, 
marked with thefe two letters, C and X, ftgnifying 
that fuch veflels are in the power of the Capi di DucL 
It alfb takes care of the artillery. When aay of thefe 
things are to be confidered of, then only thofe ten thaK 
are of the council of X, with the Duke and counfel- 
brs, areaiTembled ; and this is called abiblutely and fimply^ 
the council of X. The ten of this council are cfaofen 
in the great council, like the other magiftrates, for one 
year ; out of which are taken by lot every montii three, 
who are called the heads, or chiefs of the ten [Capi di 
Dieci] and of thefe, one preiides every week, which is 

• N. Crffjffus faith. That at prefent there are none of any 
fbrt added to the cpuncil of X, but \\iU council confids only of 
tjie Duke, the fix counfellors, and the Decenyviri ; and that 
this council doth not now meddle at all \Vith peace and war, 
abd the pabllck treafory, but only puniih enormous ofieiices» 
and^rpecially reb^ion and treafon. 


'Morale and PbyJioIogicaL 165 

iie, who in the great council-chamber takes place over- 
againff the Duke« The office of thefe is to convoke 
the council of X, and propound their opinions therein ; 
yet not fingly, but all three together, or at leaft two; 
and they are obliged to call the council every eight days^ 
and oftener if occafion require. Anciently there was 
BO determinate time for aflembling this council, but 
becade every time it was convened, the whole city was 
fiioved and troubled, as judging that it was not withn 
out £>me great reafon ; therefore to avoid and prevent 
£jch difturbance and disquiet of mens minds, there was 
a time determined for its meeting. When they are to 
pa& (entence upon any offender that is in their hands 
for the foiementioned crimes, he cannot, either by 
bimfelf or any other perfon, plead hb caufe or defend 
liimfelf, but appears before the council and is examined, 
and there are notes taken of all he faith. And when 
the Capi di Died bring in fuch a caufe into the council, 
either one of them muft undertake his defence and plead 
fix* him, or elfe he cannot be defended at all. From 
the fenttnce of this council there is no appeal, neither 
can it be reverfed or change but by themfelves or 
fucceflbis, if the matter be fuch as is capable of change. 
Thofe of this council, fo foon as they go out of their 
office, may prefendy enter upon another. For all thcie 
places, the grand Savi^ tht favi of the land, and favi of 
tbe fea, the oounfeUors, the ten of this council, the Au^ 
vogadors and cenfors give no impediment one to ano- 
ther ; but b foon as a gentlemen hath finiihed one of 
ibefe ofices, he may enter upon another. If it hap-> 
pens that any one, while he is exercifmg a leiTer ma- 
giftracy, be chofen to a greater, he may, if he pleafes, 
the le&, and uke the greater. 

The PrHwraion of St. M A R K. 

The office of procurator is of great reputation in 
this city. Though it be not of the number of thofe 
which have to d€»* with the adminiftration and government 
of the commonwealth : yet is it honourable, becaufe, as 
that of the Duioe, it continues . for iife^ and is bef^dcs 

M 3 ancient^ 

i66 Observations Topographical, 

ancient, ^nd hath maintained its reputation to the prefent 
times. There was never any gentleman of great efteem 
in the city, but he was adorned with this dignity ; fo 
that very few have been Dukes fince this magiftracy 
was ordained but they have before been frocuratvrs. 
Anciently there was but one procurator made, to take 
care of the church of St. Mark and its treafure ; but after 
the death of Sebafiian Ciani^ he having left a great 
legacy to St. Mark\ the revenues whereof were to be 
diftributed by the procurator ; one perfon not fufficing for 
k much bufinefs, it was found necelfary to create another ; 
whofe charge it (hould be to fuperintend and manage the 
legacy of Sehajlian Cianu Afterwards legacies being 
multiplied, in the year 1270, in the time of Rinuri 
Zeno^ a third was thought fit to be Created ; and they did 
fo divide the bufmefs among them, that one took care of 
the church, another of the legacies bequeathed by them 
that dwelt on this fide the great channel ; and the third of 
their legacies who dwelt on the other fide of the great 
channel. In the lame Duke's time there vt^asa fourth crea* 
ted to be coliegue with him that governed the church and 
its treafurcs.For the fame reafon two more were added when 
yofm Soranzo was Duke. Afterv^Tirds in the year 1423, 
when Francis Fofcaro was made Duke there were three 
more created a*new ; fo that then the whole number 
was nine ; three of whom took care of the church and 
its treafures ; three of the legacies of the three Seftieri 
on one fide the great channel ; and three of the legacies 
of the three Seftieri on the other fide. In the year 1509, 
when the republic k's armies were broken and routed at 
Addua by Lewis XII. King of France^ tliey were con- 
firained to creat fix for money, conferring; that honour 
' upon fuch as would lend the commonwealtii fuch a cer<« 
tain fum. Thefe procurators have power to compel heirs 
to perform the wills of the teftators. They wear ducrl 
habits, and carry iervants about with them ; and have 
the precedence of all otl^r magiflrates. In proceffions 
tike counfellors and three Gapi dt ^caranta take place 
of them. They have either an habitation afligncd them, 
or fixty ducats per annum allowed. They all enter into 
the council of pregadi^ but not all into the council of 
ten, bufefohly. nine.xlnfen by the laid council, three for 

a pre- 

Morale and Phjifiological. 167 

a procuracy. They arc not capable of any other magi- 
ftracy, except that of Savio grande and the Gtunta of 
the coandl of X. When there is a captain of the Armata^ 
or a proveditor of the camp to be choien» there is a law 
made in the pregadlj that any one that is procurator may 
obtain that dignity. They cannot go to the great council, 
but only in the ele^on of the Duke ; which licenfe is 
then granted them by an efpecial law. They were wont 
anciently upon all thoie days the greit council met, during 
all the time the council fat, to continue in the court of 
the palace, and never to depart thence till the great 
council was rifen ; that if any unexpected or fudden ac- 
cident Ihould happen they might be ready to remedy or 
affift. And this perchance was the reaibn that it was 
forbidden them to go to the great council. But in our 
time this uiance is not obferved, becauie of that quiet 
and tranquillity the commonwealth enjoys : which is fuch, 
that no man thinks there can any accident happen in the 
city which (hall require the prefence of the procurators 
more in one place than in another. There is no magi- 
ftracr or dignity in the city fo much defired by thie 
gentlemen as this of procurator : yet I think that it hath 
loft much of its ancient reputation. For whereas formerly 
it was not wont to be granted to any but ancient men» 
and of great repute ; in our times we have feen many • 
adorned therewith, who were neither of mature age, nor 
great efteem and credit. 

Of the other officers and magiftrates (whereof this 
republick hath good ftore) I (hall (ay nothing, they, be- 
k>nging rather to the adminiftration of juAice and par- 
ticular civil affairs, than the government of the common- 
wealth. Only it is worth the notice taking, that they 
have fo many offices divided among the gentlemen, to 
bufy and employ the greater number of diem, that fo, 
having ibmething to entertam their time with, they may 
ncrt be at leifure to think upon innovating in the govern- 
ment, or any way defign and pradice againfl the con^ 
ftttutton of the commonwealth, to the difturbance of 
the peace. 

The gentlemen while they are in the city wear black 

Ewns with narrow fleeves, and caps ; without which 
bit they never appear in the ftreet$, or any publick 

M 4 place. , 

i68 Observatioks fTopograpbkal^ 

{>iace. In the Piazza of St. Mari^ that fide next the 
groat council-chamber is appropriated to them to walk 
in,, where no others mingle with them. This walk, 
or rather the company of gentlemen walking together 
there, they call the broil [Brfiglio,] The principal di- 
verfion of the gentlemen, citizens, and ftrangers is to 
walk in this Piazza. 

The prefent citizens of what quality or eflate (bever 
have no ihare or intereft at all in the government of the 
commonwealth. Probable it is, that when the great 
council was fhut up (as they phrafe it) that is, deter- 
mined to fuch a number of families excluding all the reft, 
that all the citizens of any quality were therein compre-r 
hended ; becaufe before tliat time the government havii^ 
been common to all, it is not likely the prefent e(bibli(h- 
ment would have taken place without qommotion and 
difturbance, if there had been a confiderable number of 
citizens of fafhion and intereft left out. Formerly this 
honour hath been given to many citizens of eminent 
merit. Lately fmce the wars with the Turks in Camfy 
for looooo ducats any citizen might be created noble^ 
man. By which means the ftate railed — — — — raiDions 
of ducats, there having been more thfui fourfcore £unilies 
advanced to that dignity. 

They put not weapons Iifto the citizens hands, but 
chufe rather to make ufe of mercenary foldi^rs in th^ 

There is no law that prohibits any ^tizen to be chofifn 
to any place or office by the great council, nor doth there 
need it : for that they are as fure not to be chofeii as 
though there were fuch a law, the intereft of the nobility 
being as ftrong a bar to fuch a choice as a law would be. 
And yet Gianotti faitli, that fome have attained to be 
nominated apd balloted in the great council. 

The air, notwitbftanding the fituation of the city, is 
held to be very good and healthful, and (which is more) 
agreeable to people of all countries and tempers. We 
never enjoyed pur health better, nor had better ftomachs 
to our meat in any place beyond the feas than we had 

Here we firft faw the TMdicnm^ called by ibme Dia^ 
Mur in (arc^re^ from a littlf hollpw giai$-im^ made like 


Morale and PbyJiQl^ical 169 

the piAure of the devil (tho' a gla& bnhbk would ferve 
the purpofe as well, or better) which being put into 
a cylindrical glai$-tube full of water, they could make 
aicend, defcend, or r^ in any part pf the tube at 
pleafurc. The aoanner thus, they prepared an icuncula 
or glais-bubble hollow and hsiving in the heavier end 
of it a little hole of fuch a poife as juft to afcend and 
fwim in water, arid having put it into a glafi-tubo 
fiopp'd clofe or fealed at one end, and almoft full of wa* 
UT^ they clap their hand on the mouth of the tube, an4 
pie(s dowri the air upon the fyp^rfims of the water. 
The water, being thus preis'd, prefles upon the air in the 
icwutdaj or bubble ; which giving place, part of the wa- 
ter thniils into it by the little hole. The bubble, thereat 
upon becoming heavier, finks in the water. Then taking 
up the bmdy and removing the force, the air in the 
ioifieulay or bubble, by its elaftick power expands itfelf^ 
and expelling the water again, the icuncula or bubble 
^icends) and (b by proportioning the force, they can 
make it not only afcend and defcend from top to bot- 
tom, but reft at what point of heighth or depth they 
pkafe. Of this ^d other ludicrous experiments con- 
cerning the motion of thefe bubbles, I (hall not think 
much here to fi|t down what do£lor Cornelius of NapUi 
hath delivered in his Progymnafmata Phyfica^ Epift. de 
Cireumpulfwne Platmca, I was (iaith hej informed by 
IauI. Ca/aUks of an experiment invented at Florence^ viz. 
Two glais-bubbks being put into a veiTel of water vi^re 
fo alternately moved, that in coU water the one fank to 
the bottom, the other fwam on the topj but putting 
in a little hot water they changed places, that at the 
bottom afcending up to the top, and that at the top 
linking down to the bottom. Being taken with the 
novity of the thing, I applied my mind to confider 
what might be the phyfical reafon of it, and foon found 
out how it might be eiFeded, to wit, one of theie gla&< 
bubbles was^. ^rforated with a little hole on the heavier 
fide, and blown h light as to fwim in water : then 
(Qvnt of the air being fuck'd out, there was fo much 
water let in in the. room thereof, as to make the bubble 
fink in ^okl v^terj^ ^whic^ upon filling the veflel with 


170 Observations Topographical^ 

hot water would mount up to the top. For the air 
ill the bubble being rarefied or dilated by the heat of the 
water prefcntly expels the water contained in the bubble, 
and fo the bubble becoming lighter afccnds. The other 
glais-bubble is imperforate and made of that poife as to 
fwim in cold water and (ink in hot. 


He goes on. Sfd cumin ejufmodi ludicrts inventis oc^ 
cuparemur^ rumor ad aures mjiras ferfertur^ verfari in 
nuxnibus viri cvjufdam ingenioji admirabUe artificium^ nempe 
vitreum tubum aqua plenum^ in qua plures orbiculi vitrei 
furfum deorfumque ferebantur ad nutum ejus qui tuhi ofti" 
um digito obturabat. Turn eo cogitatienem intendi^ tit qua 
ratione id fieri pojfet ajfequerer : neque diu hajitaveram^ 
dim intellexi orbicubs silos effi aliquanto leviores aqua, i^ 
foramina habere^ per qua digiti frejfu aqua intruderetur ; 
aere intus contento in minus fpatium coa£fo ; ui proinde or-* 
iiculi graviores fa£fi fUndum peienni : at mox digito lax^ 
ato dum aer feje ittrum ad debitam expanjionem redigerety 
equam per foramen extrudi; atque idcirco orbiculos levt* 
cresfo^fos iterum furfom adfurgsre, 

^ibus animadverfts memoria mihi foggfjfit ea, qua a^ 
lias meditatus eram de impulfii aqua tn cavum orbis infra 
illam demerjiy cujus fopra foBa eft mentio. ^amobrem 
exijiimavi pojfe orbiculos perforatos fiirfum vel deorfum 
firrij & in medio Ubratos detineri, abfque ulla caloris 
auts foigori vi : Item fine ullo digiti manufve preffii ; ftd 
tantum impulfii ipjius aqua^ qua modd majorem modi minorem 
altrtudinem fupra di£ios orbiculos ajfequeretur^ hoc fcilicet 


Moral, and Pbyjiohgical 

• « 







7/r /Mhoff vitreum retortum ABCD a- 
out pieman immittantur orbicuU pevforati 
Bj Cj Dy qua ita aqua iubo inclufa ifmo" 
tint J Mt minimi pmderis acceffione fundum 
fetant ; turn digifo ctmipriminte vel Airitu 
4tdaSi9y t^gantur diifi orUculi ad fundum 
defcendere^ tubufque ita invertatur, ut illi 
verfm D firantur. ^ihts pojitis obferva-- 
vimus Sffos erbiculos per tububm BC D of- 
cendere & defcendere pr9 ratitne incEnaiimis 
iffius tubi. Eienim mm reHa AB heri'sum- 
ti perpendiculariter injiftity globuU ix D de- 
fcendient verjus B i at centra dm tubus iti 
apiaturutreffa AB ad borizentem incline^ 
tur, tunc iidem erbiculi ex B afcendunt vrr- 

At vero pojitis globulisy ut firgjemper twi- 
tingit, aliquo graviiatis ixceffu ftfe fuperan^ 
tibutj tunc ptterimus mtdtifirmiter ilhs mO' 
vere ; namque alter peffum ibit dum reliqui 
fierfum ferwitur\ item alius qmuis in bco 
quaji liiratus pendebit ; fi fcilicet organsun 
tantundem inclinemusy quantum ad opus r#- 
quiri txperientia didicerimus, 

Rati9 cur bac ita contingant manifefta 
eft ex iisy qua jam expefidmus de aqua^ qua 
in erUcules ei cepiofius intruditur^ quefrerit 
aliioTy ut accidit cS^ tubus AB ad bmxantis planum ere* 
Bum fuerity nam ex inclinatitm ipfius tubi aqua altituda 
decrejcit acprcinde ejus vis feu cenatus ft minor. 

StruOuram vitrei tubi ufus docebit : Id curandum eft 
petiffimumy ut ejufdem crura A By D B quodammodo- pa^ 
raUela ftnt'y altitude autem BA altitudini BD tripla vel 
quadrupla. Tubus aqualem ubique habeat amplitudinem^ 
vel in crure BAy ft alifianto amplier quam in crure 

OrbicuU e& parte qua pertufa eji prapcnderenty ut dum 
in aqua librantur foramina deorjum verganty &c. 

A nobleman of this city ioewed us a boy, who 
had a faculty of charging his belly with wind, and dtf- 
charging it again backmrd at plcafiire j which we &w 


^j2 O B s E ic VAT IONS Topographical^ 

him perform. When he charged himfclf he lay upon 
his hands and knees, and put his head on the ground al-- 
moft between his legs. 

The £une nobkman (hewed us the experiment, and 
gave us the receipt of a fulminating powder, which wiU 
do almoft as well as that chargeable one made of gold. 
Take of (alt of tartar one part, of common briraftone 
two parts, of nitre or fidt-petle three parts ; put thefts 
three all at onoe into a mortar, beat them fine and min* 
gle them well together. Take of this powder and put 
it on a plate of iron, or in a fire>pan or other vefiel» 
and hold it over a flame of fire, or a pan of charcoal : 
when the powder begins to melt, it will expkxle with 
a very fmart crack like to jbtrum fUbnmim. The lame^ 
or the like fulminating powder, hath been fince fliewn 
us by Mr. Fijher of Shield. It is not unlikely that 
there may be feveral forts of powder made, which fhall 
explode and fulminate after this faOiion. 

The fame gentleman alfo ibew'd us the whole pro- 
ceis of making VmUe^Sopiy which is v^ like and nothing 
inferior to CafiiU-Scpe. It is made of the beft oil olive^ 
and a lixivium or lee. The lixivium is thus made : they 
take of the aflics of Kaliy made ind^/'n, and in England 
known by the name of Birigtia^ two thirds, of Ktlp^ i. e« 
the afhes of the ordinary fea-wreck one third. Thefe 
. they break into fmail pieces with a mallet or hammer, 
and mingle wdl together. This done, they put them 
into a mill, fuch as we grind apples in to make cyder,^ 
and grind them to powder, and then fift them. Thia 
powder they mingle with a little flaked lime, and make 
it up into pellets, which they put into letches or troughs^ 
and pouring water upon them. make the lixivium. The 
cauldrons wherein, they bc»l tlieir fi>pe are very hurge. 
The bottom of them is a copper veflie), but ibc fidea 
are made up of fione dofe cemented together, bound a- 
boitt with iron hoops, and indofed in a cafe of wood. 
Into thefe cauldrons they put a great quantity of oil, i( 
nsay be one third part of the mea&ire, or more or lefs 
as they plcafe : then they fill them up with the ^xhiwn^ 
and,. putting fire under it, caufe . it to boil oontinuaUy i as 
the liuiwtm boils away, fttU fitting it up with new, till 
fdl the oil be confumed or boiM out jqC it« For the 


Morale and PbyfiohgicaL t7^ 

o3) uniting itfelf with the &lt of the Uxivittm^ rifes con- 
tinually up to the top in the fonn of a fcum or froth, 
inrhich by degrees grows thicker and thicker, and, by 
xeafon olF the cold of the air, condenfes into that body 
we call lope. This icum continues to rife to long as 
there b any oil remaining in the veilels ; the cremor 
or coat of ibpe growing ftill thicker. Tfaofe that are 
praAifed can tell by the finell when all the oil is boiled 
away. The Uxivium they account ftrong enough fo long 
as it will bear an egg. This lixivium they make of fea* 
water ; but they toU us tbey might as well make it of 
irefli water. To expedite the making the Uxwitms they 
take Ibme of the boiling Uxivium out of the cauMrons $ 
to which purpofe there is a pipe conies out of the caul- 
dron in the r^on of the Uxiviumy whereby they let out 
the boiling Hxtvium into a a trough % and thb, together 
with cold water, they pour upon the allies to promote 
the iepaiattoR of the fSJt. V/hen the oil is boilM away, 
they let all cod, and, taking the cremor or cnift of fi^ 
oflF the fuperiicies of the liquor, fynaA it upon a floor, 
and finooth it, ai^ fe let it dry in a bed ofmore<ihan 
a hrickV thicknefs* When it is dried they cot it long 
ways and crols ways into oblong parallebgnuiB, or tt» 
f^ie of ohbng bricks^ there beii^ nicks in the botden 
of the beds 00 purpofe to jdiroft the inftroments to cut 
it. This done, they pare thefe pieces from any impa<« 
rities that may adhere to them from the bottom of the 
bed (for the beds are a& ftrowed with liime-duft to hinder 
the fticking of the ibpe to the itgor) and run them over 
a plane, toAnooth them. Thefe large pieces they fub- 
divide into kier, and feal them with a ieal. 

TberMbfS why they mix Kelp with tho^BerigSa^^i% 
becaufe BtrigUa alone wotiU make the ibpe too foft, and 
Ar/^akme too brittle. 

To colour the fope green they take the juice of beet, 
a good quantity, and put it into the cauldron with the 
lixivium and oil. The Gennans will have k thus co- 
knir'd ; and ferhaps the nitre which is, in this juice may 
add fbnic vigour to the ibpe. 

The lire is continually kept burning, and fo the liquor 
boabgfiil the operation bcii»ih'd. 


17+ Observations Topographical^ 




n ADU A [Pataviuni] watered by the riveis Brenta 
^ and Bacchilio^ is an ancient city, fuppofed to be built 
by AntiHor after the taking of 7rof by the Gncians, That 
Antenar came into thefe parts Livy (who was native of 
this citv) witnefleth in the very beginning of his hiftory, 
in theie words. Jam primum tmmum faUs conftat^ Tnyd 
cafta in c^eteros fievitum iffi Trvjanosy duebus AEmd An^ 
tenorique^ bf vettifti jure hofpitiiy i^ qida pads reddendofiu 
Helena femper au^ores fueranty omne jus belU Acbivos ai^ 
Jlinuiffi^ Cafibus deiruU variis Antenorem cum muldtueSni 
Henetumy qui feditiom ex Pe^blagoma pulft i^ fedts & Dir- 
eeniy Rige Pykgmene ad Trojam amiffiy quarebanty vemj/i 
in intimum maris Adriatici fimmiy Eugane'tfquey qui inter 
mare Alpefpu incclebanty pulfisy Henetos Trojani^que eas 
fenuiffi terras. ^ And that he founded Padua Virgil laith 
exprefly, i£ir. i. 

Antenw petuit mediis elapfus Aebivis 
lUyricps pemtrare JinuSy atqui intima tutus 
Regna Libumcrum tff /ontem fuperare Timavi ; 
Vndeper era navem va/fd cum murmure montis 
It mare praruptumy 6 pelage premit arvafwanti. 
Hie tamm ille urbem Pataviy fedifque bcavit 
Teucrorumy & genti nemen dfdity armaque fixit. 

And Martial ufes this oompelhtion to Valerius Flaccus 
the poet, a Paduany Antinoreijpesl^ alumm laris. And 
yet fome there be who will have j^tinwn to be the city 
of Antemry and Padua to have- been built by one Pata* 
viusy a King of the Vemti. 

It was cdebratcd of old time for the chaftity of ita 
womei)} according to that of ^ar/ii?/, Udapuetta legasfis 


Moraly and Pbyjiological. 175 

Patavina licet. After the decay of the Roman empire 
it was mined and deftroycd by Attila\ reftored again by 
Narfes ; tlien (ack'd and burnt by 1;he Lombards ; and 
after various fucceiles, in the time of the Emperor Otho 
I. it obtained its liberty, and was governed as a common- 
ijvealth by its own nugiftrates ; till firft Ezzellinus the 
tyrant, and not long after him the Carrareji made 
tliemlelves brds of it ; from whom the Vemtiam extort- 
ed it in the year 1405, though they pretend that the 
Paduam voluntarily delivered themfelves up to them. 
It is inclofed with two walls : the interior (called An-^ 
tenar'% wall, though of a far later make) is about three 
jniles in circuit. The exterior of great ftrength with 
baftions and other fprtifications, and a deep trench be- 
fore it for the moft part filled with water, about 6 
miles in compafs, built by the Venetians when Leonardo 
Loredano was Duke, in the time of the league of Cam-- 
brajy when the Pope, the Emperor, the Kings of France 
and &pain>^ the Dukes of Mantua and Ferrara joined 
themfelves together ag^inil the Venetians ; as appears b/ 
this infcription over the gate of JU-Saints, 

Hanc antipiijffbnam urbem liter arum omnium Afylum^ cu* 
jus agrum fertilitatis femen natura ejfe vokity An- 
tenor condidit : Senatus autem Venetus his belli pro^ 
fugnaculis omavitj Leonardo Lauredano Duce Vene-- 
torum inviSfiffimOy cujus Principatus varias fortwrno 
vices excipiens quam gUriofe fuperavit. 

It was ftoutly defended by the Venetians againft the 
Emperor Maximilian befieging of it with an army of 
80000 men, Anno 16 10. Though it be large in com- 
pafs, yet is it neither rich nor populous ; the number 
of the inhabitants, according to the largeft reckoning, 
amountii^ to no more than 38000 fouls, which I bc«« 
lieve exceeds the juft fum by at leaft lOOOO. 

The territory of this city is a large plain or level, 
and the (oil very rich and fertile ; io that it is come to 
be a proverb, * Bononia la grajfa^ ma Padoa la pajfa^ 
tsF Venetia la guajia. Their bread is efteemed as good 
as it is cheap, according to that other proverb, Pan Pa-^ 

* i e. Bononia the fat, but Padua forpafles iti and Venice 
wattes it» 


I76 Observations Topograpbicai^ 

doam^ Vin Vicentinoy Trippe Trevifime^ Putanayenetiana^ 
Bread of Padua^ wine of Viceffza^ tripes of Trevifry 
«nd courtezans oJF Fmce are the beft in their kinds. No 
^vood is permitted to be planted for the (pace of one mile 
Irom the wall round atxMit ; that in cafe it uoidd be beii^ed 
in a time of war^ the enemy might find no (belter among 
the trees ; and this is called the wafte, and is reierved only 
for corn. There are very few meadows or paftures near 
this town, which is the reafbn that milk is dear here* 
They make bread for the poor of Afayz^ or fndum wheat 
(which they call farmtnime) and Sorgum^ whereof they 
plant good iftore hereabout. The moft confiderable build- 
ings in this eity are, r. The town-hall, 256 feet long, and 
86 feet wide, according to &cbottus\ by fome thought to 
be the largeft roDm in Europe^ but we judged it to be 
lels than WeJiminftir-HaU ; underneath it are ftiops, fo that 
you afcend many fteps to go into it ; it is called Paktzsoi 
della Ragioncy becaufe the courts of juftice are held there. 
2. The publick fchocls. 3. The church of St. Antbatiy^ 
called the ^anto. 4. The church erf St. Juftina with the 
Benedidline cldHtcr. 5. The palace of tne ^r^jur, oram- 
phitl:eatre« 6. The caftle of the muguitna of ooro 
and ammunition. 7. The bridge catted Pmt^ molinoy 
where there are about 30 waternnilb together, upon the 
river Brmta. 8. The paboe called liie court of the Ca^ 
pitaneo. 9. AnUMi^^^ tomb, as thfy would have us be- 
lieve. The particular deferipdonft of all whicb phoes may 
be feen in Scfyottus and others. Near the domowe obfecved 
a feir building called Mons pietatis^ where there is a great 
bonk or dock of money, fome (ay 40C00 crowns, for 
die ufe of poor men, who bringing a pawn, and depositing 
it here, may have money to the vsdue of it, without any 
intercft if it be a fmall fum ; if a confiderable fum, then 
they are to pay for it five per cent which ferves to defray 
the charges of clerks, and other minifiers and attendants, 
&r. and if there be any furfdufage, it is divided yearly 
among the poor, the ftock ftlU remaining intire. The 
like charitable foundations we obferved in many other ci- 
ties of hfffy^ and I could wi£h there were of them among 
OS hi Engtand, 

This dty is mofi: famous for its wtiverfity, founded 
by the Emperor Frederick II. Jnno 1 2;io. for a fuH hiftoiy 


Morale and Pbyjiohgicah ijj 

wliereof I refer the reader to Thmajims*% Gymnafium 
Patavinum. I fliall only add the Seriei LeSitMwiiy 
whereby oiay be fetn what profeilbrs there were in each 
faculty at the time of our being there^ and what books 
ihey were to read; 

In Nomine Domini noftri Jefu Cbrifii Amen. 

^^Encralc, ac novum prihcipium Inter- 
\T pretationum nobiliflimse, ac florendf^ 
' fiiniaB Academis DD; Artiftarum Patavi* 
ni Gymnafii, anni priaefentis 1663. & 1664. 
feliciter incipiet die 3 Nbvembris^ fub 
felicibus auipicils iliuftriffimonmi, & 
ExceUentiffimor. DD. Michaelis Mauroce- 
ni pro SerenifT. Repub. Veneta Praetoris, 
& Simebnis Contareni Praefefti Patavii, nec^ 
ncm IlluftniTi ac Generofiflixxu D. Joannis 
Georgii Noejleri Nob, Norifbergenus Pro^ 
Reftoris, & S/ndici digniilimi. 

tif^gruKintur l^rdfcrifii DD. ExpUcdhdt InfrafcrifUii 

Ai Thۤltgiam in Via S. Tboma: 
JL P. D. M; Michael Archangdus Rivetta Cafidenfi^ 
Leg. Tertium Lib. Mbg* Sententiarum hoxa tertia 
. niatiitina. 

. . . JJ Tlmdopam in Via Scoti: 

R. P. D. M Matthaeus Ferchius Veglienfisu 

3fU LiHuram Sacra Scripturof. 
R. Pi D. Leo Madna Monachus Caflinenfis; 
Ad MaafMicatn in Via S. Thma* 
R. P. Di Mi Jo» Dooiinicus PufierU MedioJaftenfii 
Leg: S^tiiinuD Mcta^yflcc^m honl fecunda ma^ 

178 Observations ^opogrnphtca% 

Ad Metaphyjicatn in Via Scoti. 
R. P. D. M. Antonius Coconius Nioofienfis, 

jtd Theoricam erdinariem Medicifia* 
Exc. D. Antonius Molincttys Vcnetus in primo Iocx>. 
Exc. D. Profper Todcfchius a Caftiglione Florentine ill 
fecundo loco Aphoriimos Hippocratis hora prima 

Ad PraSlicam ordinariam Medicirue. 
Exc. D. Raymundus Jo, Fort is Veronenfis in prime loco* 
. Exc. D. J o. Francifcus Bonardus Patavinus in fecundo 
loco Leg. de Febribus hora prima Pomeridiana. 

; Ad Philofophiam ordinariam^ ' - - . 

Primus locus vacat, 
R. & Ex. D. Anaftafius Galdteliis Vic. Abb. Caffin. Kb 
. Praef. Gcncr. in 2 loco Leg. 0<Ehvum Lib. Phyfico* 
rum hora fecunda Pomeridiana. 

Ad-^natomen ordinariam, 
Exc. D. Antonius MolinettusVenctus in primo loco. 
Exc. D. Peti-us de Marchettis Patavinus £q. D. Mard 
. in fecundo loco Adminiftrabant AostDmen die, ac tem« 
pore debito hora 3 matutina. j 

jid Theoricam extraordinariam Medicine. 
Exc. D. Hieranjmius San£biophia Patavinus in primo 
loco. Exc, D. Ermenegiidus Pafa« Forojdienfis ex 
Porta Bufibletto in 2 loco. Exc. D. Hercules Saxo- 
nia Patavinus in tertio loco Leg. Primam Fen Avicennae 
in pulfatione Campanse hora pr. pomerid. 

Ad PraSiicam extraordinariam Medicine* 
Exc. D. Hi^ronymus Frigimelica Patavinus Comes In 
primo loco. 

De Pidfibns^ bf. UrJnis in Xemidochio >diitm vacaiSUa. > 
Ex. D. Aiiglus MontagnAna Patav^inUs in fecundo. ldco« 
Exc. D. Hilarius Spinellus Patavinus in tertioloooljeg. 
de Morbis particularibus a cohk' infra hora iecunda 
matutina. . .' 

Ad Phihfiphiam ixtraordinariam. 
Exc. D. Pctfus Franeanus Vicentimis in priiho loco. 
R. & Exc. D. Valerianus Bonvicii|«i'Ver« Canonicu9 

Eflenfis in a loco. 
R. P. O; M; Adttanos k Sanda Juliana PaCavimn ' in 
tertio loco Leg. primum, & fecundum Libr. Fiiyfic. 
hora prima Vefpertina* 


Morale and Phyjtologicat tj^ 

Ad LiSluram Phtlofophia Moralis. 
R* P. D, Jgicph,' Meraviglia CJericus Regularis Medlo- 
lanenfls Leg. tertium & quartum Ethicor. hora prima 
Pomeridiana dieb. vac. 
Ad LtHuram Meteorum^ ^ Parvorutn Naturalium Arljf^ 
Locus vacat. 

Ad Leihtram Chirurgta orditMrtanri 
£xc. D. Dominicus de Marchettis Patavinus in primo 
Joco. Exc. D. Francifcus Bofellus Venetus in fecundo 
loco Leg, dc Tumoribus praeter naturam hora tertia 

Ad Leiluram Sfrnpitcium, 
Ejbc. D, Georgius *i Turre Patavinu3 Jnterpretabitur 
Lib. VL Diofcoridis, Ubi de Venenis, & Venenor; 
Curat, in horto incipiet docere die 2 Mail hora 22. 
Idem ad oftfnjimem Bimplicium. 

Ad Thwricam txiramr dinar lam dieius vacantihus. 
Exc. D. Alexander Borromeus Patavinus Leg. Artent 
parvam hora 2. Vefpertina diebus vacahtibu$« 
Ad LeQuram Teriii Libri Avicenna, 
£xc. D. Sebaflianus Scarabiccius Patavinus in pi'imo 
Joco. Exc. D. Jo. Pompili'js Scotus in fecundo loc(^ 
Leg. de Morbis particularib. a cagite ufque ad cor 
bora prima mat. dieb. vac. 

Ad Logicami 
Primus Locus vacat. 
£xc. D. Jacobus Cadenedus Scotus In (ccundo loco. 
£xc. D. Alhanius Albaneflus Patavinus in tertio loco Leg; 
ftciuidum Pofteriorum hora prima matutina. 

Ad Mathematicam^ 
K. P. Di Stephanus de Angelis Venetus Leg. tertium Ijjfi. 
Euclidis Elementorum* 

Ad Humanitatem Gracam Isf Latlnam, , 
K. it Exc. D. Ofbvius Ferrarius Mediolanenfi^ Leg. Vlr-- 
^imi| U Theophrafti Chara&eres* 

Landus Morughina Bidellus Ceneralls; 

U i (ri 


j8o Observations Topographical^ 

In Chrijlo Nomine Amen. 

ROtulus Excellentiilmiorum DD. Le^ 
gentium in Publico Cymnafio Pata- 
vino, ad infrafcriptas Le£tara% quas ag- 
gred. Die 3 Novembris anni inftantia 
t66^. & 1664. fub felicibus au^iciis H- 
luftnflimorum, & Excellentiflimorum DD. 
Micbaelis Mauroceni pro Sereniffimo Do- 
minio Veneto PrastoriS) 6c Simeonis Con^ 
tareni Prasfedti Patavii; necnon HIu^ 
triflimi, & Generoiifliaii D. Comitis Pauli 
Bennajfuti Vicentini, Alms Univerfitatis 
DD. Juriflaram Pro-Re£tori% & Syndic! 

Ad LiRuram yurU Canmci di mam. 

Ixc. I. V. D. D. Jacobus de Sak Canonicus Pat ft 
Abbas m primo loco. £xc. I. V; D. D. Jo. Anto- 
nius de Bonis Canon. Eftenfis in fecundo looOb 
Exc L V. D. D. Ubertinus Diioddus Patavinus in 
tertio loco Explicabunt Libnim primum Cecretalium 
incipiendo iL titulo de oonftitutionibus. 

Jd Le^haram Juris Carumci de fer0. 

Exc. I. V. D. D. Antonius PWudus Ven. Abbas, ft 
Can. Pat. in primo loco. Exc. I. V. D. D. Vinoen* 
tius Francifconus Canonicus Ptovinus in a loco* 
Rev. & Exc. D. Pladdus FraTcata Monachus Caffi* 
nenfis in tertio loco Exponent Librum quartum De- 
GittaL a tit. primo de Sponlalib. & Matnnu 
Ad Leffuram Juris Cafarei de mane. 

Exc. I. V, D. D. Jo. Michael Pieruccius Florentiniis 
in primo loco. Exc. I. V. D. D. Patilus Dottus de 
Caftro Franco in ftcundo loco Lq^ent primam S. 
Veteris partem* 



Morale and PbyJiologicaL l8l 

Ad LiShtram Juris C afar it di fero* 
}Aag. & £xc. I. V. D. D. & Co. D. Jacobus Caimus 
Utiiienfis in primo loco. £xc. I. V. D. P. Antonius 
Aloyfius Aldrighettus Pat. in paritate primi loci. 
£xc. I. V. D* D. Jo. Franciicus Savonarola Patavir 
nus in tertio loco L^nt primam S, Novi Partem. 
Ad LeSiwram Critmnalium, 
£xc. I. V. D. D, Joannes Galvanus Patavinus Exr 
ponet Rub. ff, ad L. Jul. de adult. & fubinde alios 

Ad LeSfuram PandeHarttm^ 
£xc. I. V. D. D. Achilles Bonfiglius Patavinus Profeque^ 
tur explic^tion^m libri primi fi. Vet^ris^ & incipiet i 
titulo d^ Adoptionsbus. 

Ad l^Sharam Codicis. 
£xc. If V, I^. p. Jo^nes Capivaccaeus Patavinus Incl«> 
piet a titulo de paAis^ inde ad alios titul. procedet. 
Ad Le^uram Inftitutionum. 
£xp. I. V. D. D. Jofeph. Marchius Appulus in primo 
loco. Exc. I. V. D. D. Nicolaus Gagliardus Tri-r 
dentiqiis in fecundo locQ. Sxc. I. V. D. D. Ludo? 
vicus Juflachinus Patavinus in tertio loco ^^plifalmnt 
inateriam ultimae voluntatis^ & incipient % tit* de teiU^ 
mentis ordinandis. 

Ad Li£iuram Fiudorum, 
£xc. I. V. D. D. Scipio Gonnemius Cyprius Tni£tabit 
hoc. anno de feudi origine, nomine, cauils, feu ioxr 
noLy |( con^tutione ad varios feudal, lib. tit. 
jU LiSuram Atitbenticarum. 
Xxc. L V. D. p. Toldiis B^ini Conflantini Pata^ 
vinus Explicabit authen(icum five Nove|lam 39. ds 
Heftitutionibus, ic eaq. pari( in 11. Menfe poll 
Mortem Viri, Jun£b Authentico 108. de Refti«t 
tutionibus, & 159. de Reftitutione Fidei commiil^ 
Vacat AdLiShtram di RiguUs Jwris^ 

Ad LiSturam Artis Nataria. 
JExc |. y. D. D. Aloyfius Angeli Pats^vi^us I^QS^ 
Aua tFiSatum proiequet^r, 

Stipbamu G{aAiUu$ BUell, Gener. 

N 3 The 

j82 Observations Topographical^ 

The citizens and ftrangcrs here dare not ftir abroad 
in the dark, for fear of the fcholars and others, who 
walk up and down the ftreets moft part of the night, 
armed with piftols and carbines. If any one comes 
within hearing, they cry Chi va It? i.e. who goes 
there ? and if they anfwer, they bid them turn back ; 
which, if they do not fuddenly do, they (hoot at them. 
When two parties of thefe fcholars meet, each man 
Aanding behind a pillar (for the ftreets have portico'^ 
or cloifters on each fide) they (hoot one at another, 
Thefe Martenalta noSfurtuiy as fome call them, or Che 
va Wsy are thought to have had their original from the 
accidental meeting and quarrelling of fome fcholars, who 
weiit to the fame miftrefles, or whores. A wonder it is 
^0 me, that the Femtiam will fuffer fuch mif-nile. 

Here is a publick phyfick-garden, well ftored with 
fimples, but more noted for its prefedb, men eminent 
for their skill in Botanies, viz» Ak^tus Munddla:^ Aloy^ 
Jius Anguillara^ Melchior Guilandinus^ Jacobus Antonius 
CcrtufuSj Profper Aipinusj jfoamtes VeJJ'wgius, The cpi* 
taph of which laft, being fo confiderable a peifon, t 
fliall here exhibit to the reader, as I found it on hb mo~ 
iiumcnt in the church of St Anthony, 

Joanni Veflingio Mjndano, 

Natura verrjue fcrutatori folertijjimoj pii fapienttiS 
Atque exotictxrum Jiirpiufnjludio ^gyptd peragraia^ 

Ah Veneto Senatu rei herbaria 
Et corporum SeSiimi prafeSfus^ eum Latinitatis 
Et Grade eruditienis cultum muiis artihus circ^rf^iidif ^ 
Vt illic natura ludeniis pompom aniularetur j 
Hie fpeilaculi diritatem oratione deliniret^ 
Vt quantum oculi paterentur tantum fibi placer ent aurm 

Ad extremum laboribus fraSluSj 
Pum mi/era plebi gratuitam operam commodate 
Noxio conta£lu puhtica faluti vitam impendit, 

XXX Menfis Au^.. An, Qir., cio loc XLix# 

iEt. LI, 



Mor^Jy and Pby/IologicaL 183 

111 the dormitory of the doifler of the Dominican friars 
we few the cell of Mbertus Magnus^ over, the door of 
which were if^icribed t^oic monkiih verics. - . 

■ « 

^am kgis Alberto DQmus hac fuit hojpita magno, 

Parva quidem^ baud parvo fed iamcn ampla viro. 
Parvus eratfubitt parva cum limina porta:^ 

Magmis at exiguofub lore faiius erat» 
Senftrat hoc dixitqut fuperba Ratisbona magnum 

Hofpitem in hofpitio difpare Padua colis : 
Archtfacerdotis mitram magnofque penates 

Jccipi Magne ratis, fie bona navis grit. 
Poft majora Deus referam f alalia^ Magne 

Dixity ^ahe magni magna theatra poli^ 
^diit £3* magni propylaa pctivit Olympi'^ 

Nam majore capi limine magnus habit ^ 
Deo ter maxinio numini : 
Alberto ter magno lumni, 

Padua is governed by a podejla or mayor, who !s cbi^f 
in civil matters; and a Capitaneo or governor who 
is over the miltury i both ek<^d and fent by the 

From Padua we made a by-jouroey to Albano^ ancK 
cntly Jbonaj fome five miies diflant, where we viewed 
the hot baths* The fprings arife in a rocky hillock, 
coafi&ing of sl porous ftone, and aie fo plentiful that one 
of them drives an overshot mill. The water is fo hot, 
that in one of the fources, the country^people ufually fcald 
their hogs to get ofF the hair. It contains a copious 
white felt which (hoots upon the earth where the 
water runs. This, the common people hereabout gather, 
and uie with their m^t, which yet hath not the true 
tafte of common felc^ but ibmewhat approaching to niue 
or felt-armo^iac, Befides it is to impregnated with fton^ 
/which, by xeafonof tb^ felt it contains actuated by the 
heat, it diflblves and imbibes in the flone quarries it 

Eflcth through) that it fuddenly precipitates it on tli^ 
ttoms and fides of the channels wherem it runs, which 
become thereby as it were fo many (lone troughs ; an4 
0|i the n^ll-wheel it drives, which it fo inicrulb ^vit^ 

N 4 a flone 

184 Observations Topograpbicaly 

a ftone of a dark gray colour, that every other month 
they are fain to peck it oflF. That the waters which 
petrify f do by running through ftone-quarries wafh oflT 
fmall ramntta or particles, and being in motion fupport 
them, and when they ftand or fettle in any place let 
theni fall again, is more than prpbaUe, by what we 
fee in daily experience, the hardeft ftones being worn 
and hollowed by aconftant dropping of water upon them : 
much more will water be able to do this, when impr^- 
nated with fait, and that fait afhiated bv heat. The wa- 
ters of Albano are not made ufe of to drink, but only to 
bathe in, as at Aken^ Baden^ &c. though Scbattus uith 
that they ufually drink of one of the fources. 

We travelled to Vicenza^ a city lels in circuit than 
Paiunj as being but four miks round, but more popu- 
lous, containing between thirty and forty thouiand fouls. 
ffh P It b encompaflfed with a brick-wall, but of no great 
ftrength. It ftands upon the river Bacchilie^ and is alfo 
watered by the Rero or Eritamsj befide two little brooks 
called jMicbeUo and Seriola. It is full of nobility and 
gentry, being &id to have 200 fiimilles worth 1500 crowns 
per annum each, and better. So that there is a proverb 
in Itafyy ^uanti ha f^enetia de Pants & Gcndalieri^ Tanti 
ha Vicenza de Conti ^ Cavalieri, 

Of the feveral changes of government, which thxi 
city hath undergone I fliall by nothing, but for that 
refer the reader to Schottus and Leander Alhertuf : oidy 
it b worth the notice taking, that when they were fet at 
liberty, and abfolved of their oaths of allegiance by 
'Catharine reliA of Galeavaso Vifcwite firft Duke of ACIan^ 
they did of their own accord deliver up themfelvesto the 
fiateof Femcey for which reafon tliey enjoy great privi- 
leges and immunities. The theatre or the academy 
called the Ofympici \s a pretty building and deferves to bb 
remembered. The inhabitants of this city drive a great 
trade in breeding and feeding of filk-worms, and in 
winding, twifttng, and dying of filk. The wines of 
thb territory are very rif h and guftfol, eipecially that fort 
tdllcd Deke f^ piccante. 

+ Such as arc thofe of Po9&§lt in DerBjg/Shire, W^ej-hoU iQ 
^ofkerjet/hire^ and other fubtenaneoQs grots as well in Bt^land 
n; beyoad tke fcas. 


Morale and Phyjtological. 185 

Hence we made an excuriion of about fix miles, to (ee 
the famous cave of CufloTca^ £iid by fome to be (even 
miles in length ; but more truly by Jo. Georgtus Triffi* 
mis (who himlelf meafured it, and gives an account of 
it in a letter to Leander A&ertus) no more than 650 
perches, which made about 4000 feet in length, 490 
perches or 3000 foot jn breadth, and about three miles 
in circuit We tool^ it to be nothing eUe but a cave 
left fiom the digging of fione ; as the fiime Iriffmus by 
fiifident arguments proves it to be, i. Becauiethean* 
cient buildings of Padua and Ficenza are of the fame 
kind of ftone. 2. Becaule to fupport the roof they have 
every where at diftances (bmetimes greater, (bmetimes 
lels, left huge pilafters of the quarry, of three perches 
({uare a piece ; of which pilafters in the whole cave there 
are thought to be about iboo. 3, There are fome great 
iquaie pieces of ftone cut round about, in order to takings 
them up and carrving them away. 4. There remain 
manifieft prints ana tracks of cart-wheels ; whereas no 
man living can remember that ever cart went in there. 

We obferved many bats clinging to the roof and walb 
of thb cave ; and in fome flanding waters a kind of fifli 
or rather infeft, which they called Squilla Venetiani^ i.e. 
venice-flirimps, but they are of that fort which naturalifts 
call Pulices marini or aquaticiy i. e. fea-fleas or water- 

At this village we fiiw the fo much talked of ventidud 
bekmgf ng to one Tridentus a nobleman of Ficenza^ ferving 
to oool Ac rooms of his palace in fummer time. From 
a laig^ high-roofed fubterraneous grot or cave there are 
channels cut out of the rock to the palace. When 
they would have a oool air in any of the rooms, they 
fiiut up a gate in the cave, and open a door at the 
end of the channel, which lets in the frefcoj every room 
having a hole in the wall or pavement to admit it. 
On a ftone there is this inicription, Francijcus Tri- 
denuus Ftcmthis JCtus Hierrfolymitani equiiis filius geUdi 
vinti fiatum m ' cavema Oibola vxatd fpirantem in 
4tdis fr^rias per banc crypto-partkum deduxit^ ad Umpe'^ 
randum ardtntes (ff aftivos caloresj turn cohibendo turn re^ 
lttxand§9 mv0 atfue nurahUi artificio per cubicuk fuaque 
dnandQf qua pr§ lititu Juo refrignare &- calefactn vabt i 


j86 Obsetrvations Topographical^ 

ita ut ejus Villa ingenio^ MUgenita^ impensa ac anuddtimi 
§rnattor effe^fa^ inter regla ornamenta coimumirari poffit : 
Anno MDLX. i£tatis fiue XXII. 

From Vicetna we journeyed to Virauiy a (air, laig« 
populous city, pleafandy fituate upon the river Atbefis^ 
which is here of a great breadth, over which there is one 
very fair ftone-bridge efteemed the handfomeft bridge in 
Europe^ befides three others of leis accoiuit. The city is 
feven miles in circuit, excluding the fuburbs, which are 
very large too ; and thought to contain 70000 fouls. 
It is ftrong by fituation, and extraordinary fortified with 
walls, baftions, towers, bulwarks, and deep ditches full 
of water drawn from the river Athtfts round about, and 
ftrengthened with three caftles ; that of St. Peiir^ that 
of St. Fel'iXy and _— fo that it is look'd upon as 
impregnable. Here we faw feveral cabinets of coUeAions 
of natural and artificial rarities. I. That of feignior 
Mapheus Cufanus an apothecary, wherein were ihewn us 
many ancient Mgyptian idols, taken out of the mummies^ 
divers forts of petrified (hells, petrified cheefe, cinnamon, 
fpunge and nutlhromes. A jafper ftone and an agate 
having chryftal within them. Stones having upon them 
the perfect imprefllon or fignature of the ribs and whole 
fpines of iifhes. A Catapuka of bnds found 1656, about 
Trent, Several curious entagUa*s or flones engraved with 
figures of heads, ^c. An ancient Roman gold ring. A 
good coUedion of ancient Roman coins and medals, as 
well confulary as imperial, befides modern medak. A 
ftone called Oculus manJi^ n. d, which when dry (hews 
cloudy and opake, but when put into water, grows clear- 
and tranfparent. An account of this ftone nuy be feen 
in the Ht/lory of the Reyal Society^ brought in by Dr. God^ 
dard. Among his molals we obferved a MaximimiaH 
and a DiocliTtan^ with this on the reverie infcribed^ 
Verona Ampiitheatrum, 

2. That of (eignior Mufcardo^ z gentleman of Verona^ 
a civil and obliging peribn. He aUb hath a very good 
collection of ancient Roman medals, among which he 
(hew'd us an Otho of gold, and told us that &0& of brafi 
were all counterfeit, there having never been any (bund 
of that metal. Many forts of lachrymal urns and lamps,^ 
great variety of Q^difi aQ4 fomc fruit; 40d puis of ^ants; 


Moraly and PbyJiologicaL 187 

petrified. Several exotic fruits and feeds : the ores of 
metak and minerals : gems and precious ftones in their 
matrices as they grew : Lapis ohfidianui and a kind of 
ftone called Adarce, But becaufe there is a defcription 
of thb Mufeum publiibed in Italian^ I fhall not defcend 
to more particulars, but refer the reader thither. 

3, The Mufeum of feignior Mario Sala an apothe- 
cary, containing only fomc reliques of Calceolarius^s 
Muftum^ printed many years ago. 

The Amphitheatre of Verona j called now the Arena^ 
is a very ftatri^ and capacious one, and feem*d to me 
when it was intire not to have been much inferior either 
for beauty or greatnels to that of Titm at Rome, The 
outward wall or circle is all gone fave a little piece, 
from whence we may make an eftimate of the heighth 
and beautj of the whole. The remaining fetting afidc 
this exterior circle is kept in good repair by thtFeronefe-, 
the Arena of it is thirty- four * pertiche long and twenty 
two and half broad, and compafled about by forty two 
rows of ftone benches one above another, after the 
manner of ftairs, upon which 23000 perfbns may fit 
commodioufly. As it is imperfect it feemed to us one 
of the moft pleafant and goodly fpe£hcles for a ftru£ture 
of that nature that ever was beheld. He that defircs a 
more full and particular delcription of it may confult 
Schottus^ and the antiquities of Verotm written by ToreUns 
Saraina a Veronefe^ as alfo Lipfius*s Book de Amphtthcatris^ 

As for government and fubjeftion this city under- 
went almoft the fame changes with Padua and Ficenza^ 
and did alfo voluntarily deliver itfelf up to the Vene- 
tian government. Here are very good white wines, 
efpecially that Ibrt they call Garganico. The air is clear 
and healthfiil, but muft needs be (harp in winter time, 
being lb near the high mountains : among which Baldus 
is famous for the great variety of choice fimples grow- 
ing thereon ; of which Joan, Pona^ an apothecary of 
Verona^ hath written a particular catalogue and defcrip- 
tion. Which book, and thereupon the Paduan hcrba- 
rifh making fimple voyages yearly thithftr, hath gotten 
Balius its reputation ; for 1 am very confident that 

* Tile length of a perfica or perch of this meafure is feme- 

what more tlum fix foot. 

•' ♦ • 


i88 O B s E It VAT IONS Topograpbual^ 

manv hills about the Alps produce as great'variety aiul 
as cnoice plants as that. 

Not far from Verona is the Logo di Garday anticntly 
called Lacus Benacusj which furniflies the city with 
plenty of excellent fi(h, efpecially trouts, SardinUj and 
a certain fi(h of the trout kind, called Carpme, peculiar 
to this lake. Tbofe we faw were not a foot long, of 
the &lhion of a trout. 
Feh. 9, We travclPd from Ferona to Mantua 24 miks, by the 
MUfitya* y^ pafling through fome largp vill^es, but no confix 
derable town. Six miles (hort of Mantua^ at a pbce 
called Afarmirolay we viewed an elegant palace of the 
Duke's, richly furnifh'd and adorned with pidures aiv) 
fiatues. The city of Mantua is of great antiquity, 
ftrong by fituation, as ftanding in the middle of a lau, 
and well fortified. Scbottus faith, that it is 4 miles in 
circuit, hath 8 gates, and about 5o,ooQ fquls. It f^med 
to us a great city, but not anfwerably populous ; liaving 
not yet recovered it(elf of the lofTes it fufbin'd when 
it was miferably (ack'd by the Emperor Ferdinand II's 
army in th« year 1630. A little out of the city 
fhnds a pretty houfe of the Duke's, called PaloTBZio def 
Te^ wherein there is a fquare room having the roof 
arched round in form of a Cupola^ qdled the Qiapf^ 
ball ; fo contrived, that if two ftand in the 0[q;K>fite cor^ 
ciers, one laying his ear to the wall may hear what the 
other whifpers with his face to the comer, which he 
that fbnds in the middle of the room, or in the cor- 
ner on the fame fide, fhall not. The like room we were 
told there is in the Duke of Parma*s palace at Cafira^ 
rola. Our whtfpering place in the cathedral church of 
Glocejier is of fomcwhat a different make. In a village 
near Mantua called Ande^ now P^ula^ was born the 
Prince of Latme poets P. Ftrgilius Maro. In this city 
are two fbcieties of Virtwfi ("academies they call them) 
the one flile themfelves Accefty the other Timidu 

This city hath, according to the £ite of her neigh- 
bours, undergone feveral changes of government. In 
the year 13^8. Lewh Gomuxga^ by the &vour of tb? 
people, made himfelf lord of it, from whom the prefent 
Duke is defcended. In the year 1433. J^^ Francis 
Qonzaga was created marrqucfe of Maniua^ by the Em- 

Moraly and Pbyfiokgical 189 

peror Sigifimaul IV. In the year 15 30. Frederie Gtnzaga 
WIS created Duke of Mantua by the Emperor Cbarks V. 
Th e IXike's yearly revenue is iaid to be 400,000 
aowns, according to the account we had of it in par- 
ticuhn fixnewhat leis, viz. the miUs pay 4000 crowns 
ptr MmHM i the ytws (who are about 6000 in number* 
and wear no badze of difUn£Uon) give 20/500 crowns^ 
amaan j the teft of the citizens of Mantua 70,000 
crowns. The country yields 60,000 pifbles j and Mmt- 
ftrrat I jooo, in all 386000 crowns the year. Yet 
is the prefent Princ^ through lU husbandry not propor- 
tKMung his expences to his income, become very poor t 
being indebted to the Vtnttums (as Ltti fiith) four mll- 
jioos of crowns. To advance his revenue, at the time 
rf our being there, he was put to that pitifiil fliift of de- 
bafing his com, £> that none of his money would pafs 
farther tbui his own territoiy. His name was Cardut 
Gtmaga II. finoe dead } and his fon Canbu FerMnan- 
dia fiMxeeds hm» in his eftates. There are befides of 
tins femdy four or five, fmall princes, feudatory of the 
Empiie, but fovereign lords, having Jura Regalia in 
their petty fiatK, wz. The Princes -Vrf 1. iLtUara. 

^ rf***. >. ^'^J^"^' 4. Sabwutta, in which the 
inate Ime IS fiuled. 5. Cafiiglimt. We were told that 
theft pnncekts were obliged to attend the Duke of Man- 
tua 8 court three months in the year. The Duke's coun- 

T.^ ^. °'P"*7 eotwcil, confifls only of fix of the 
chief nobiii^. ' - 

In thefc MTts aD the children of the common people 
^^ ^ of their parents eftates, at leaft riiir 
moveabks. The wife, when her husband dies, carries 

i?u ?u: ^. ''"^ ^ '• •*■ ^ <•« fi'** then her 
children (If flie laves any) divide her dower equally a- 

oong them. If fl« diechildlefi, her dower isdivided ; 

Wf goes to her hustand, and half to her next kindred. • 

If a woman hath had children by one husband, andhe 

hosband, her eflate is divided into equal parts $ one 
JTi^l^^ her fitfthurfwid-s chUdren, and tb^ other 


190 Observations Topographical^ 

Wc took boat for Ferrara^ which brought us firft in* 
to the lake, then into the channel of the river MsncluSf 
[which runs out of the Lago di Garda (called in Latin 
Lacus Benacus) at a ftrong fort of the Venetians called 
Pefctieroy and, coming to Mantua^ fpreads itfelf into a 
lake of 5 miles long.] At 16 miles end we came to 
a bridge and fluice at a place called GovernOy where we 
enter'd the river Po 9 going down ftream we pailed by 
OJiiaj 10 miles diftant from Gmnrm ; and 10 miles fur- 
ther down Maffuy both on our left hand \ and 7 miles 
below Majfa came to Stellata^ a brge village on our 
right hand, under the Pope. Here the territory of Man- 
tua ended. Eight miles beyond this place we left the 
river P^ at a village called H Ponte^ and ftruck up an 
artificial channel of 4 miles long,which brought us ftreight 
to the gates of Ferrara. 

This city is very confiderable, as well for its greatnefs 
as its ftrength. It is (aid to be about 7 miles in com- 
pafs, and, befides the advantage of its iituation in a fenny 
level, it is firongly fortified with walls and bulwarks, 
and furrounded with a broad and deep trench fiill of 
water ; fo that I look upon it, for a city of that bigneG, 
as the ftrongeft in all Italy^ It had formerly a Princt 
of its own, but is now, with all its territory, fubjeft to 
the Pope. From Ferrara we went with the Procaccis 
or courier to Bologna^ ihifting our boat at a place called 
Mal-AWergOj fome 17 miles fi*om FerrarOy where vft 
went up into a higher chaxmel, vi%. the Rhenus Bonom- 
enfii^ and, paffing through 9 locks ovMegniy we arrived 
at Boiognaj difant by water from Ferrara 45 miles. 
A great part of the country we pafled through between 
Ferrara and Bobgna is a perfect level, and fenny ground, 
much like to the ifle of Ely in Et^land. 
Sotagna. Bononia is a large city, of a round figure^ and yet 
7 or 8 miles in circuit* The houfes not tall, fair por- 
tico's on each fide the ftreets^ convenient to walk in^ 
as well in fummer' to defend one from the fcordiing 
beams of the fun, as in winter to fhelter from the rain. 
Many gentlemen's houfes (palaces they call them) which 
make no great fhew outwardly in the Ihcet, but within 
are very handfome and very convenient^ having morrf 
in the recef$ than they jpromlfe in tht/rmi The nUm^ 

Moraty and PhyJiotogicaL jgt 

Wr of inhabitants is about 80,000 fouls. The Bobgna 
£iu£igc9, wafh^^ballS) and little dogs are much efteemed 
and talked of in all Itafyj and elfewhere. Here is alio 
a great fdk trade driven, and the beft engines for wind- 
ing and twiftiflg of it tjiat we have any where feen* 
The univerfity of Bdogna is one of the moft ancient and 
funous in Europe^ e^edally for the ftudy of the law« 
There is fuch a multitude o'f profeifors in all faculties, 
that I am afiaid few readers will have the patience to 
run over the lift of them, which, for the fatsGiAion of 
the curious^ I here exhibit* 

The Series LeSiionum of the 
Univerfity of the Jurifts. 

Clajei Matutitue. 


Prima ^b^ra in pulTu Campanie* ^ 

i& LeSfuram Deeret. extr^ord* 
IQuftriiEfflus D. ReAor. Vacat. 

^ , • ■ » 

Ai Le£luram Decret. wrdin. Legant de Conftttut. ujqui 

ad Tit. de off. DiUgaU 

D« Frandfcus Mathefilanus. 

Rus. D. Pro(|in: PbtlJiius Metrop. Bras^f^ 

D. Jo. Baptifta Dulfus. 

D. Jo. Bapt. PanzaoGhiu9 Abbas« 

D. PetruiJe Sandris. 

D* Raphael Bestuperus S. PetronH CanoAiovs^ 

D. Omftandus Scafellius. 

D. Alexander de Dumnis. ...4 • 

D. Juh'os Argolus Metropol. Canonicus. 

D4 Abbas CkiM Maria Guidoaus Metrop. 



19* Ofe^RvATioNs Topc^rapbicat, ^ 

Sicundd Har&i 

Ad Liauram of* Veteris 9rdin. Ug. iiu ffi Di tffi 
gjus cut mandata eft juriJUiaio • 

X). Francifcus Barbadorius emeritus. 

D. Alfbnfus Arnoldus S. Petronii Cauion. 

B. Matthaeus Griffi>niu8 S. Petronii Canom 

J). Nicolaus Alle. 

D. Jac. dc Gottis. 

D. Hippolytus Farnaiarius Abbod* 

D. Odoardus Guidonus. 

D. Antonius Fnuicavatia« 

Tertia Hord. 

Ad Lg^uram Smtmm R^andind. 
i), Carolus Dulphus. 

Ad Liauram Sexti & CUmeniinarumk 

D. Co. Francifcus Urfius. 

D. Carolus Gaggius. 

D. Auguftinus de Balthafl3uis« 

D. Leonardus Bacchionus CaccaneMS* 

D. Chriftoph, Gulinellus. 

D. Francifcus Guidonus* 

Ad Leauram de Makficilsy Legant iffiicam dSr R^t$ 


p. Gafper Elepfaaiitudus* 

D. Jofeph Coltdlinus, 

D. retrus Pqinp^ Vincentius Mantachetu8| 

^yarta Hard. 

4d Le&kram de VerK figfofick^ 

D. Ch^Ifloph. Lucatellus. 

D. To. Antonius FanteUus. 

D. Hieronymut dc S. Pctro Mctrpp4 OuMdt ab£ aitt 

Morale and PhjifioIogicaL 193 

JJ LeSfuratn npetiu part. Legant primo omnes PopuR 
ff. di juji. li jure^ deinde legant di minoribus 25 anms\ 

D. Jo. Bapdfia de Aftk 

D. Calabrebiiis Piftorinus. 

D. Hippol. Franc. Vinea abf. cum. ref; 

D. Dominicus Medices. 

D. Hippol. Maria de Cbnveiitisi 

D. Laurentius Simonius. 

Ad Pra£ficam "Judiciam^ 

D. Riulus Zanius. 
D. Johannes Qdviis. 

Ad Le£lwram PandiStar. 
I). Alexander Sanutus Pellicanus. 


Clafles Pomeridianas. 

PrimA Hard in fulfu Compatue. 

At Leffkram Inftit. Ligant tit. de ufufiruiiu^ diindS 
tranfeant ad tit, de ufucapionibus. 

D. Joannes Mazzantus. 

D. Clemens Leonius abf. cum refenr; 

p. Fnuiciicus Maria Burdoccbiusv 

D. Hoiatius Battalia. 

D. Anton. Franc. Sirerius. 

D. Jacobus Maria Ugolottiis. 

D. Gafper Vincens Berna. 

D. Camillus Bemardinus Albanus; 

D. Joan. Antonius Ruinus. 

D. Laurentius Placentusi 

D. Profper Cattalanus. 

D. Onuphrius Rab^ens Cd. major. S. Qtoi. HH^^ 

Sicwidd Hor^i 

dd Leifteram ff. legani tit. 4i twn operis nuncidt. 
deinek tit. di acqtdrindi P^iffl i 

O Excels 

194 OssERVAtiONS Topographical^ 

Excellentiffimus D. Cornelius Canalius emeritus. 

D. Francifcus Munarius acute ffl Metrop. Canon* 

S. P. 
D. Joan. Baptifb Farnafarius. 
D. Carolus Antonius de Blafiis, 
D. Jofeph Franchinus. 

TertU HorJ4 

Ad LeSluram Decret. Legant in caujis incipUndit i 


D. Hippolytus Nanius Elephantuccius. 
D. Co. Annibal de Blanchis Metrop* Canonicus. 
D. Feltcianus MoUinus. CoU. vaa^ 

S. Clem. Hifp. 

Ad Le£iuram C. lib. X. 

D. Carolui de Landis. 

D. Paulus Forada, ColI« inaj. S. Clem, Hilp. 

Ad Le^uram Decretal Legant de Regidaritus (^ 
tranfeuntibus ad Religiiuem. 

D. Alexander Barberius. 

D. Co. Hieronymus Boichettiis. 

Ad Le^furam de reguSs Juriu 

D. Petrus de Mafib, 

D. Francifcus Maria Qicciis« 

^uart^ Hor^^ 

Ad LeHuram de feuHs. 

D. Jo. Bapdfta Giovagonius abf. cum referv* 
D. Julius Carcellerius, 

Ad Le^uram Infiitut. Lgant tit. de tep^Ou^ ddndi 
traryeant ad tit* di ufucapionU. 

D. Co. Ludovicus Mariilius abf. cum idferv*^ 
D. Jo. Baptifta Sannutus P ffU tavmii 
D. Jacobus DanioliB* 

Moral, and Phjifiologicat. ig$ 

i). Albertus de Plants. 

P. Abbas Pctrus Hercules Abergettus abf. cum rererv. 

D. Rochus Fnuic. Bonfiolus; 

D. Gafpar Linder. ^ 

D. Fabius Bordacchiuf. 

D. Hercules Maria Matthiolus. 

Le£hira Utuverfitatis^ 

Ad Le^uram Decniarum. 
D,~ .- i. .* 

Ad LeShiram Sexti ii Cimifainarm. 

Ad LiSluram Decret. extraord. 
D.~ - - -. ^ ^ 

Ad Le&uram Decret. Jive Infirtiaii ordlnah 

D. , 

Ad LtSluram fo&immt, 
D, ^ 

M LeHurant ^ nnii feu C. txtranrdttur, 
D.- *i 

The Series LeSiionum of the Uni- 
verfity of the Artifts. 

ClaJ/is Matuiina. 

Prima Hbra in putfu Campana. 

Ad Leiiurdnt Medicirut extraordinariant. 
muftriffimus Dominus Re6k)r. vacat. 

Ad LeHuram CUtrurgia. kgant de Ukeribus% 
D. Jo. Auguft. Cuccus emeritus, Q^ S. A. 
D. Albeitus de Fabris. 
D. Alexander Guicciardinus; 

Ad Anatmen, 
__ ' • • • 

JD. Jo. Auguft. Cuccus emeritus, Q. S. A. 

D. iUbertut dt Fabdsi , 

O % D. U* 

196 Observations Topograpbicat^ 

to. Jo. Baptifta Capponius 
D. Carolus Galeratus. 
D. Joan, de Laurentiis. 

Ad LeSiuram SlmpUcium MedictHaSwri* 
D. Hyacinthus Ambrofius. 

jfd Le£iuram humanarum Uterarum. 
D. Cofmus Gualdandus. 

Ad Leduram Ltgiafj Legant ficundum Ubrum 

D. Dominicl]SJ^4aria Buigus. 
D. Dominicus Clericus. 
D. Aloylius Magnus* 

Secundd Hardi 

Ad Tbeorlcam Midicina ordinariam^ Legtmt Aphrijms 

t), Petnis Jacobus Florcnus. 
D. Carolus Galleratus. 
D. Joan* de Laurentiis. 
D. Joan. Antonius Caftarius* 

Ad LeSluram Li^ka^ Legant fecundum Ub» Poftm§rum. 
D. Secinius Orettus« 
D. Carolus Ant. Siverius« 
D. Andreas Banderia, 
D. Marius Marianus. 

tirtU Hor^. 

Ad PraHicam Medicina extraord. Legant 4 partem 

primi Awcennee. 
D. Jacobus Accurtius. 
D. Jo. Baptifta Linganis. 
D. Jo. Car. Matthdillanus. 
D. Viooentius Fianchinus. 
D. Florianus Bcrtellus. 
D. Barthol. Raymundus« 

Ad Philofi^am ordinariamt Ltgtnt Parva natun^Hi 
D. Fulvius Magnanua, 


Morale and PbyJiologicaL J97 

Ad Li^furam Metaphffica^ Legant primum Ubrwn, 
P. Mr. Laurentius de F^ris, Francifcus. 

Ad Le^twram humanarum literarum, 
D. Laurentius Grimaldus abf. cum relerv. 

^rt4 Horn. 
Ad Pbilofophiam moralenty Legant de Amicitla^ 

D. Ovidius Montalbanus. 

D. Jacobus ServanuS) S. Fetronii Canonicus. 

Ad Leifuram Legica^ Legant fecundum Hi, 

D. Rajrmiindus Abellus. 
D. Bartbolomaeus Ferrariu3« 

Ad LeSlwram Humanarum Utsr, 
D. Michael B, 

Ad Mechanicas, 
D. Petnis Mengolus. 

Ad Particulas Gracas f)on^ 


Ad Aritbmeticam Domi. 
D. Simon Mengolus. 

Ad Gramniqticam Dwni^ 
D. Nicolaus Banderia. 
P. Bonaventura Rubens. 

ClafTes Fomeridianse. 

PrimJi Hot a in pulfu Campana, 

Ad Thioricam Aiedidna extraord. Legant primam 

partem Atncemut* 
Df J09 Carol. Lancius Paltronus. 

O 3 D. An. 

igS Observations topographical^ 

D. Angelus Antonius Livizanus. 

D. Ludovicus Lodius. 

D. Berlingerius de Solitis Syraculanus. 

Ad LeSfuram Sacra ScripUtrtc Legant ad BifU" 

P. M. Ericus Marchettus Servita. 

Secundu Hor^^ 

Ad PraSticam Medicina ordin. LeganH de Fekribus^ 
p. Jo. Baptifta Capponius. 
i). Robertus Muratorius. 
D. Marcellus Malpighius abf. ctun referv,, 
D. Carolus FracafTatus. 
D. Raymundus M. Piftorinus. 

Ad Phibfophiam extraord. Legant di Amma*^ 
D. Cxfar 2^ppius. 

P. M. Vitalis Ferra-rubeus Mon.Caifinus. 
D. Petrus Maria Cianus. 
P. M. Marc. Ant. Fabianus de Caritate^ 

Tertid HorJt. 

Ad LeSiuram Mitaphyjic^y Legant duodecimum libmm. 
P. Abb. Fabianus de Landis. Can. abf. Lat. cum reieiT« 
D. Flavius Zinus« 

Ad. Philofiphtam ordin. Legant de Cgek tf mwub* 
p. Francifcus Natalis. 
D. Alexander Magnus. ^ 
D. Francifcus Ghcrardus. 
D. Carolus Saxius. 


Ad Prailicam Medictna extraord. Legant di tenepJa^itm 
P. Pompcius Bolognettus emeritus. 
D. Carolus Riarius. 
D. Francifetis Sacentus« 

Morale and Pbyjiologtcal 1 99 

AiLeShtram S. Theologia Scholaftica Leg, primum 

lib, Sentent, 
P. M. Ant. Mar, Gherardus Frapcifc. 
D. Gregoriu$ Fallonus Hibernus. 
P, M. Sac, Philip. PoUinus Domlnicanus. 

Ai LiSfuratn Cafuum Cmfcientia* 
P. Car. Anton. Jeachimus. 

Ad MatheTttaticam^ Legant AJlrmemiam Ptolem/si^ 
P. M. Joannes Riccius C^rmelica. 
D. Jo. Dominicus CaiSnus Januenf. 

Ad Artem Scritendi. 
p. Frandfcus Guidicellus. 
D. Jo. Andreas dc Abantis, 

D.— . 
D. — 
D.— . 

l,e£iura Univerjtiath, 
Ad Li6furam Midicin^s, 
Ad LeSfuram Phih/opht^e^ 
Ad Le^uram AJironomia^ 
Ad Le£furam Rbetorica. 

At Bomnia we faw the formerly famous exercife of 
jufting or tilting, which is there ftill ufed in carnival 
time. The combatants being mounted on hoHq-back, 
armed cap-a-pee, and adorned wirh huge plumes of 
feathers and fcarfs, with lances in their hands, run one 
at another a full gallop, one on one fide> and another 
on the other fide of a low rail. They aim at one par- 
ticular part (I think it is the eye) and he that comes. 
neareft is the beft jufter. We faw feveral lances broken,^ 
but no perfon difmounted, nor any hiir^ dpnc 

O 4 Here, 

fiOq Observations Topographical 

Here, by the favour of Dr. Ovidlo MontaWam^ one 
of the profeflbrs, we had a fight of the Mufeum of Al- 
drtrvandusj which by hjs lafl: will he left as a legacy to the 
city. It is kept in the cardinal legate's palace, commonly 
called Palazzo del Confalomero. Among many natural 
and artificial rarities therein preferved, we took more ef» 
pecial notice of ten volumes of the pidlures of plants, 
^nd fix of birds, beafts, and fiflies, drawn exaAly in 
colours by the hand. 

The (ame Dr. Montalbanus very civilly brought us 
to the houfe of ^Jacobus Znumi^ an apothecary, a skilfiil 
herbarift, and a collector of rarities ; who among other 
things (hewed us three pieces of rock-chryftal, with drops 
of water inclofed in the middle of them, which we 
could plainly perceive when the chrvftal was moved to 
and fro. He hath a garden well ftored with fimples, 
wherein we noted Arundo nq/ios five far^a^ in ripi^ 
Rheni Bononienfis: Solaruim Americanum fru^ mJli^ 
Eyft. Geranium trijle Cornuti : Scammonea Syriaca ; Polf^ 
irichum Alpinum incifo folioj coftd viridi ; Canvohmlus Al- 
ihaa folio non inciJo\ Pentaphyllum hicidum folio hirfuto^ 
ab ipfo inventum prope Rhenum Bononientem ; Malum 
Alptna folio laciniato \ Jacobaa folio Betomca^ n. d. Abro^ 
tanum foemina inodorum'^ Baraana de Congo \ HeHeborus 
niger trifolius fpinofus \ Cyclamen Baldenfe folio rotundo^ 
fore odorato ; fklajpi folio Sampf^rhi ; item folio fe£ ; Dau^ 
CU5 Creiicus vents y Stachys Cretica Salvia folio \ Clematis 
Smilaci Afpera fimiUs^ verum non afpera ; Clematis tet^a^ 
phylla Americana \ Ma ha folio Betonica^ ab ipib invsnta; 
Labrum Veneris Indicum altijjfmum 5 Eruca Tanaceti folio ; 
Gent/la Alpina frue Spartiunu Col. Adiantbum nigrum ra^ 
rnofum Canadenfe Cornut. Chamadryos fpuria Jpecies^ ah 
ipu) inventa prope Rhenum fl. Bononienfem', befides maiijr 
Others which had not yet put ibrth^ it being early ia 
the fpring. 

The &me day we vifited fignior Giofeppi Bucemiy a 
chymift, who prq)ares the * Bononian ftone, or Lapis 
Phofphorusj which, if expofed a while to the illuminated 
air, will imbibe the light, fo that withdrawn into a dark 
room, and there lookM upon^ It will appear like a 

^ The Lapis Pho^hrus or IhfDing fione. 


Moraly and PhyJiohgicaL 201 

burning coal; but in a ihort time gradually lofes its 
fhining, till again expofed to the light. The crude 
flone is like a kind of fparre, ox fluor\ it acquires this 
quality bv being calcin'd (as he told us) in any fniall 
furnace, laying the pieces of ftonc upon an iron grate 
over a fire of wood. But we believe there is fomewhat 
more of myftery in it; for fome of us calcining part 
of the ftone we purchafed of him according to his di- 
reflion, it forted not to make it (hine. The prepared 
ftone in time lofes its virtue, and ceafes to (hine, as we 
found by experience in thofe pieces we bought and 
brought along with us. Hereabout, and all along as 
we rode in Lombardy^ we iaw now in flower Acmitum 
hftmali^ called by fome Anemone Bonmienjium, 

We left Bologna J and travelled to Modena^ by the Feh. 22. 
way, about fifteen miles from Bolj pafHng by Caftd^Caftel' 
Franco^ a ftrong fort near a village called ViUa Franca^ Franc. 
built by Pope Urban VIII. on the frontier of Modena. 
Atodena is twenty miles difhint from Bomnlttj no great Modena, 
dty, but for the bigne& populous, being the place of 
the Duke's ufual refidence; which mud needs draw 
company and buiinefs. It is encompafled about with 
a thick wall and a broad ditch, and tolerably well 
fortified with bafHons and outworks. Here, as at Be- 
nama^ Padua^ and feveral other cities in Ltmbardy and 
FriuUy are foriicds or cloifters (rows they call them at 
Cbeftir) on each fide the ftreets to walk in. The houfes 
are moft built of brick, and but of mean heighth, as 
we obferved them to be in all thofe cities where the 
ftreets were ck>ifler'd on both fides, which we conjedure 
was the manner of building of the Goths or Lombards 
that invaded Italyy and f^ttl^ themfelves in thefe parts. 

Here we iaw the Duke's palace, which, tho' it be not 
vaft, nor makes any great fhew outwardly ; yet are the 
rooms within very elegant and richly adorned with gild- 
ing, (hangings, and pidhires of the befl maflers. What 
wc moft minded was the cabinet or mufaum^ furniihed 
with choice of natural rarities, jewels, ancient and mo- 
dern coins and n\edals, ancient and modern entaglia's, 
curious turn'd works, dried plants pafled upon fmooth 
b(>ards wbiten'd with i^rufs, which may b(; put in frames 


ttQZ Observations Topograpbicaf^ 

and hung about a room like piAures ; and a great coIle£Hon 
of defigns of the beft painters. Among other things 
we took notice of a human head petrified ; a hen's egg, 
having on one fide the Signature of the fun, which I 
the rather noted, becaufe fome years before Sir Thomas 
Brcwn of Norwich fent me the piSurc of one, having 
the perfefl fignature of a duck fwimming upon it, which 
he afiured me was natural. Mofs included in a piece 
of chryftalt filver in another. A fly plainly difcernible 
in a piece of amber. A Cbinefe calendar written on 
wooden leaves. Alnurkus^ father to the prefentDukc 
(who at our being there was a child of about three jearsb 
old) made thb colledion, and was treating with Man* 
fredus SeptaUus^ canon at Milan^ for his cabinet, ib much 
talked of all over Italy ; for which they told us he was 
to give 1000 piftoles : but before the bargain was con* 
eluded, the Duke died in the twenty-eighth year of his 

The revenues of this Prince are laid to be 350000 
crowns per ann^ his ordinary expences not to exceed 
In a mountain in this territory called ZAba^ nigh 
' PaiuU caftle, fome twenty-eight miles diftant from M^ 
deruiy is a fountain where Petroleum ifliies out of the 
earth. In another mountain called Mmte Nicaniy are found 
petrified cochles and other (hells. 

Fd. 24. Wc began our journey to Parma^ and at feven miles 
end forded the river Serchio^ paffing by a ftrong litdc 
town on our left hand, called Ruhiera, and after eight 

^^£g*o. miles more entered Reggio^ a city almoft as big as 
Modena^ and of equal ftrength, fubje£t to the fame 
Prince, who is called Duke of Modern^ and Reggro, 
It is more extended in length, and makes a fairer 
fliew, having one broad and long ftreet. Here therfe arc 
many fculptors, who make pretty carved works in ivory 
and wood, for which this town is noted. Ten miles 
outward we pafled a long bridge over the river Lenzoj 
and enter'd the Duke of Parma\ country ; and five miles 
more bmught us to Parma^ a larger city than Modena^ 
of a round figure, well built of brick, tho* the houfes 
be not tall. The Arcets broad and well paved, but no 


Moraly and Pbyjiological. 2©3 

ftrtico^s under the bouies. In (hort it is a very pleafant 
and handlbme town, but not to well fortified as many 
other cities in Italy. 

We travelled to Piacenza. At fix miles diftance/V*. 26- 
from Parma we ferried over the river Taro. 'Nine Pfacatza. 
miles further we came to a large Burgo called St. i>a- 
»£«. Eight miles beyond St. Dsnin w^ pafsM through 
a pretty littk town called Ftorenzuoloy and juft vji^'Fioren- 
out the town crofsM the river Arta ; and, proceeding ^aioh. 
on ftill twelve miles, we came to Piacenza^ a city, 
for bigneis not inferior to Parma^ and for ftrength fu* 
perior (being well walled and trenched about, and hav-r 
ing a ftrong citadel) but not fo handfome and well 
built. The revenues of the Duke of Parma are faid 
by feme to be 500000, by fome but 400000 crowns 
pit arm. He keeps 3000 foot, and 1000 horfe in 
conftant pay \ and can, upon occafion, raife 20000 foot,^ 
and 1000 norfe morc|. Befides Parma and Piacemuiy 
he holds in the ftate of the church the dukedom of 
Caftroy and the county of Ronciglione^ th^ firft of which 
was pawned to the rope^ and, for want of payment of 
the money, forfeited to the church, concerning the re- 
ftttution whereof there hath been fuch a ftir of late. He 
holds al(b five cities in Akruxaa. The prefent Duke's 
name is Ramitius Famejius* 

We rode to Cntna^ 13 miles from PiWrnzj, paffinga/, 
through Cqftignoy a large burgo in the ftate of Milany two 
miles thence ferrying over the river Adda^ and two miles 
further the river S^/a, which runs into the Adda, Here 
nve entered ^Venetian territory, and at the end of other 
five miles arrived at Crema^ no great city, but ftrongly Crema. 
fenced and fortified, and for the bigneis populous ; held 
with a good garrifon of about 500 fouldiers by the Veneti- 
^nsj as being a frontier place. It is fituate in a fair and 
ipacious plain, near the river Serio^ and hath a large ter- 
ritory about it, called Crema/co. This city is famous 
for fine thread made by the nuns, and little brufhes 
made of the roots of a kind of grais called Capriole^ 
which I take to b( Gramen Scoparium ifcham panicu' 
Us of LobfL 


204 Observations Topographical^ 

29. We hired horfes for Brefcia^ thirty miles diflant from 

Brtfcia. Crema, By the way we rode through i. a little town 

called Ojanengo^ about three miles from Crema. 2. Rrnna- 

nengCy a gr .at burgo with a finall caftle, belonging to the 

King of Spairiy ibme three miles from Ofanengo : and a- 

Swcin, bout four mil- s further onward 3. Spnctn^ a confiderable 

waird town in the dutchy of Milany vfYnzhSchttus takes 

notice of as s^ very civil place to ftrangers> and mentions 

partem ex Amygdalis dulcibus W lucernas praflantijfimas ex 

erichake made there. Near this town we ferried ove^ 

the river Oy or OlUusj and enter'd again into the Venetian 

territory. Two miles off this place we rode clofe by 

Vorxi VottI nmui^ a (mall town, but one of the bcft ^rtiiied 

•*•'"• places we have fcen, carefully guarded by a good ^rriibn 

which the Venetians maintain there. Two miles fron| 

this fortrefs we pafTed a great village called Lorziveccbii^ 

then feveral villages the moft confiderable whereof was 

Lo grade, Herea^ut and at Vorzi nuovij is great (lore 

of flax planted, and fine Unnen cloth made. The 

country we rode through this day was full of villages 

and well pqoplcd, divided into finall fields^ and thofe 

xnclofed with hedges like our inclofed countries in 


Bre/cia. The city of Brefcia is Icf; than Verona; but confider- 

ing the bignefs .more populous, well built, having bro^ 

* and ftreight flrects, paved with ftone in the middle, and 

with bricks fct edge ways on each fide, after the manner 

of the HcUand cities; as are. aifb the ftreets of Parma^ 

Piacenza^ and Crema, It is encompafled with two walls^ 

the interior of old building more flight and weak, the 

exterior of good flfength, and thickneis, with a broad 

trench before it. The inhabitants are very bufy and 

induflrious, driving a great trade of making guns and 

other iron ware. , The Brefcian guns are much efbemed 

not only in Itafyy but all over Europey as well for the good* 

ncfs of the iron and temper, as the excellency and neatnefi 

of the workman fhip. The markets are well ftored with 

all things uecefTary for human life. The territory of 

this city, is in length from Mof$ near Mantua to Dia-- 

lengo in the upper end of Val Camonica lOO miles, fa 

breadth from LImone upon the Lago di Garda to L*vrzi 

nuovl fifty i fruitful of com amd wine. The hills 


Morai^ and Pbyfiologicat. 20|J 

clothed with woods, and the vallies abundant in good 
|ttftures ; t^ that there is excellent cheefe made here, 
and fent abroad to Venice ^nd other parts of Italy. Ih 
the mountains are iton and cot>per mines, which yield 
great profit to the owners, and inrich the whole country. 
Few cities in haty have fo large and fo rich a territory, (o 
populous and full of towns and great villages. The city* 
idelf hath often changed lords and governments, and 
Ivas ioT z long time miferably torn in pieces, and wailed 
by inteiline quarrels and fightings between the faAions of 
the Gue^s and GhibiUines, The Vifconti of Milan made 
tbemfelves mafters of it and held it for many years. In 
the time of Philippus Murioy the citizens being much 
opprefled and aggrieved, and having often in vain fent 
mnbafladors to him for redreis, they finally delivered theni- 
ielves up to the Venetians in the year 1426, who now 
hsep in garriibn for the fecurity of this city 800 foldiers^ 
and 300 more in the caftle, wnich ilands on a i'ocky hill 
and commands the whole town. On the fides of thb 
hill we found ferpent ftones or Comua Ammonis^ befides 
other petrified (hells. 

Wc travelled to Bergamo pafling through i. Hofpita^ March 2. 
Utta^ a village feven miles diftant from Brefcia. 2. Cokai^ 
a largp village five miles further. 3. Palazzuolo, a great Paloft" 
village (landing on a (leep bank on each fide the river Ollio. «*«^- 
We had a full view of the Alps all along as we rode. 
Bergamo is feated upon the fide of a hill, and is a city o( Bergamo* 
good account for greatnefs and ftrengtb, encompaiTed about 
with high ftrong walk, and a broad dry ditch or trench. 
The (beets are narrow, but the houfes fair. Upon the top 
of the hill above the city (kinds the caftle, which though 
it be but a filiall place is ftrongly fituate, and commands 
the town« They told us that there was a vault under 
noiuid from the caftle to the palace of the Capitaneo* 
Without the walls of the city are five large borgo^s or 
fiiburbs. I. That of St. Leonardo below the hill, which 
hath isLtr ftreets, and is inhabited by rich merchantSL- 
a. That of St. Antmo. r Of SanRa Patlyarina. 4. St.' 
72001^ or Bmrfa di pignoU. Thefe three ftand at fome 
Ktcie diftance one from another, and fome of them are 

waited about. 5. Borgo Canak or di S* Gotardo. This 




feb6 Observations Topo^rapbtcal^ 

city Teemed to us a bufy and thriving place. In the 
church of the Augujiirui cloiiler lies buried Ambrofius 
Calfpimsj a monk of that order» author of the known 
didlionary, without any monument or inicription : ill 
the priors cell they (hewed ua his piflure with this 

P. jfmbrofiusy diSfus Calfpims^ Comitis Truffardi Calepii 
primi vallts Cakpive feudatarii filius praclam fw 
Diffienario nufquam antea ab aliquo exc6gitato (vit^ 
CaUpinum mminant) cum Heremitanum hoc 5. Au- 
guftini Mcnajlertutn^ i^ Bergomwn patriam fuam 
tgregii illujlrajjety omnibus literaru^Jludiofis utilif' 
fimut qmevit in Domino Anno fahuis MDXL 
atatis fua 7 1. 

< .... • ■ • 

This city hath undergone almoft the iame changes of 
lords and government with Brefiia^ and did likewife vo« 
luntarily deliver itfelf up to the Femtians in the year 
1428, under whofe government it continued till the 
year 1509^ when th& Venetian army was routed, broken, 
and utterly defeated by Lewis Xli King of France^ in 
the Ghiara of the river Adda^ and then it fubmitted to 
him and remained at his devotion fo long as he held 
the dutchy of Milan. In the Year 1512, tti^ French 
being expelled Italy^ it became fubjeS to MaxinuEam 
Sforza Duke of Milan. By reafon of ibme grievances 
it revolted from him and returned under the Fehetians % 
but being befieged by Raimundus Cardona zSpaniard^ 
viceroy of Naples^ and captain of the league^ with a 
great army^ it was forced to furrender to the will of Afa^ 
scimiliany and to avoid pillaging to pay 40000 ducats of 
gold, whereas before it would not pay loooo. Anno 15 14; 
In fine. Anno 15 16, it again returned under the govern- 
ment of the Venetians^ who continue to this day lords 
of it, and fend thither a * Pbdefldj a Capitane9^ a Ctf- 
merUngo and a CaJieUano. The Italians have a proverb 

* i.e. A mayor, a govonoo a chamberlain^ and agovemor 

of the caftle. 



Moralj and Pbyjiot^icat. 207 

oF thb city, St Bergamo f^t in pian Sartbhe p!u htl cbt 
tun i Milan, If Bergiimt lk)od in a plain it would be a 
&ifw city than Milan. 

N. B. After the forementioned rout and difcomfiture 
of the VtHetian army* not only Bergamo, but alfo Brefday 
Vermel^ Victmay Padua^ and the reft of the cities fub«£t 
to them, &ve only Trevtfo, readily fubmttted to the Em- 
perot and King of Frame; notwtthftanding they were 
well fertiiied, and had flrength enough to refift: 
fo that the Venetians utterly dcfpured of and wholly gave 
up for loft all they had on the firm land of Itatf ; but 
yet in a ftwrt time they recovered it all z^ia. 

From Bergamo we rode to Cahnicay a vilb^ in the 
ftate of Milan, feated upon the river Adda, where w€ 
took water ibr the city of Milan. 


eo8 ()BSEKVAtioiis Topegraph'ca/^ 



Tl/ff L A N is one of the four principal cities of Itafy ; 
-^'^ the other three being Rme^ Venice^ and Naplts. 
ft is called la grande, and well may it be (b, being ten 
Italian miles in circuit: and yet f which is morej the 
figure of it approaches to a circle. . It contains eleven 
collegiate churches, feventy one pariflies, thirty convents 
of friars, eight of regular canons, and thirty fix. of nunSi 
The number of inhabitants of all forts is faid to be 300000, 
but I believe they who report it fpeak by guete and at 
random. All provifions for the belly are very plenti- 
ful and cheap here : (b that it is a proverbial &ying, 
Sob in Milam ft mangin^ They eat well only at Milan. 
The Dmn9 or cathedral church is next to' St. Peter^s at 
Rome the greateft, moft fumptuous and ftately pile of 
building in Italy i ft is 250 cubits long^ and 130 broad, 
according to Scbottus^ and of an anfvirerable heighth. A 
more particular defcription whereof may be (ben in 
Scbottus. The great hofpital is the largeft and moft 
magnificent, I thinks in EuropCj more like a ftateljr 
cloifter or Prince's palace than an hofpital. There is 
one great fquare court, furrounded with a double fmrtico^ 
the one below, the other above ftairs; befides four or 
five other fmaller courts. The revenues ^of this houfe 
amount to more than 50000 crowns yearly \ and there 
are maintained in it about 4000 poor, infirm, and fick 
perlbns. In this city are many fair and lage monafbries^ 
and a great number of churches [of all forts 238] beau- 
tified with ejtquifite pi£faires and ftatues of the beft ma* 
flers, and furnifhed with tich altar-pieces, rtliques, vefls^ 
and other ornaments: the particulars may be feen in 
Schottus and others. The library called Biiliotbeca Am- 
hrtffiana is a handfbme building furniflied with ftore of 


Morale and Phyjiologtcal 20$ 

good books, and free for all perfbns, as well ftrangcrs 
as citizens, to enter into and make ufe of. It was 
founded by cardinal Carolus Borromeus^ of whom they 
have made a faint. The college, called Hermathenaum^ 
is a ftatelv buildings, having a handfome court, encom- 
pafled with a double pdrtico or cloifter, one above the 
other. The pillars of both portico's are double, the 
lowermoft of the lonUk^ the upper of the Tufian order. 

The caftle of Milan is efteemed one of the principal 
fortrefles of Europe^ as well for its ftrength (having 
never bten taken by forcej as for its greatnefs and 
beauty. This caftle, fince its iirft building, hath been 
twice enlarged; for the ancient caftle, built by the 
Vifconti (which is now the palace of the governor, and 
before which is a (^ourt, having a round ftone-tower 
at each corner ;) the French taking in a great fpace of 
ground, incIo(ed with a fquare wall of a very great 
heighth and thicknefs, and a deep ditch. Upon the 
top of this wall one may walk under covet round about, 
and from thence have a fair profpe£l of the country, and 
the new fortifications of the caftle, or the new line 
added by Hit Spaniards^ being of a pentagonal figure, 
and having at each angle a baftion or mount, and be- 
tween every two baftions an half moon. It is well 
furnifhed round about with great guns ready mounted. 
Within the caftle is a water-mill, which they told us 
vms driven by water which fprings up within the caftle- 
walls. Schottus faith, that the circuit of the whole for- 
treis, befides the trenches, is 1600 paces. The garrifon, 
at our being there, confifled of about 600 fbldiar^, 
and the Caftellanj or governor's name, was Don Bal- 
thafar MarkadeL 

We (aw the Mufaum^ or gallery of feignior Man* March 6; 
fredus Septatius^ fon to Ludovicus Sepialius the famous 
phyfician j wherein we took notice of a box with a 
multitude of looking-glaflcs, fo difpofed, as by mutual 
reflexion to multiply the objeA many times, fo that 
one could fee no end of them : the beft in this kind 
that I have any where fecn. A plain plate of glafs with 
lb manv fpherical protuberances wrought upon it, that 
if you look'd thro* it upon any objeft, you faw it tii 
many times multiplied, as there were protuberances ot 

P ii^mem^ 

210 Observations topographical^ 

fegments of fpheres upon the plain of the glals. Like- 
wife a fpeculum of the lame faftiion, by looking upon 
which through the former, you fee your face fo many 
times multiplied, as to be equal to the produft of the 
fum of the protuberances of the one glals, multiplied 
into the fum of the protuberances of the other. Several 
concave burning Jpecula of metal j and we few the ex- 
periment of burnmg by reflexion. Several engines coun- 
terfeiting a perpetual motion, of which, afterward wc 
underftood the intrigue. Several automata^ and clocks of 
divers fafhions, among the reft two of a cylindrical 
figure, which moved without weight or fpring, only 
by being placed upon an inclining plain, their own weight 
was the fpring of their motion. Pieces of amber with 
flies, gra&oppers, and bees inclofed in them. Pieces of 
chryftal with grafs, mofs, leaves, infeds, lie. incloled 
in them. A large piece of chryftal with a drop of 
water in it, and in that water a bubble of air, which, 
as you turned the ftone, moved upwards. A little cor- 
nelian with a great quantity of water indofed in it. 
Pi£Kires made of feathers by the Indians. A great col- 
le£lion as well of ancient as modern coins and medals. 
Several Entagliey Canute (i NicolL The Pietra imber- 
cata of lynperatusy having the lively fignatures of herbs 
and trees upon it. Of this fort is found plenty about 
Florence^ where they polifli them, and make cabinets of 
them. Perfumed knives. Per/tan^ Arabick^ Chimfey and 
yaponick manufcripts; and a China kalendar in wood* 
Great variety of fliells. Telefcopes and microfbopes of 
his own making. A large piece of the mimraj or ma- 
trix of emeralds, with the ftones growing in it. Many 
muiical inftruments, and divers Ibrts of pipes of hb own 
invention. Ancient rings. Indian fcepters and bills 
made of ftone. Several things petrified. Chymical oib 
extra£led by himfelf without iire. The skeleton of a 
morile's head. Divers and very large rhinoceros's boms, 
gazell's horns, and an unicorn's horn. Curious pieces of 
turned work of ivory, very fine and fubtil. Several pieces 
of paft and coloured glals. Several pieces of moft trans- 
parent chryftal-glais, excelling that of Fenice^ made and 
invented by himfelf. Fiftitious China^ or porcxllanc, of 
bis own invention and making, hardly lo be diftingulfiied 


Momt^ and Piy/aiogUat. 211 

from the true. But there being a printed catalogue 
of this cabinet iet out by the owner himfelf, I refec 
the reader thither for further (atisfadion. In this c<ty 
tb^ work much in chryftal, making drinking-glafTes 
and other veflels, cafes for tweezers, feals, and an himdred 
pretty knacks of it: they alio ei^rave figures upon it. 
They grind and polifh it with a brafi wheel, upon which 
they put the powder of Smiris mingled with water ; and 
alter, to fmooth it, they ufe the powder of * Saffe-mort^ 
which is a ftone they find in the river fafl by. This 
flone, by lying in the water, by d^rees dies, from a 
iieavy pebble firfl becoming light like a pumice, and 
afterward, if it lie longer in the water, crumbling to 
duft. Moft ordinary' ftones by lying in this water, or 
wbfBTC the water Ibmetimes comes, will (as they told us) 
die in this manner, excepting the clear pellucid pebbles, 
which am immortal 

Welch Milan, and began our journey to Turin, We March 10. 
rode all along upon the bank of the river NavUioy paffing 
feveral fmall villages, leaving Biagraffa, a town of ibme Biagrajfa, 
note, a little on our left hand, and lodged at Bufahra^ 
twenty-two miles diihnt from Milan. Here, in the 
Iniges, we ibund Fumaria hulhofa fiore purpurea ^ albo^ 
tuom in flower ; as aUb Arijldochia rotunda in flower. 

We paficd thro* Nvoara, a ftrong town belonging to jL^* 
thc%nii4irA, len miles diftant from Btfolora -, and rode^*^""*^' 
on ten miles further to J^emlli, belonging to the Duke F^rcellik 
of Savty; a large town, but neither flrong nor well 
peopled. This town was delivered up by the Spaniards 
to the Duke, when Trin was reflored to the Spaniards 
by the French. We were told that the citizens pay 
ten times more to the Duke, than they did to the Spa'* 
mtards^ and for that caufe fuch as are able leave the city^ 
and remove to other places. 

We travelled as -far as a village called Sian, eighteen I2« 
imki paffii^ by a large borgo called St. German, 

Being flopp'd by the waters, we were conffaained to 13* 
ftay oil night at Ci&ie;^/, no more than eight miles forward. 

We got iafe to Tiirkf ^paffing by the way many 14. 
waters, two we ferried ov^r, viz. Ore* and Stura, 

* «• i. Dead-itone. 

P a Tmn^ 

i2.\2 Observations Topogfapbical^ 

q'uiin. ^urlrt^ anciently Augufta Taurinorunij (bated upon the 

river Padus or Po^ is no large city, but, by leaiui tbm 
Duke of Savoy ufually keeps his court there, frequent 
and populous. The ancient buildings are not better than 
thofe of our Englijh towns: but there is one long ftreet 
of new buildings, tall and uniform ; and about the midft 
of it a large fquare piazza, havii^ on each fide a fair 
cloifler, very handibme and fightly. At one end of this 
ftreet is another piazza before the Duke's palace, a &ir 
building, but not yet iinifhed. Here is a citadel with 
five baftions, ferving as well to bridle as defend the town. 
Here we met with fome of the Proteftanti of the vallies 
of Lucern and Angrona^ who told us, that, by die in<' 
terceilion of the cantons of Zurich and Bemy the EKike 
hath at prefent made an accord with them, permitting 
them ftill to enjoy the liberty of their religion. They 
dwell in fourteen pagij or villages, have no town, are 
in number about 15000 fouls, and of them about 
2000 fighting men. Thefe are divided into fourteen 
companies under fo many captains, among whom, yeoH 
JannevUle is noted for a valiant man, and a good fol- 
dier. The Papifls call thefe men Barhetii and Gme^ 
vrtni. They are the only ProteftanU in Itabfy and have 
maintain'd the purity of their religion all ajbng thefe 
1200 years. They run over the mountains lilre Cha- 
mois^ never (hooting (if they themfelves may be believ'd) 
but they hit. Thev boafted to us, that in the late war 
they had not loft af)ove 40 or 50 men, and had killed 
500 of the Duke's ; neverthele^ the Duke hath built a 
ftrong fortrefs at a place called Ztf Tmre^ in the mid* 
die of them. 

The city of Turin hath an univeriity, and boafb to 
have been the firft that brought the ufe of printing into 
Italy. All provifions are plentiful and cheap there, the 
country round about being very rich and fertile. Indeecl 
the whole principality of Pienwnt is efteemed inferior to 
no part of Italy for pleaiantnefs, and plenty of corn, 
cattle, wine, fruit, hemp, Ja7(, n)<tals, and idmoft every 
thing neceiTary for human life : and withal it is fo popu- 
lous, that the Italians ufe to iay, that the Duke of Savoy 
hath only one city in Italy of 300 miles in compals. It 


Morale and PhyJiologicaL 213 

hath eight cpifcopal cities and 150 towns. The inha^i- 
tants are more given to husbandry than merchandife, fo 
that the land is no where better cultivated than in Piemont. 
They are aMb very affedionate to their Prince, and for 
his honour and fafety ready upon all occafions to venture 
thdr lives and fortunes. Lett feith that they are good 
liddiers, expert in warlike excrcifes, and fo valiant that 
they will rather die than tu^n their backs. Of the 
riches of this country we may Cfeith he) take an eftimate 
by the late wars which continued for tv/enty three years, 
during which time were maintained by the Duke in 
garriibn, and in the field, between twenty five and thirty 
thoufand ibldiers, for the mod part without any afHAance 
or iupplies of money or men from any other place but 
Ptemmt ; which befides all this contributed to the Duke 
in fifteen years eleven millions. The fame author faith, 
it is not in Ptemmt as in other countries, wherein there 
are fbme perfons exceffive rich, but the generality W the 
people extremely poor : but on the contrary the Piemontcfe 
are generally well to live, and there are very few among 
them of extraordinary eftates. 

As for the Duke he by all mens confeflion keeps a 
fplendid and regal court, anfwerable to his title of Royal 
Hi^hnefs. His annual revenue is faid to be a million of 
gold : according to Lett 1800000 crowns ; of which 
Pitment alone yields 1400000. He is able to bring into 
the field 30000 foot, and 5000 horfc, and yet leave enough 
at home to guard the country. The fates which the 
Duke poffefles in Italy are, the principality of Piemont^ 
the marqueiates of Saluzsus (which he had of the French 
in exchange for la Brejfe) and of JJli ; the dutchy of 
jlofla J the counties or earldoms of Nlzza^ and of l^ercellL 

The prefent Duke's name is Carolus Emanuel^ fon of 
Ft^or Amadeus : he was at the time of our being there 
about thirty years of age ; and was then in mourning for 
bis dutcheis Frattcefca Borbona^ and his mother Chrtjiiana 
a Francta^ whom they call Madam Royal, who were 
lately dead. He hatn two or three handfome palaces 
near the city, adorned with rich hangings, good piftures, 
and other furniture, i. That called the Venery^ or hunt-i 
ing palace lately built, 2, MHUJiore. . 3. Valentine. 

P 3 , Tho 

214- O B s BR V A T I o N s Topogrophical 

The making of oil'd cloth for hoods, hat-cafes, and 
coats tp fence off the rain, was firft invented at Turin 
by one Giacomo Marlgi^ and is flill held as a fecret by 
them, though now it be done in other places as well as 

AV. 17. We took horfes and a guide at Turin for Genoa ^ which 
we reach'd at three days end. About a mile below 
Turin we pais'd the river Po (which here begins to be 
navigable) by a bridge ; and after we had rode about a 
mile further, by the river's fide, we mounted the hills 
under which the river hereabout runs, which are very 
fteep and difficult to afcend. Not fer from the foot of 
thefe mountains, in the woods wherewith thev are co- 
vered, and, in the ditches by the way-fide, I obferved 
growing wild, ♦ Dens camnusfiore purpurea Ger. Liu^ 
coium bulbofum vulgare C. B. Dentaria aphyllos Quf. five 
Anblatum Cordi. Doronicum vulgare jf. B. Hepaticum 
Trifolium Lob. Hyacinthus botryodes 2 Cluf. This grew 
plentifully on the banks and borders of the corn-fields, 
and by the way-fides all along as we rode from Turin 
to Genoa. At five miles diftance from Turin we pailed 

Cbier. through a pretty large town called Chier^ where wc took 
notice of a triumphal arch ereifbd to Vi£}or Amadou^ 
father to the prefent Duke of Savoy. About four miles 
further we pailed by a walled town called Vitta nova ; 

^e, and this firfl night lodged ^xAJle^ a large town, but that 
feemed to us to be poor and decaying, twenty miles di- 
ftant from Turin. 
1 8. We proceeded on our journey as far zsNffue^ a pretty 

large town under the Genoefe^ 27 Piemont miles diftant 
from A/le ; I think they may well pafs for 35 Englj/b. 
About 4 miles from Afte^ upon the bank of the river 
Tanar f'which is there very high) and on the fends under 
the bank we found great variety of petrified fliells, as 
9yftersj fcallops^ cockles^ tec. As alfo thofe TubiS jfiri^ 
atij called by fome Antales, which Seignior Rofaccia^ a 
mountebank In Vemce^ firft (hewed us : BeUmniteSy and ^ 
other rare forts of ftones. In the corn-fields we pafled 

*f .r. DogVtooth violet ; commoo bulbous violet ; the greater 
tooth wort ; common leopard^s banc; the lefler grape hyacinth^ 
^d hepatica, or noUe liver- wort. 


Moral, and Phyjiological. 21^ 

through we obferved • Ornithogalum luietmC. B. in great 
plenty now in flower. This day we pafled by a large village 
calkd Nm^ and another which had formerly been walled 
called Felizan : then Alexandria^ a large town upon the 
liver Tanar^ of more ftrength than beauty ; the build* 
ingi both publick and private being generally but mean. 
It was fo called in honour of Pope Alexander III ; be- 
caufe in his time it was peopled by the Milanefe^ whofe 
city was then almoft quite deftroy'd and made defblate 
by the Emperor Frederick Barbaroffa^ for fiding with the 
Pope againft him. The river (which feemed to me as 
hrge as the P0 at Turin) divides the city into two parts, 
which are joined together by a fair brick bridge. In 
our poflagie through the town we took notice of a trium- 
phal arch ereAed to Philip IV. King of Spain upon his 

• We rode from Nwe to Genoa 30 miles all over '9* 
mountains. About 6 miles from Nvue we pafled through 
ahandibme little walled town, called Gavi^ where there* '^'' 
is a ftrong caftk on a hill x>ver the town ; and about 6' 
miks further onward, another elegant and well built town 
called Fobagio, From hence we afcended continually for Faltagio, 
about 7 or 8 miks till we came to the top of a very high* 
hill, from whence we had a profped of GenM and the 
iea. Then we defcended confhntly till we came to the 
city. In all this vray we met with and overtook mule? 
and afks going to and returning from Genoa, to the num- 
ber of 500 or 600 or more. Between Gavi and Voltagia 
we obferved Dens caninm with a white flower; and all 
along on the n^ountains from Gayi to Genoa, Stoecbas ci-^ 
trina altera ienmfilia Jive Italica J\ B. as alfo Pfyllium 
majta femper virens, & fedi minorts Jpecies fore am qua^ 
dnfiEo, now in flower. Petajites Jlore albo on the fide 
tnz mountain about 6 miles from Foltagio in the way to 
GfiHa. Erica arborefcens MonfpeUen/is fiore purpurafcente 
rmaiBt firms J. B. by the way fides abundantly from 

• iL #. Yellow flar of Betblebem i Mr. Jobnfvn^ miniftcr of 
Brigmil^ umGreia bridge in the north-riding ofToriJhire, hath 
hind chii eroiirui^ plenufuliy in the skim of the woods therca* 
botfs^ aoaikmBriBg together with the wood-aoemony . 

P 4> Ccvi 

2\6 Observations TopographicaJy 

Gavi to Genoa. It is a (lately plant, the talleft of this kind, 
ariring to the (lature and bignefs of broom hereabout ; near 
Monpellier it is lefe. 
^lar. 20 We viewed Genoa^ which for the building of it is ccr- 
CcKoa, tainly the moft ftately and, according to its epithet , fu- 
perb city in all Italy, The houfes are generally tall, fcarce 
a mean houfe to be feen in town. The New-Jireet an- 
fwers the fame that goeth of it. It is but (hort, confift- 
ing only of 8 or 10 palaces, built of marble, very fump- 
tuous and magnificent, the meaneft of them (zs Cluverius 
faithj being able to receive and lodge the greateft Prince 
and his retinue. The only deformity of this city is the 
narrowneis of the ftreets unanfwerable to the tallneis of the 
houles, and yet they are made fo on purpofe, partly to 
fave ground, which here is precious; and partly to keep 
off the fcorching beams of the fun in fummer-time, for the 
conveniency of walking cool; for which reaibn I haveob- 
ferved many of the ancient towns of Italy and Gallia Nar^ 
boTunJis to have their ftreets made very narrow. This 
city lies under the mountains expofed to the foiith, (o that 
it needs muft be very hot in fummer, as witneis the orange 
and olive-trees which grow fo plentifully here, that they 
can afford thofe fruits at ea(y rates, and drive therewith a 
great trade, furnilhing with oranges Florence and a good 
part of Tufcanyy and fometimes fending them into Eng^ 
land. It is built in form of a theatre, or crefcent, encom- 
pafled with a double wall toward the land. The exterior 
or new wall of a great heighth and thicki^efs paflesover 
the top of mountains, and takes in a great deal of voiil 

The famous new mole, which now makes this a fecuxe 
harbour, is faid to have coft as much as the new wall : fbr 
a work of that nature I believe it is not to be paraUel'd in 
the whole world. The manners of the inhabitants arc 
not anfwerable to the beauty of their houfes ; they beii^ 
noted among their own country men the Italians fbr proud, 
unfaithful, revengeful, uncivil to ftrangers, and horribly 
cxa<fling. There goeth a proverbial faying oiGenoa^ that 
it hsxh^montagne Jenza albert^ mare jenza pefie^ huomm 
fenzafede^^ donne femca vergogna^ that is, Mvuntains i$nth- 
0Ut trees, a f$a without Jijhj men without faitb^ and fw- 
men without Jbame, The number of the inhabitants muft 


Moraly and Pbyjhlogical. 2 17 

need$ be great, they having loft in the laft great plague (as 
ive were credibly informed) to the number of 80000 fouls. 
The chief trade of the town is filks and velvets > they make 
alfo pretty turned works of coral. 

The government of it according to the new laws made 
by the Pope's legate, and the Emperor's and King of Spain* s 
Ambafladorsy not long after the time of Andreas Doria^ is 
on this wife. There is i. a Duh^ who continues in of- 
fice 2 years. 2. Two Collegia; one of Gcvcrnaiori (2s they 
term them) the other oi Procuratcri, The Governatori 1 2, 
the Procuratori 8> all elected, befides thofe that of courfe 
come in for their lives. 3. A greater Council of 400. 4. 
A kfler Council oi 100. 5. A Seminary for the 2 ColU- 
gia of 1 20. The 2 Collegia of Governitori and Procura^ 
t9ri are as it were the chief fenate, or privy council or 
houfe of k>rds ; and are chofen twice a year, viz, about 
the middle of Jurn^ and about the middle oi December^ af- 
ter this manner. All the Seminarium of 120 have their 
names together with their furnames and fathers names 
written in little fcrolls of parchment, and put into an 
iron box, which is kept very fecurely under many locks. 
When the time of ele^ion comes, this box is brought 
ibith before the Duke, the 2 Collegia^ and the lefler coun- 
cil. Then a boy, who muft be under ten years of age, 
puts Iu$ hand into the box, and draws out 5 fcrolls, which 
are read, and the 3 iirft, if they be capable, are Govern 
natariy the 2 laft Procuratori, If a man be 100 miles oiF 
Uie city he is uncapable of being eledled for that time. 
Likewife two of the lame family cannot be Procuratori or 
Govematori together. Therefore if the two iirft that are 
drawn out or the two fecond be of the (ante family, the 
firft is GovematoTy and the feoond Procurator : if the two 
laft be of the fame &mily, the firft drawn out is a Pro* 
aaratoTy and the fecond is returned into the box s^in, 
and the bov draws out another. So that every fix months 
five are cnofen into the CoUegia^ and five go out, and 
every one ibys in ofHce two years. In the Collegium Pro^ 
€urat$rumj befides the 8s are all thofe who have been 
Dtiiesy and are gone out of office, who {modii bene fc 
geffirini) continue Procuratori during their lives. 

To fupply or make up the Seminarium 120, every 
year in the ftead of thofe who are dead^ made uncapa- 

2iZ Observations topographical^ 

ble, or chofen into the two Colkgiaj the lefler council 
choofes a double number, all which muft have three 
(liffrages of five. And out of thefe the greater coun- 
cil choofe half by the major vote. 

For choofing the councils, both greater and lefler, the ^ 
kfler council, in prefence of the Duke and two C^/l^/a, 
choofe 30 Eledlors (all which muft be of the nobiUty^ 
by three fufFr^es of five. Thefe 30 choofe both the 
greater and lefler council, but the leffer out of the num- 
ber of the greater^ by a like proportion of fuffrages. 
The greater council is aflembled upon important occai- 
fions, and, with the Duke and two Collegia^ makes 
the fupreme power : the lefler council takes care of the 
kfler and ordinary concerns of the city and comnaon- 
. wealth. Thofe who are capable of being chofen into the 
greater council muft be 25 years of age ; only the 30 
cledors may, if they pleafe, or fee it expedient, choofe 
to the number of 60 who are but 22 years old. Of 
the lefler council the one half muft be thirty years of 
age, the others at leaft 27, excepting dodors of la^nr 
and phyfick, who, if they be well qualified, may be 
chofen two years younger. Thofe who are capable of 
being chofen into the Saninariitm muft be 40 years of 

The choice of the Duke is in this maimer. The great 
council being aflSmbled, there are put into an urn 10 golden 
balk marked with 10 feveral letters. 

One of thefe, being drawn out, is (hewn to the con« 
fervators of the laws, who thereupon put into another 
urn, ftanding by the Duke's throne, 50 gdden balls 
mark'd with the lame letter*, and 50 filvcr balls. Thefe 
being (haken together, the lefler council of 100, exdu* 
ding the two Cotlrgia^ draw out each man a bdl. He 
that draws out a golden ball {hews it to tiie Cenfirs^ 
who fit by, and prefcntly writes in a fcroU of paper the 
name of him whom he thinks fit to nominate for Duke, 
and goes out of the council. When all the golden balls 

• This is done to prevent fraud, for if the golden balls were 
either not marked at all, or with any fifn or letter koowii 
before- hand, any one of the cooncil mient bring fuch a ball 
with him, and, ud&ing ic in his hand, make (hew at if he dicvr 
it Ottt of the UTQ. 


Morale and PbjifiologicaL 2 19 

m drawn out, the two Collegia bring them into order, 
and count them over, and, if the number of the nomi- 
nated amount to 20, then they are propounded to the 
greater council, who out of them, by major vote, choofe 
15. Out of [thefe 15 the leflcr council chufe fix by 
three fuffrages of five. Out of thefe fix again by major 
vote the greater council choofe the Duke. Thefe fuf- 
frages are all occult, that is, given by putting of balls 
into balloting-boxes. If in the greater council for any 
peHbn the negative and affirmative fuflrirages are equal, 
then five by lot are to be put out of the council, and the 
reft to ballot again. Many other provifions there are in 
cafe of equality or difagrcement, (kc. Nothing can be 
propounded in council but by the Duke, who, during 
the time of his regency, lives in the palace, and hatb^ 
(according to Sanfivifms) a-guard of 500 Switzers. 

The office of St. George is (as far as I underftand it) 
nothing but a company of bankers, which lend money 
to the common-wealth, for which they are allowed fo 
much per Cent^ and have affign*d to them the publick 
gabels and other revenues ; and, for their ftirther fecu- 
rity, have alfi> the ifland of Corfica engaged to them. 
This company choofe yearly out of their own number 
eight protefbrs, who are to take care of and manage the 
affidrs of all the creditors. Into this bank ftrangers 
ufually put in money, and fo become of the company, 
for which they receive yearly intereft, proportionable to 
the improvement made of the whole flock of monies then 
in bank. 

The pubHck revenue of this ftate Is faid by ibme to , 
bt 120,000 crowns per Anriumy and yet fcarce fufficient 
to defray the publick expences. 

There are many private citizens here very rich. The 
republick is thoi^t to be able to raife an army of 
^0,000 men, and to fet out to lea 12 gallies and 20 
Jhips of war. They hold good correfpondence with all 
chriftian Princes and States, excepting the Duke of Sa* ^ 
OQf, by reafon of his pretence to the city of Savona. 

Upon the cliflfs about the Pharos^ or watch-tow^r, 

and near it we found thefe plants : Trifolium bitumino^ 

Jhm Oer. Jacebsea marina Ger. Conjfza major Mmfpelien^ 

fi\ od^rata J, B. /(latfmus i Carduus galaffites J. B. 3V 


120 Observations Topographical^ 

mum vulgar e rt^idlus folio cinereo J. B. Geranium falio Al" 

thaa C, B. *Thlafpi Alyjpm dtfium marifimum C. B. Z^- 

tus Libyca Dakchampii ; Lotus Pentaphyllos fdiquofus vitto- 

fus C. B. Smilax afpera \ Adianthtimfive Capillus veneris 

J. B. Hyofcyamus albus Park. Htec fpecies quam in mu- 

ris & rupibus circa Genu2Lm frequentem vidimus, folia ha^ 

bet brtviora, viridiora, rotundiora, minims laciniata quam 

vulgaris niger ; fiorem mtmrcmy in nonnullis totum luteum, 

in aliis plantis fundo ohfcurc purpurea. On the walls wc 

obferved ftock-july- flowers growing plentifully, whether 

fpringing fpontaneoufly, or of feed cadially fcattcrM out 

of gardens we cannot determine ; likewHe Gbbularia 

Monfpt'Uenfum, and Genifia Hifpanica on the rocks eaft- 

ward of the city. Upon the fhores we found caft up 

great plenty of the bulla marina fea-balls, which arc 

little round lumps ^(bme of them as big as tennis-balls^ 

of Fejiuca amafled together, which wc ilippofed to be 

caft out of fi(hes ftomachs. 

April 2. We went in a Feluca from Genca to Porto Fenerey 

^^^' and thence crofs the bay of Spezs^a to Lerici^ where we 

took poft horfes, and rode that night to Maffa^ paffing 

through Sarxana^ 2l ftrong town belonging to the Gem-- 

Mafa^ ^, and a frontier. Majfa is but a fmall city, yet hath 

it a Prince of its own, who is lord alfo of Carrara^^ 

whofe chief revenues arife from the marble quarries. 

The Prince is by birth a Genoefe, of the family of Cjbo. 

Over the town gate we obferved this infcrtption, Alheri- 

cus Cybo Malafpina Sacri Roman! imperii^ civitatifque 

Maffa princeps, 

3- We rode on to Luca in a valley by the foot of bills 

over a great deal of moorifli and boggy ground, thro* 

Pieha a country not well inhabited. We parted through PrV- 

Su;ita. tra Santa, 2l town belonging to the Duke of Ftorenctj 

but utterly disjoin'd from the reft of his ftate by the in- 

terpofition oJF the territory of Luca, In this journey 

I obferved the following plants. Scrophularia Urtica fth^ 

Ho C. B. which I found alfo jJentifully upon the walls of 

Pifa, Orchis macropijylla Col. between Maffa and Sar- 

Tuina. Moly parvum caule triangulo ibid. NarciJJus medio^ 

luteus polyanthos Gcr. among the corn plentifully all a- 

long as we rode, now in the flower. On the fides of the 

mountains between M^Jfa and Luca^ Antirrhinum hteo 

• Moral, and PhyJiologicaL 221 

jSfcr^ C. B. Ttthymalus dendroides J. B. Lentifcus ; Ana- 
^yrh five Laburnum ; Colutea vtficaria, - Colutea fcorpioi^ 
^riT; \Ruia jyhejiris maj. J. B. Laurus vulgaris ; Tencrl- 
ufn : On ditch banks and in ihadow places by the wajr 
ikle, Arijarnm latifoUum Cluf. and Ariftobchia tonga, A 
£>Tt of Difiiaria apkyllos with a purple flower, covering; 
the ground with a thick tuft abaoft after the manner 
of Houjkek^ having (carce any ftalk. 

Lyconis furreSfa foHo angufiiffimo^ flare rvhelk^ among 
flax. Omithogalum vulgare Ger. among the corn plen- 
tifully. Cyclamen vemum, good ftore among (hrubs upon 
the hilb fides, now in flower. Afytui minor vulgaris ; 
Pbifyrrea angu/i^olia j Pbifyrrea 3 Cluf. Gevifta Hifpa^ 
nica Ger. Upon the defcent of the mountains, four niiks 
difbmt from Luca^ He/peris fylveftris latifolia flare atbt 
parvo Park. A kind of Alftn^ hirfiaa myo/otis with a 
very large flower. A (hrub like to Guaidcum Pata* 
-vimimj if hot the fame. A kind of. Tblajpi monofpermn 
wrixh a white flower ; ' Sedum minus femine fleUato\ an 
Sedum echinatvm ftore litteo J. B. in rupibus & aggeri«» 
bus fepium. Alflnefiliis hederaceis Rata modo divifes Lob. 
Ammme tuherifa radtce Ger. now in' flower. Near 
Porto Venere^ Alfine folio crajjh. 

Luca is no great city, Sanfivinus faith 2 miles round* 
(but I take it to be three or more) yet is it. very poput 
lous, containing within its walls in Sanfovims\ time 
about 34600 perfons ; which number! believe is now 
much increaied by reafon of the freedom and eafe the 
{uhj€&s enjoy under this government above their neigh-* 
bours of ^ufcany^ It is fituate in a pleafant valley, well Ibi'ti* 
fied, the walls and bulwarks both very ftrong and in good 
repair ; the mounts and [Platforms flored with great guns ; 
feveral ha]£mopns of earth without the walls : the walls 
themfdves planted with rows of trees, and we permitted 
to walk them without Jfcruple or queftion. The building^ 
of the city good; the churches though net great, yet as 
viell kept and h^dfbmely adorned -within fide as a mad 
ihaU (ee anjd : ^ the ftreets cleanly. aii4 weU paved ;• ia 
a word, all .things both within and without the city very 
trim and police. . Both citizens and countrymen are \^i^ 
courfi^ous and well manper'd, and feem bi»rh by their, 
habit and addrefs^ and the cheerAiIaeidr of their looka» t<ii 


222 Observations Topographical^ 

livie more freely and in better condition, and to have 
more fpirit and courage then the other people of Italy, 
That they live more freely and in better circumftances 
than their neighbours, themfelves are fenfible, and there- 
upon fo well ztkSbcA to their governors, and ftudiouB 
to maintain their liberty, that upon giving th^m a tok- 
en by making a fire upon one of the towers all the coun- 
trymen run prefently to the city, (o that in 2 or 3 houa 
time they can have ready 30000 men in arms: and 
withal they are fo courageous and ftout, that they feem 
to have no iear at all of the Duke of Tufcatty their po- 
tent neighbour, but told us, that, if their governors wouU 
lead them, they would not fear to march up to the 
very gates of Flonnce, 

That liberty doth naturally b^et courage and valour, 
and on the contrary, flavery and oppreffion break and 
debafe mens fpirits, is ib clear in experience, that I need 
not go about to prove it. And yet were it not i^ it 
b no wonder that men, who find themfelves wdl at 
cafe, and have ibmething to bfe, or are at leaft in a 
capacity of growing rich, if not already ib, fliould be 
very loth to change their condition for a worie, and 
iloutly defend themfelves againft any that (hould endea- 
vour to bring them'' under the yoke ; whereas thofe that 
are opprefled and aggrieved having nodiing to loTe, and 
being already in as bad a condition as they are like to be 
under any other government, muft needs have little heart 
to fight for their Princes, and be indificrent which yrvf 
things go. 

The women are not ib ftri^y giiaided and confined 
as in other cities of Itatf^ but walk up and down more 
freely. They are many of them handfome and well £fr- 
voured, and, notwithftanding their liberty, I think more 
modeft than their neighbours : in their labit and attirB 
they imitate fomewhat the Frmch fiiihions. 

This city is very vigilant and carefiil to preferve its li« 
berty : tho* they hive three gates, they permit ftrangen 
to enter in and go out only at one, that lb they may 
more eafily know what number are in the city, ion 
fear of a furprife. They permit none to walk about 
the ftreets fo much as with a fword, unkfi he hare 
licence frojn the Antumi. 


' ' liSfraij and rPbyfioJo^cal, 22^ 

The government is by si great council of l6o, an- 
nially chofen out o£ the nobility (the commons living 
ao ioteieft or (hue thorcin) who mud be all at leaft 
twenty-five years old, nine Antuini and a Ga^alimere. 
The jfniiani and GoiifaSmtre are chofcn a-new every 
two months. Thcfe are called the SignorU, and muft 
live in th^ palace djiring the ume of their office and 

Th^ havcB guard't^ Suiitxen in the pekce of about 
80. The Gmfakrutrt is the fupremc officer, yet hath 
.linJc, advaniagc above the rril more than hie title aad 
precedency ; and we were told, that during his office he 
is exempted from all taxes and gabels, which the noble- 
mea pay equally with the commons. The city is divi- 
ded into three parts called Ttnlerl^ each Ter^uero hath its 
arms or banner called pmfahnt ; whence the name 
Ga^ahidtre. At the corners of each ftiect are painted 
bom the arms and name of the Teruero, and the bul- 
' wafk they are to defend. Out of each ferxitro are chofea 
by the council three AHtian't, 

The pubUcIc revenue is thought to be 100,000 crowns 
fer Aim, The olives that grow in this Ceintory.are r^- 
ted the beft in ail bah. 

224 Observations Topographicatt 

O F 


to IS A was formerly, fo long as it continued, a frec- 
-* ftate or common-wealth, d rich, populous, potent, 
and flourUhlng city; but Hnce it hath come under the 
Florentine yoke, it is become poor, weak, and almoft 
defolate, notwithftanding all the endeavours the Dukes 
of Tufcany have ufed to invite and draw people thither, 
by founding an univerfity, fetting up an order of. knight- 
hood, and building an exchange for merchants there. 
It is fituate upon the river Jrnus in a fenny level j (b 
that the air muft needs be bad and unwHolfome for 
fuch as are not . born there. The moft lemajrkable 
things we took notice of in this city were r. The 
church of the knights of St. Stephen^ an order (bunded 
by Cofmusj the firft great Duke of Tufcany. 2, The 
houfe of BartobiSj now made a college for ftudents in 
law and philoibphy, and thereon this infcription, Fer^ 
dinandus Medices magnus Dux Etr, III. has ades fues 
elim Bartohis yuris interpres celeberr. incoluit nunc nm^ 
vatas ^ inftruSfas adolefcentibus qui ad Phibfophwvm ^ 
yuris confultorum Scholas mijji publico urbium atpu cfh' 
pidorum fuorum fumptu^Jeparatim aUbantur^ public^t utili^ 
tati confuUns addixit^ legefque quibus. in viffUy vefiitu 
vitaque ftmul degenda uterentur tulit^ Anno (aiutis 
MDLXXXXV. 3. The domo, or cathedral church, a 
fumptuous building of marble, having all the doors of 
brais curioufly engraven ; a double ifle on each fide the 
nave^ and two rows of marble pillars, adorned with 
ftately altara and rare pidures ; the wails are hung round 
about with red velvet ; the roof richly gilded. On each 
fide the high altar is a pifhire, and under it an inicrip* 
tioA explaining the hiAory of its which, becaufe they 


Morale and PhyJkbgicaL 225 

CMtain two of the notableft adventures and fuccefib 
of thb city, I thought it might not be amifi here to 

Tmplum hoe ut ou^^ potentia ae riUglms infigfu 
monwmntum pofteris extant^ Pifenis ex Saraa-- 
norum Jpolm capta Parnnm adijicatum ac San^9^ 
rwn retiqwis e Palaftina ufjUA advi^is au£fum 
Gelafius II. P. M. JoUnni pan^ ofrfecravit^ A. D« 

Paicale II. P. M. autmre^ Pifam clajfe 300 trirtmium 
Pitr9 Arch. PiL duc$ Bakares infulas profligatii 
Saracems in ditiomm redigtmt^ Chrtftianoqui mmini 
adjungunty capiaque regia conjuge ac filio pnecUt* 
ram vi^ariam illujlri plcquc triumpho extnrnarunt* 
A.D. 1 115. 

4. The Bapiifterhmy having in the middle a large 
marbk font lilce the ciftem of a fountain, with water 
oontinually running into it. There is alfo a marble 
pulpit curioufly carved. 5. The burying place, called 
the Can^ SantOf becaufe made of earth brought out of 
tiie Holy Land. The earth is faid to confume a body 
in forty-eight hours: it b an oblong (quare, encom- 
pailed with a broad portico, paved with grave-ftones, 
and the walls painted. 6. The Can^nUey or fieepley 
a laige round tower of a confiderable heighth, <b very 
much inclining, or feeming to incline or lean to one 
fide, that one would think it could not long fland up- 
lift, but muft needs fall that way. I fuppofe it was 
on purpofe built fo at firft, one fide being made per- 
pendicular^ and the other inclining, to deceive the fight^ 
tbo' fome lay it £uik after it was built, and doth really 
incline. 7. The aqtudu^i^ of above 5000 arches, begun 
by Cpfimuy and finUhed by Ferdinand I. Great Dukes of 
Tu/cany^ bringing water to the city from the mountains 
about five miks diftant. This water is fo good, that 
it is carried in flasks as &r as Leghorn to fell. 8. The 
pbjlfici'garden^ at our being there but meanly itored with 

Q^ From 

Leglmn. Ffofti Pifa we wdnt by boat to Leghorn [Uvwm\ 
called anciently P^ortus Ltiurma, feme ten or tUFelve 
miles difbnt. This town is not large, ar.d but low 
built, yet very pleaiant aiki uniform, having ftreight 
ftreets, and a fpacious ^sea in theeiiddle. It fiands 
in an open tevei» without mountain or hillock within 
five miles of it. oh any fide. It is weU fortified with 
waUs and bailions, and a deep tfench round, cxoqyt on 
the fea-fide; and fecured With a good garrifon^ being 
one of the moft confiderable and important places in all 
Tufcafiy. Since the Great Duke made it a free port, 
it hath increafed mightily ih trading and riches, great 
aumbel^of mefchduift from flU natidns reibrting hither, 
and moft of the bargains for the tomoiodities of the 
Vrhde Levant being here driven* Thegreateft part of 
the inhabitants are ftrangeis and Jfws^ which laft are 
efteemed one third of the whofe number of peopb^ and 
thought to amount to 5000 perfons and upward. Be- 
fore thefe privileges granted to Leghem^ when it was 
thin of inhabitanCs, it was afccoMnted a very bad air, 
and «r| unheidthfiil phcr^ by rsafon of the fens and 
mar&es adjoining: but How, fince it is become popu^ 
lous, the multkude of fines (as is fiippofed) hath fo cor« 
jpnSted the air^ that people enjoy their besdth as weil, 
and live as long here, as in any other town or cky of 
half, . 

Near the havto is a very magnificent ftatue of Firdi^ 
fumd h Great Duke, about the pedeflal whereof aio 
lour brais fiatues of Saves chained, of a gigantick bulk 
and ftature. The haven within the mole is but finati^ 
but here is good riding for ihips vi^ithout. The Gjnat 
Duke in Lent time ufes to make his rtfidenoe in this 
town i here being great variety of good filh taken in 
the fisa near hand, and to be fold at reafonahle sates; 
all other provifions being dear enough* In Le^Mn we 
faw workmen filing of marking-flones, called in Latm 
Lapis gaJaOiUs & mor$chthus^ in haUan Pietra ianaria ; 
which they tdd us were foumi at Monte negro alid there- 
about,^ fome five miles diftant from Le^mn^ and from 
lience tranQfcincd «nt6 Ftame^ Spetin^ England^ the Lmv- 
QowUfies^ fce. Of die duft and fiiingi of tlw Aone 


Maraly and Phyjiohgical. 227 

thef mabo the body of powder for hair, as the work* 
men informed us. 

* Of plante we obferved about Leghorn^ Kali gem^ 
adatttm majus^ in the marfhes by the iea^lde : Abfin- 
tbhm Seripbhm Gattieum ; Polium nidntanum album C B« 
Meiita d9lUia fpin^a ; MiMca c$chUata Jpiw/a ; Med* 
marinoy on the unds ; Cahba arvenfis C. B. Hyadnthui 
paluflris wrms, jUfeuHs fimkriatis albis ; Hyacinthns a^ 
fiufits Ger. Lathyrusfhri coccitie^ ; f^ia kuojkrejylveftris ; 
Oekmsfioi trvilia Ilod. thefe thnse hft among the corn ; 
as alfo Gladhlks Nathmunfit Lob. Tikfhium fcorpimdis 
Anguill. in ^enolk: Plyteuma Mmijpelienfium \ CUhm^ 
wmfratmji veficaritm Cof. Medica ScuUllata J. B. Irit 
hmrnUs vtolacga tatifiUa^ ic eadem ^i alboy in nipibus 
ad mare: HHniarw birfvia ; AUii fpedes^ an Ampehh- 
fraffianf Firrum equmum Lob. Orchii macraphyllos Co* 
liunnie ; Trifilium fragiferutn Jive Vijicariumj fioribut ni* 
iidis rkUUsj fi^cu&s vebd in umbilla parva difi>o/ius% 
Cbryfambtman BelHdis M$ Hort. Pat. inter ic^etes: 
BMifhAahmm C^tuUe folt9 C. B. an Chryfanthem. ValeH'^ 
Htmm Qufli ? Amhyuis leguminofa flo. furpuno* Cruciata 
tmmma muratis Col. Pe^s minor J. B. Agiratum frui 
Balpuniim mat: a fort of Draba with a white flower; 
l&mdum pir/iSattim i befides many which we had 
found in other places, as that fort of Darycnium which 
J* Bauhim$ calls Trifilium album nHum hirfutum valde % 
Carduks Cbrjfimthemus Narbonenjiij which Lobel calls 
Efyngium Uatmn Monjpelietifium ; Helwtropium ma jus i 
Cariau filftitialis Ger. Ci^horeum prafetfe verrucarium^ 
in arvis paffim ; Slattariajlfre lutio ; Convolvulus mini" 
mm fpicyolius Lob. Mtlijfa filheji. birfutior^ minus odo- 
rma % Dorycnio cofigemr phwia : Rapijfrum manofpermm ; 
Jmmi vtdjgan -, Pajferina Tragi ; Sidtritis vulgaris ; After 
baetts foUis ad fiorem rigidis ; Stoebe major caliculis nen 
/piMdentibus. Between Pifa and Leghorn we noted Leu- 
cnnm bulbofum maius pofyamhemum Ger. in the madhes 
near Pija pleatiiunyi Ari/ioloclna clematitisi After co* 
i9fS9Mfrx nobis didus; AJ^aragus altiUs : Gramen jvpimim 
actdiatum J. B. Befides thefe, we obferved fome which 
grow wild in England^ but more rarely, as Leumtfm 
nmrinmn majms folio finuato ; Ordns flucifhra galei ^ 

* naskH ebftxved idxHit Leghorn* 

Q^% eiSf 

228 Observations Topographical^ 

alts herbidis : Hfacintbtts Jlellaris vermis minor j EraH- 
themum five flos Adonis ; Trifolium pumilum fiipiimm Jlojcu^ 
Us longis alhis P. B. Etrrum eqmnum GermanicuPn Jili- 
fuis in fitmmtate C. B. 

At Leghorn finding a good Dutch vcfiel ready to fet fail 
for Naples^ we put our^lves aboard her : the wind hot 
favouring us, we Ipent five days in this paflage before 
we reached our port. The captain of the (hip told us 
that hereabouts, ufually in the forenoon, the wind blows 
from the land, and, in the afternoon, from the fea; 
fo that it is eafterly in the forenoon, and wefterly in 
the afternoon. We alfo obferved in this voyage, that 
about fun-fet the wind fell; fo that foon after fun«fet 
there was little or no wind ftirring: and likewife fo- 
vend days about fun-rifing we had but little wind. In 
our return backwards from MeJJina to Naples^ and from 
Naples to Leghorn^ we obferved that the wind, for the 
moil part, fat contrary to us. And the foamen tdd 
us, that thb vnas general in fummer time. So that 
you have a much quicker paflage from Leghorn to ^41- 
pleSy and thence to Meffina^ than backwards. We ob^ 
ferved alfo that the wind follows the fun, fo that every 
morning we could make fome ufe of the wind to fall 
with, but in the afternoon none at all ; which ^;rees 
exa£Uy with our captain's obfervation, the land lying 
eaflward, and the fea weft. Our captain alfo told us 
that, when they made a vopge from Holland to the 
Wejl'lndiesy they failed down the coaft of Africa as far 
fouthward, as the place in the Weft-Indies whither they 
intended to go lay, and then fteer'd dire(£tiy weftward ; 
both the wind blowing conftantly fipm the eaft, and 
the fea alfo running the fame way. Which relation 
of his concurring with the general vogue of mariners, 
if true, doth much confirm the opinion of the diurnal 
motion of the earth. When they return backwards 
from thence into Holland^ they go round about the bay 
of Mexico^ and up a good w^y northward, and then 
ftrike over to Europe^ the water being refleded, as he 
faid, that way, and the wind alfo often blowing that 
Nafla, .Naples lies by the fea-ftde under hills, in form of a thca* 
tre i fgr its ngure and fituation much like to Genoa^ 


Morale and PbyJiohgicaL 229 

but ibmewhat bigger, and much more populous ; {o that 
before the laft great plague (which fwept away, as we 
were credibly informed, at leaft 120000 fouls) one 
might well rsckon the number of inhabitants to have 
been about three hundred thouiand. The circuit of the 
walls is not above ieven Italian miles,, but it hath large 
fiiburbs. The town is well built of ftone, the houfes 
tall and maily ; for the moft part flat roofed, and co* 
vercd with a kind of plafter, which fences out the rain, 
and endures the weather well. Notwithfianding this 
city lies fo hx feuth, and under hills, yet is not the 
faeat extreme, but fuch as may well be endured, even 
in the middle of fummer, they having for the mofi: 
part, about noon-tide, a breeze of wind, which cools 
and refireflies much. Two or three hot days we had, 
but the reft temperate enough. They told us, that 
there ufes to be very little rain there in fummer-time^ 
howbeit at our being there (which was in the latter 
end of June^ and beginning of July) it rained every 
other day, and fometin^ts fo plentifully, that the water 
ran down like a river if^ the ftreets. When they have 
no lain, to cool the ftreets in the afternoon, they draw 
about a tun filled with cold water, and bored- with 
leveral holes, whenqe the water guihes out as \f. goes 
along. The diale£l of the Qommon people is much 
different from the Tufcan, and not to be underftood but 
by one who ha(h a long time converfed with them. 
This city is well ferved with all provifions, efpecially 
fruit, which is very cheap here. In this place we toolc 
firft notice of the Cucurbita anguina^ Cucumis anguinusy 
Mala injanaj bf Limmcelle^ to be (old in market. Ma-- 
iarmns and VenriiceUi (which are nothing but a kind of 
pafte cut into .the figure of worms or thongs) boil'd in 
broth or water, are a great diib here as well as at 
Miffina^ and as >nuch efteemed by the vulgar, as fru« 
menty by the .country people in England. All the 
Neapolitans and Sicilians^ and generally the Italians^ drink 
their wine and water fnowed ; and you fiiall fee many 
iblJs in the ftreets where there, is fnowed water tp 
be fold: many alfo you fliall meet, with a barrel at 
their backs, and glares in their hands> crying 

230 Observations Topographical, 

* Acqua ghiacciata^ or Jcfua mvata. We were credibly 
informed thst before the laft great plague the very gabd 
upon fnow was farmed at 25000 ciowmpgr auman. 

NB. To cool the water or wine thev do not pat tfas 
fnow into it, but round about the veltel wherein it is 
contained : fo they have a veflel contaming the fnow or 
ice, and into that they fet the veflel cantabiing the wine 
or water. 

There are in this city an incredible number of mom* 
fteries or religious houfes (z& they call them.) Bebranf 
Defcript. Neap, gives us a catalogue of 160 of all forts» 
whereof 121 of men and 39 of women; the namber 
of the per(bn$ contained in them being 12421. 

Four caftles there are to fecure and bridle the city with* 
al, I. Ca/lel d^Owj built on a rock in the (ea, having 
an artificial caufey or mole leading to it from the (bore. 2. 
Ca/lel S. ElfM or S. Hermo Handing on a hill above 
Che city. 3. Cajiel nevo by the water-fide, near the haven 
where the gallies lie. 4. Torrime £ Carmine^ made ufe of 
by Majfanielh and Anefe in the time of the rd)ellion. This 
is only a tower belonging to the Carmelitet doifter. 

The churches in this town are generally very hand- 
fome within fide ; many of them richly gilt and (iimptu* 
oufly adorned j feme of them not only paved with marble 
of divers colours, but their walls incrufled all over with 
marble inlaid. Of all the cloiften I have anv where 
ieen that of the Carthujiansy clofe adjoining to the caftle 
S. Elmoy is the moftfploidid and magnificent, where there 
is a lai^e iquare court compafled about with the fam&pe* 
Ttftylium or cloifter that I ever faw : all the pillan and 
all the pavement (of the portico I mean) being of marble 
of fevcra! colours wdl wrought, pdifh'd, and laid, and fo 
cleanly and elegantly kept, that one cannot fee a more 
pieafaiit fpedbcle of this nature. For my own part I was 
much taken with the fight of it. Here is a feir arfenal 
to build gallies in, now made but little ufc of. The pub- 
lick granary deferves notice taking, it being the greateft 
and beft furniflicd of any we have feen. They told us 
there was corn enough always in ftore to ferve the whole 

• /. f . Snowed water or iced water. 


city fiuse years. upon any cxigoncy. Theie are great 
vaults made under ^und to kccpi it in winter time, and 
kfge rooms above to keep it in fununer. A great num« 
her of men they hiie to turn all the beds of corn every 
day. The bakeis of the town are obliged to take ^tij 
month 35000 * ftOM&' out of this granary, that £> there 
nay be a liicoeffion of new com yearly* This they pay*i 
ing a good rate for, is the reafoM why bread is dearer in 
wfUs than othcrwifii it would be. 

in the city of NafU^ aie •s Sig^iy that is, benches or 
companies of nobienien» wrs. that of x. Cafm. 2. Nida. 
3* MotUagna. 4. fmrta^ 5* Pvia tmm. In the whole king<^ 
dom of Niaplii there arc 148 cities, of which ar [ ao] 
an aichbifliopricks, and 127 [ia8] bifhopricks: to about 
30 of which the King of Spain nominates : 87 Princes; 
122 dukes } 159 mar^jelfts, and 7 earls. The kingdom 
is divided into xa provinces, vis. i. TERKA DI LA- 
VOKO anciently called Cumpama fdhi^ in which are 14 
cities» wx, x. Averia. 2. Capua, q. Gderta. 4. G^ta. 
5. Ifchb. 6. Mafla-Lubftnfe. 7. Nbla. 8. Poxzuoli. 9* 
6ei&« xo. Sorrento, xi. Teano. X2.Traetlo. ij.Venafro^ 
14. Vleo Equenfe. %. PRINCIPATO CITRA, in which 
are 18 dties, x. Amalfi. a. Campagna. 3. Capri in the 
khnd Capyea near ^0^r famous for the retirement of the 
cf Tihenus Cmhr. The greateft part of the revenue of 
the btflx)p of tnis ifland they tokl us arifes fftxn the quails 
taken therein. 4. Gifella. 5. Conturfi. 6. Eboli. 7 C^pac- 
cia. 8. Gragneno. §. Lettered xo. Laurino. ix. Nocera. 
X2. Salerno. X3. San-feverino. 14. Saponanu 15. Sarno, 
t6. Scab. i^.TmnUMiti. x8. RaveUo. 3. PRINCIPATO 
ULTRA, m which are 14, vi%. i &neveno, 2. Solo- 
fta. 3^ CmfiL 4* Ariano. 5 Avellino. 6. Bilaccio. 7. SL 
Angdb de Lombardi. 8. Cedogna. 9. Monte marano. xa 
Niifeo. XI. Voltoranu 12. Vico. xj. Vioo della Baioniaw 
14. & A^tha deUi grottL 4. BASILiCATA, which 
hath If cities, wc. x. LaveHo. a. Amalfi. 3. Policaftrou 
4. Venefii. 5. Acirenea. 6. Muro. 7 Monte pek)fo. 8. 
Potenaa. 9. Rapolbu fo. Tricarico. i x. Tuifi. 5. CA^ 

f A trnph is a meafiire bigger than an ln^*p^ buflieL 


23* O B ss R V A T 10 N s. Thpcgfapbfcaly 

LABRIA CITRA, in which are 12. viz. i. ManteJU 

2. Coienza. 3. Paoh. 4. Montalto. 5. Roilano. 6. Biiig^ 
nano. 7 Caciari. 8. Caflano. 9. Martirano. 10. Stroi^o- 
li. 1 1. S. Marco, 12. Ubriatico. 6. CALABRIA ULTRA 
1 6. viz, I. Gitanzara. 2. Crotone. 3* Squilaci. 4. Ta^ 
verna. 5. Tropia. 6. Rhezo, or Reggio, antiently JUr- 
gium. 7. BeBcaftra 8. Bova9. S. Severioa. 10. Giexaci« 
II. L'iibla. i2.Mondlene. 13. Melito, 14. Nicaftro. 15. 
Nicotcrra. 16. Oppido. 7. TERRA IKOTRANTO 
14, viz. I. Gallipoli. 2. Lecce» 3* Brindifi. 4. Mateia. 
5. Oftuni. 6 Tarento. y. Otranto, Hydruntum. 8. Alefla^ 
no. 9. Caftellaneta. 10. Caftro. ii, Motola. ¥'2.Naido(. 
13. Oria. 14. Ugento, 8. TERRA DI BARI, 16. i. 
Andria. 2. fiari. 3. Barlett^, a very ftrong hold. 4. Bi-> 
tonto. 5. Terra di Mola. 6. Molfetta. 7. MonopoJi. 8« 
Trani. 9. Giovenazzo. 10. Bifeglia* ii^ Bitettp. I2« 
Converfano. 13. Gravina. 14. Monoruino^ 15. Polignano 
or Putignano. 16. Ruvo. 9. ABRUZZO QTRA 5. viz. 
J. Chjeti;.2. Sulmona. 3. Benevento. 4. Borrelle. 5. Or-- 
tona. 10. ABRUZZO ULTRA 5, i. Aquila. a. Atri, 

3. Campli. 4. Civiu di Penna. 5..Teramo, 11. CON- 
TADO DI MOLISI 4. i. Boiano guardia. 2. Alfercs. 
3. Ifernia..4. Trivento. 1 2, CAPITAN AT A 13. wx, 
z. Monte S. Angelo 2, AlboL 3. Bovino. 4. Ferenfuola. 
5. Larino. 6, Lucera. 7. Lefina. 8. Sajpe. 9. Viefte. 10, 
Volturara, 11. Termole. 12. SanAoSevero. 13. Manfre* 
<lonia : in 9II about 15 !• But ipany of thefe are pitiful 
,poor defolate pbces, inferior to the better fort pf our En^i 
gUJh villages.* 

Every hearth (fires they call them) in tji^s kingdom of 
Naples pays fifteen Carolines the ye^r to the King, wbich 
is about fix and fix pence or feven . (hillings EngU/b^ The 
iiumberof firesin the \vhole kiogdo(n is AlSl^l'* befidcs 
5804 whicfh'are exejnpt from payment. In which num- 
ber are not comprehended the fires of the Alhanefi an^ 
JUyrians commonly galled Sdavmians who pay no mor^ 
than eleven ^Carolines the year, . are numbered ^ery year^ 
^nd are permitted tp remove from place to place in th^ 
kingdom. The number of thefe extraordinary fires is 
4451. So'then the w|)oIe.fum of the heart h-rnoney is 
719095 ducats four Carolines, from which deducting what 
1$ te i^ abated for places .piyjleged and exempt from 


Moraly and Phyjkl9gi€(il. * 233 

payment, that whidi comes dear into the King's treafiiiy 
will he 654873 ducats, and iix Carolines. 

The Adfigo^ or tax Which feudatories pay to the King 
in lieu of perfonal fervice, amounts ia ttie whole kingdom 
to 120568 ducats: they alio pay reliefs after death one 
half of a year's rey^ue. * Befid^ thefe there are abundance 
more taxes and gabels paid by the TubjeA i an account 
of all which in particular may be feen in Scipio Mazzelld'% 
Description of, the Kingdom of NapUs^ written in Ita^ 
Uan ;uid printed i6oi» So that one would think it were 
impoffible for poor peaiants to pick up fo much money 9$ 
thor pay to the King only : and yet I believe the gabels 
and payments are ilnce that time much increafed. The 
whok fum of all the King's Entrata or revenue yearly 
accruing from this kingdom then was 2996937 ducats^ 3 
Carolines, and 14 grains. . 

While we ftaid in this city we were prefent at the 
meeting of the Virtuoji or philofophic academy, which is 
held weekly on JVednefiU^s in the palace of that moft 
civil and obliging) nobl^ and virtuous perfbn, the mar-; 
que& jyArffUf. There were of the academy but 15 or 
J 6 admitted, but at the meeting were prefent at leaft 
threescore. Firft there was {hewed the experiment of 
the water's aicending above its level in (lender tubes^ upon 
which when they had diicourled a while, three of the 
fociety recited difcouries they had ftudied and compofed 
about particular fubjefls, which were appointed them to 
confider the week before : and after fome obgedlions againft 
what was delivered and reafonings to and fro about it, 
the company was difmils'd. A man could fcarce hope 
to find luch a knot^pf ingenious perfons and of that lati- 
tude and freedom of judgment in (o remote a part of £«• 
ropej and in the communion of fuch a phurch* They 
are well acquainted with writings of all the learned and 
ingenious meq of the immediately preceding age, as 
Calile0j Cartes^ Gajfendus^ Harv^^yerulam \ and of the 
prefent yet furviving, as Mr., Boyk<i Sir Georgg Eniy Dr. 
Ghjm^ Dr. fTtltij^ Hx.Wharim^ Mr. Hobbs, Mr. Hock^ 
Aloniieur Pec^t^ &c. We were very much pleaied and 
ferisfifd with the converfation and difcoqrfe of fome of 
them. Amongft the reft Dr. Ttomds Cornelius hath 
made himielf known to the worU by his writings. 


234 Observations 7ep$graphicdt^ 

jipril 24. We went hj water to Pmramh ancieiitly Putedi ; thert 
PcxKMoU. fo (bon as we were come into oitr inii many faunen aiwl 
country people came about us, fome bringing fht\h^ o- 
then Hipfoeampi dried, others ancient medab and Entag^ 
Kt^ others pieces of coloured glafi laked out of the fea^ 
(as they told us^ about Arginteria. Near tins town ano 
feveral arches of ftone [13 peers] reaching a great way 
into the fea. Some are of opinion that this was the be* 
ginning of CaEguU^s bridge c^ver this bay, and that from 
the end of this pile as far as Baia |the reft of the bridge 
was made of vefiels, locked together and faftened with an* 
chora on each (ide. But more probable it is that this was 
Intended for a mok or peer to fecure the harbour, and for 
Slips to lie behind, becaufe upon every peer a great ftone 
perforated ftands jetting out to tie veflHs onto. That it 
was an ancient Roman work the manner of the arches^ 
die figure of the bricks,' and the ftateline6 of it do fiiffici^ 
endy argue. 

From Pazxuob we pafled over the gulf to Bai^y where 
are fo many antiquities, that to difcourfe folly of them 
would require a vdume alone. And others having writ** 
ten at large of them both in Bnglljb and Latin^ I fliall 
not fe much as mention any thing fiive only the fweatii^ 
vault being one of riie grots called the * Bagni de TriuB. 
It is a. long and narrow paflage like the entry into fome 
room, the upper part whereof is fo hot, that a man can- 
not endure to walk upright, being then in danger to be- 
ftifled by the hot and futtbcating vapour with which the 
tipper part of the vauk is filled : the lower part though 
not cold is yet tolerable^ Indeed one wouM not think 
there could be fo great a diference in fo fmaU a diftancc. 
He therefore that goes in there is neceffitated to floop low ; 
for if you do but hold up your hand it fweats fuddenly; 
We obfervcd that of the lower part of this vault where 
it was cool the fide$ were a firm ftone^ but of the upper 
part where it was hot, a foft, friable,'yct unAuous yellow 
clay. It foemed to 19 to haye a mixture of fulphur and 
fixed (alt deltquated in it, but wc mad^ no trial of it by fire 
or o^rwiTe. Where Msjlratum or regbn of clay be-^ 

gins there precifely doth the heat begins fo that where ^ 

• - ^ 

* The baths of TritM. 


Morale and JPhypQlo^icaL 835 

itgbn of clay goes lower there you muft ftoop lover to 
avoid the heat. In this hot fteam there is a watery va« 
pour contained, at appears by the drops notwhhftanding 
all the heat condenfed oa the fides of th« vault a« 00 an 
akmbick head. 

As «c returned we viewed the new mountain, called 
hf fome * Mmi$ it £emr$^ an earthquake, 
SfftifnbiT 29. 1538$ of about an hundred foot perpen* 
dicubr akitiide ; though others make it much higher, 
according to &iifhanu% Psghius it is a mile afcent to thf 
lop, and four miks round at the foot. We judged it 
nothingnear (b great. The people &y it beannothine; 
nothti^ of any uib or profit, I fuppoA thev mean, eUb 
I am fiire there grows htathy m/rtky msf/llch'trH^ and 
other Ihnibs upon it. It is a fpungy Idnd of earth, and 
makes a great fi>und under a man's fiset that fbrnpe 
upon it. 

The iame earthquake threw up fo much earth, ftones, 
and aflies, as quite filled up the Lacus Lucrinus^ fo that 
there is nothing |iow left of it but a fenny meadow. 

In our return fimm PmoBUitla we viewed the mountain 
called Sol/atara tncicnOy Campi Pbligraiy which conti-* 
nually burns. On the top of the mountain is a largp 
excavated oval phoe like an amphitheatre, in length 
I {GO fi)ot, in breadth 1000 ; where the burning it. 
There are fcveial holes or vents where the fmoke iifiies 
out, as out of a furnace. We gather'd ptrkSt flowers 
of fuiphir to appearance, and falt^armoniack fticking 
to the mouths of thefe vents. If 7^ thntft a fword, or 
any iron inftrument, into one of the holes where the 
make comes out, and fuddenly draw it back again, 
you (hall fee it all over bedewed or thick fet with drope 
of water. Whence it is manifeft that this finoke is not 
only a dry exhalation, but hath alfi> a good c^uanttty of 
the vapour of water roix'd with it. We obfeinred that 
tbefie ^es xJl fviphwr wcuU not bum, nor eafily melt 
over the fire, oy realbn of the admixture of feme he- 
teiogcneous body with them. The flones and earth of 
this mountain aie cmAed over with thefe flowers of 
Mmfione, which they gather and diftil brimftone out 

* i. A The mooBtnn ef aflies, er cindetf. 


z^6 Observations Topographical^ 

of. As one walks here, the earth/ makes a norfe as if 
if it were hollow underneath; and one may perkSdy 
hear, as it were, the hifiing and boiling of ibme melted 
mineral, metal, or other liquor, juft under one*s feer* 
One that ihould fee thb fmoke, hear this noife, and 
feel the heat, would woiider that the mountain Ihould 
not fuddenly break out into a flame. This great 
hollow above was, I fuppofe, excavated partly by force 
of the burning, the earth finking down, and partly by 
paring away the top to diftil for brimftone. 
Vefuvius, Five miles diftant from Naples is the mountain Vejii- 
vlusy (o famous in all ages for its burning. The ground 
all about the fides of it we found covered with cinders 
and pumice-ftones, which had been caft out in the time 
of the burnings. We obferved a^. great channels, like 
gulls made by.fudden torrents and land- floods, which they 
told us were made by water thrown out at the top of 
the mountain in the conflagi^tions. Toward the top 
grew ytty few plants. Aceuja tniUa where nothing elfe 
was to be feen, A little lower, grew Cobaea Scerpindes^^nd 
feme {hrubs ofp9plar. Near the top the afeent was fteep, 
and very toiKbpe to get up. Upon the very top is a 
great pit or faolbw in form of an amphitheatre, of a- 
^ut ^ mile round, caufed by the fire's blowing up the 
upper part of the mountain feveral times with great vk>> 
lence. There are ftiM about the bottom of this great 
cavity fome fmall fpiracuh of fmoke, but tnconfidenible, 
and which feem'd not to threaten any fiiture eruption. 
The Grot' We viewe4 . the cav« ca]l*d Grotta di cam^ near the 
ta di cane. Logo Agnano^ This grot is narrow and (hort. Whate- 
ver others have written or 6id to the contrary, a man 
may, without any great prejudice, go into and continue 
in it a long time, even in the further end of it, as fome 
of us did above an hour's fpace* The venenofe vapour 
("whether it be purely fulphureoua, or alio arfenical) as- 
cends not a foot from the ground ) but fo high as k 
afcQnds one feels -his feet and: legs hot. If you hold your 
head down near the ground where the vapour is, you 
fhall prefently find a fierce, fulphureous twinge in yoor 
nofc,. juft as if you held your head over buraing brim- 
ftone, or more violent, which makes a man ftagger at 
firft ftroke, and ftifles before IMIC he aitface, WecarrM 


Moral, and PbyJhIogtcaL . 237 

With us a dog, which, by holding his nofe down, we 
almoft kill'd fuddenly ; and then throwing htm into the 
lake, to try whether that would recover him (as is g^« 
nerally believ'd) the dog being not lively enough to fwim 
was there drowned. I believe if we had left him in 
the air he would have recovered. We then put in a 
pullet, which was mortified immediately; next a frog, 
which held not out long ; and laft of all a ferpent, which 
lived about half an hour. The fteam, if you h6ld a 
candle where it comes, prefently puts it out I believe 
this vapour arifes not only in thb grot precifely, but alio 
all hereabout, as I am confident would be found, were 
there other grots dug out of the hill near it. 

f Going to this grot, we pafled through the vault 
or artificial high-way wherewith the mountain Paujtlypus 
is perforated, made by one Cocceius in 15 days. It is 
£ud to be a mile in length, but we judged it not above 
half an Enghjh mile. It b higheft at each end, and 
loweft in the middle, and yet there about 12 foot high ; 
hroad enough for two carts meeting to pais one ano* 
tber. About the middle of the vault it is fo dark (no 
light now coming in but at the ends) *that thofe who 
meet cannot fee >one another ; and therefore, left they 
ihould juftle, or fall foul one upon another, the^ that 
go toward the fea cry AUa marina^ and they which go 
into the country cry Alia montagna ; fo each take their left 
hand, and pals commodioufly. The ports may be feen 
from end to end, and any where in the mid-way ; but 
in cloudy weather it is fo dark in the middle that a 
man can foarce fee his hands held up to the light. This 
rood is much frequented ; though the bottom be ftone, 
yet is it very dufty. Near the end toward NapUs 
we faw a window at the top. They that write of this 
grot mention two windows made by Alphonfus I. King 
of Naplis s but we iaw only this, which doth yield 
but little light. 

* The plants, we took mote efpecial notice of about 
Naples^ were tbefe, Trtfolium anmiculatum incanum tna^ 
rJtJmum majusi Lotm JUiqtds Orniibopodiii 4dedi(a orbi* 

-f- The grot or hole through mount Paufifyfms** 

* FUim obfcrved about iV^/r/. 


3238 CbservatioMs Topographical^ 

eulata winor ; Midua JoUata fpipt^a ; Jacea fmrfttrea 
nunithna eapittdo fpimfi NeafUitanai Kbammis prtmmt 
Cluf. Stofchat ciirina altera ttmafilia Jive Italiea J. B. 
Lmaria ederata Mtn/^ejffklana ; Medka marina \ In lito* 
nbus arenoTis paffim. On the rocks about AriW, Ar- 
Udiy Vc, Cytifus btcanus^ filiquis fakatis ; Acantbms fa- 
iwus\ Laurus Ttnus e^mued hated '^ Aeaeia altera tri- 
fiUa Ger. GnafhaKum marhitman ; ioncbus Creticus fiSis 
kciniatii C. B. Cbryfanthemi Cretici dua aut tres differ 
renii^ ; Faia Veterum ferratit feUis Park* Molf panmm 
eatde trisngul$\ Centaurium haium novum Col. Ceriktfm 
miner Jhre bae$\ Lfchnis fiheftris birta Lob. Lychnis 
mentana vifcofa aiba tatifcua C B* Gramen tremnbon 
maxifmtmi Lagepus maximue Ger» On the mountain 
fVuviusj Of near to it, Helianthemum Jhre maeukfi CoL 
frifeitum Jlellatum C. B. Fuia feu Lathyrus granmiH 
fih^ Jhre ceccinee ; Odutea Jierfindet i Lehu arier 1 Ar* 
hutus \ Linaria granuuea Jleriim cemgejlis purpureis ; Li" 
naria purpurea magna J. B. Genifta Hifpamca. As jon 

£i up from the city co the doifter of the CamaUu-- 
tfesj Martagon Chymijlarum Lob. Arijtekchia rotunda ; 
Orekus Jyhaticue ^iei^ fidds C. B. Laurus ; Cbryfantbe* 
mum Bellidis felie j Digttalis btea vel pallida parffc Jhre 
C. B. Hemiemtis mubifida \ Hermimim biteum gbetin^ian 
Jhe Celus Jtvis; Trifdium Htumimojiim^ quo nihil frequen-* 
dus per totam Italian^ & Siciliam } Cytifus hirfutus J. B. 
whole woods of ehefnuti Gemjla Hijfamca ; Cebttea turn 
vejicaria turn fc9rpteides\ Ferula Lob. Genijla tin^foria 
Hi^fkca $ yida Jtoribus pallide luteis ampUJJimis $ Ajief 
moktanus luteut S/licis glahN> folk \ Mill^olium cdtratum ; 
Hefperis fylveftrit latifolia fh. atbe paroe Park. Andrefes^ 
mum faetidum five Tragium^ Speculum veneris majus ; Pan* 
cratium Lob» , In lift>re Neapolit^o, Lotus cemsculata 
JUifus fingularihue vel binis^ tenuis J. B. Trihulus ter^ 
reftris ccpiofiffimi\ Hyrfcyamus alius $ Juncus eypermdet 
maritimus Ad. Lob. In arenofis maritimis ItaSx 8c 
Sicilian frequens. Mala infana ; Italis Melwigena^ Nea- 
poli ill fbro olitorio venalia $ Cucumis fhxurfus anguinus 
Lob. ibidem. Cucumeres Italis dktn^tur Citrtdli \ Melones 
aquatict cucumere. Cucurbita angmna Lob. Malus Lim§- 
ma fruAu patYO, Limencetlts iiBo^ Neapoli & Meffinae. 
Fru^his nucleis caret* hoc €ft« < raros nucleos hs^iet* 


Moral, and Phjfi§l^caL ^39 

ta the ti^ time w<( Ikw xaAny fUber-boati oat %t 
lea with a light at one end of theoii to invite the fi(h 
to follow the boatt where ftanda a fellow i^ith an inr 
ftmoieat in jm hand, like a iiiofe-fpcar» ready to ftrilw 

In the iame yeflel which brought us to Naples^ we-^'^iq. 
began our Toyag^ to Ai^fbui in £k^. Where we arrived ^€^'« 
Miy 2. We failed in fight of the jEiUdts^ or Fitta»- 
nrjT ift/iilmf twa of which, fn%. StronSoti and Vukan^ 
do ftill bum ; and StrmkoU with that rage fometimct, 
chat no nun dares live upon it As we pafled by in 
the night time we £iw it flame. It is difficult to en^ 
ter in at the nx>uth of the flreight by the Fmrt of 
JUkJjfna^ bccaufe of the current, which nins here vio» 
lently foaietinie$ towaids CaMriay fomettmes toward 
Sicify : b that marioen, who have not often iailed this 
ftrei^ty arc farced to hire a pilot ef Mefina to ain*> 
Ai8t them in ; who, for the moft part, when they fee 
any veflel earning, go out in boats to meet it, and oflSsr 
their fenricc to guide it into the harbour, for which 
they win be weU paid ; our captain being forced to give 
ten pieces of eight. The haven of M^jina is very com- 
modious and fecure, compafled almoft round with the 
city on one ikfe, and a narrow knguet or neck of land 
on the other, refembling a large hih-pond. The city 
makes a gDodly fhew, as one comes to it by Tea, the 
lioufes all along the Ihore being built of firee-ftone, taS 
and uniform, and having a fair broad key before them. 
But the ftreets within are narrow, not well paved, nor 
the houfes near fe feir. So that it is a proverb^ A Ateffims 
AjpHpohxrt^ fidetj ist fmunu* At AAffind you have duft, 
ms, and whores flore. This city pretends to be the 
principal and nutrepoUs of Sicify [R^m cstfia] and will 
by no meam give place to Paiermo, The vkeroy is oUi* 
ged to refide eighteen months here, and eighteen at Pa* 
kmn, Thqr ftand much upon th»r privileges granted 
tfaem by Charbs V. Empeior; and one privilege 
tbey have^ not to fliew thdr privileges. They contend 
cameftly to have the ftaple, or monoply of filk here, 
and had lately obtained a grant thereof from Spain : but 
the Palermitansy feeing how much this would redound 

to their prejudice, have got tt reveiM. It fcemz for* 


240 OisEKVATiONs Topdgrapbtcat^ 

merly all the ftlk made in Sicify was vendecT at MtJ^a^ 
but by degrees Palermo hath got part of this trade to 
jtielf, and now pleads prefcription for it. There is a 
great emulation and enmity between the PaUrmtans 
and' Meffanefcy which involves the whole ifland -, ibme 
cities taking part with one, and ibme with the other. 
The titles the Mejfaruft give their city, in their publick 
inftruments and writings, are the nAh and exemplary city 
of Mifftna^ The inhabitants are none of the moft ci- 
vil, but extraordinarily proud, and ready to expel the 
viceroy if he difpleafes them. The King of Sipain 
hath four caftles in and about this city, and the citi- 
zens as many in their hands. The city gates (bmd open 
all night, fo that it's free for any man to enter in and 
^ out at pleafure. Their * government among themfelves 
B by fix Jurats ; four of the gentry, and two of the 
citizens. They are chofen after this manner.. Every 
year there is a certain number who do ambire magijira^ 
tumy or (as they phrafe it) concur to come in cap; 
fometimes more, fometimes fewer. The gentlemen 
choofe by themfelves, and the citizens by themfelves. 
The names of all the gentlemen of. above twenty-five 
years of age, and likewife of all the artifans and tradef- 
men, are written in little fcrolls of paper, and thofe 
xoUed up and caft upon a table. Then comes in the 
King's delegate, and takes up of each heap of thefe 
foroUs, to the number of thirty-fix, and thofe are the 
dedors* Thefe eledors are brought into a room, where 
are boxes fet according to the number of competitors, 
and have balls given them blue and white; the blue 
aflErmative, and the white native; and they give to 
every one of the candidates their fufFrages as they pleafe;. 
Thofe eight of the noblemen, and four of the citizens 
which have moft fufFrages are elected, and come in cap. 
Now on the iirft of May thefe twelve have their names 
written in little fcrolls of paper put in a cap \ and a little 
boy puts his hand in a»d takes out one by one, to the 
number of fix ; and thofe fix are the Jurats for that 
year. The Jurats for the nobility, tho' they be the 
greater numtier, yet can they do nothing without the 

• The gcvtmiucat of Meffina* 


\ «■ 

Moraty and PhyJiologicaL 241 

confent of one of the Jurats for the citizens. After 
adl this ftir thefe Jurats have but littk power, nothing 
to do either in civil or criminal caufes of any moment. 

Of + plants, we found here on the beech or languet 
of hrid, between the haven of Meffina and the Fretum 
Sicubim, PeUeedanum majus Itallcum ; Linaria anguftifi- 
ita fiore tuteo^ vulgar i perfimUs ; Sideritis verticiUis Jpi" 
nofis J, B. Fitnugraco Jyheflrl Tragi in quibufiam acce^ 
di^s planta J. B. Some call this plant Vicia Sefamacea 
Aputa ; I think it might be fitly titled Glaux peregrina 
'annua; Vicia mari'tima multijbra alba^ Meffantnfts nobis 
dida ; Spina Solftitialis jhre conveniente^ capituUsJiffiUbus ; 
An Solftitialis mitior Apula Col. f Thlajpi clypeatum hie- 
racifoBum majus Park. Trifolium Jtellatum C, B, Pofygo^ 
num mveum ; Securidaca Jtliquis plants dentatis Ger. Tn* 
filium capituiis ghhofisfine pediculis eauBhus adnexis ; In An- 
glia hanc fpeciem nuper invenimus. Gramen tremulum 
maximum ; Melilotus MtJJanenJis procumbens^ fiUicutis fla- 
vicantibuSf per Tnaturitatem^ rugojis^t fublmgisy jpicaflorum 
hreviore^ verum femsnibus grandioribus quam Melilcti vn/- 
garis: MgHops Narbmenjis Lob. Gramims AlopicuroisSs 
raroa Jpecies : Omithopodium majus i Ammivu^are; Cymt" 
num Jyhf/fre alterum Diofcoridis Italorum Lob. Syjsrin* 
thium majus Ger. 

In other places, efpecially on the hills above the city ; 
Ridnusfiue Palma Chrijli in the hedges plentifully, both 
Jiere and in other places of Sicify. Tordylium five Sefili 
Creticum minus Park. Convohutus Althaa folio ; Aljine 
foEo obbngo ferrato^ Jlore caruUo J. B. Valeriana Mexi- 
earns ; Arbutus \ Sonchus lanatus Dalechampii ; Geranium 
cicuta folioj acii hngijj^d C: B. Lupinus fyheftris flare. 
C€ervleo\ Lupinus flore luteo; Senecionis an Chryfanthemi 
fpecies folio Bellidts \ Calix Senecionis calicem exaAe re- 
fcit, verum fJos circulum habet foliofum in margine ad 
modum Jacobseae ; Flantula tenera eft, radicem habens 
fibroiam, folia Bellidis, . Lychnis pdrvdyfilio angu/lo^ flori 
rubeBo, Ab aliis facile diftinguitur, quda calix floris Ion- 
gus fit & gracilis, ipfSque Horum petala ad ungueni pro- 
pe £ila velut Alfiii6s. Trifolium balicacabim froe v^tca^ 

f Plants gtamng aboot Mtfiiut, 

242 Observations Topograpbicalj 

rium J, B. Hedyfarum clypeatum Ger, JUre purpurea £sf 
albo ; Trifolium biiumimfumy ubique ; Lotus Jiliqud qua^ 
drata Ger. Gladiolus Narhwenfts Lob. Medica orbiculata 
lav is major i^ minor, Medica fruSlu ovali echinato'y Scot- 
pioides Bupleuri folio Ger. Anagyris fcetida ; Crataogonon 

feu Eupljrafta ere£fa flore luteo magno ; Radix huic noa 
iimple)c fed furculofa, annua. Caulis ere6his cubitalis aut 
etiam altior, quadratus, nonnihil lanuginofus. Folia pie- 
runque ex adverfb biha, longa, angufta, rarius dentata, 
& omnino foliis Cratxogoni Euphrofynes facie fimilia. 
Spica jlorum in fumino congeila, quadrata, lanuginoia & 
nonnihil etiam vifcida. Flares lutei, ampli, cucullati^ fi- 
gura florum Ladani iegetum. 

Crataogonon ereSJum flore vario tx albo ^ purpurea \ 
Priori fimillimum eft, &c in eo prxcipue dilFert, quod 
non fit adeo procerum, quod caule & aliquando etiam 
margines foliorum rubeant, quod flores minorcs fint & 
coloris diverfi \ cucuUi v. g. rubent. Labia medio al- 
bent, ad margines rubore diluuntur. Poflent hse plants 
ad Chriftas galli rediici ; nos in catalogo ad Melampyra 
retulimus. Holojhum Plantagini flmile J. B. Gramen 

'* daSiylon gemina /pica ; Afphodelus major ramofus flore al- 
bo J. B. 4/ler luteus foliis ad florem rigidis 
C. B. Trachelium parvum^ folio Bellidis Jubrotufido^ Ra- 
dix ei alba, fimplex, lignofa, annua. Caulis eredus, flri* 
atus. Folia alternatim pofita, fubrotunda, fine pediciilis 
caulibus adnexa. Flores Trachelii. Trifolium album rec-r 
turn hirfutum valde J. B. Dorycnii fpecies ; Medica orbi- 
culata fruSfu circa margines dentato^ an Medica coronata 
Cherleri J, B, Lychnis ad Pfeudomelanthium accedens^ 
glabra fere, Radice nititur alba, lignofa, unde & planta 
annua ell'c videtur. Caulis nuncfimplex ab eadem ra- 
dice exurgit, nunc multiplex, vel faltem ab imo ftatim 
ramofus, pro ratione foU in quo nafcitur, geniculatus. 
Folia ad genicula ex adverfb bina, viridia, long^ anguA 
fta, Graminis leucanthemi foliis nonnihil fimilia, laris 
pilis hirfuta. Flores in fummitatibus caulis & ramorum 
pejiculis longis infident, quinquefolii pallide purpurei^ 
vice il^niinum in medio habentes calicem e quinque 
foliolis in fummo bifidis compofitum, ut Lychnidis fyl- 
vcftris flores. Perianthium feu calix floris ftriatus vclut 
Pfeudomelanthii. Semina nondum maturuerant. Abfin- 
thium arborefcms i Paronychia ftve Alfinefolia incana J. B. 

Moraly and Ph^%logical. 243 

Androfamwh fastidum Park. i. e. Tragium ; Acanthus fa- 
tivus ; Sedum medium fiore albo^ apicibus Jiamnum luteis ; 
Ferula Lob. Tbapfta latifolia Hifpanica Park, iatifolia P. 
Caftclk) in Cata!. Meflanenfi. Hyjfopta fylvat. HalimUs. 
Lob. prope Pliaron Mejfan. abundat, item in arenofls ad 
maris litus, verfus meridiem, Agmts cajius ibidem ; Ok- 
etnder^ ad aquarum rivulos frequens ; Sorius vulgaris domejii- 
ta ; Mjrtus anguJlifoUa ; I'hymelaa Ger. Hieracium calice 
harbato Col. Chondrilla faxa tilts vifcofa^ caule xi^iffci/o^Sp^ 
Col, Aceiofa OcymifoUo Neapolitana ^vxs^Ai) ^ j£^ Col. u- 
bique in SictJia ; ocrcphularia Rut a canina didta ; Lina- 
ria altera botvyodes fnontana Col. frequens in montofis ; 
A/ieris fpeciesj dn Bacchatis Col. ? Daucus 3 Diofcoridis 
Col. Carduus Chryfanthemus Narbonenjis Gtr, Carduus 
Cbrjfamhemus Dod. Carlina fyhfftris vulgaris Quf. Pfyl- 
Hum vulgar e I Kali majus femine cochlea to ; Lotus arbor i 
Cotimts Chamamcfpilo ftmilis ; f^aleriana rubra Dod. Del- 
phinium Jylveftre ; Antirrhinum luteum Ger. Colutea fcor^ 
pioides ; Chryfocome capituUs conglobatis Ger. Aljine folii 
crajfo P. Caltel. Lanaria five Struthium Diofcoridis Im- 
perato J. B. upon the rocks. Botrys vulgaris ; Marru- 
bium album fatuum P. Cartel . Acarna fiore purpuro-rubente^ 
patulo C. 6. MillefcUum odcratum ; Sedum echinaium vel 
Jlellatum fiore albo J. B. Hyacinthus comofi4S Ger. Ana- 
gallis caruleo fi:rcy in Sicilia & meridionali parte Italiae 
Hon minus frequens eft quam flore phoeniceo, Afpara- 
gus petraus five Corruda Ger. Smilax afpera\ Antirrhi- 
num minus flo. cdrneo fiu pailido^ riSfu Jlriato ; AtraSiy- 
Ksy in Italy and Sicily mott common. Heliotr opium ma- 
jus \ In barren fields and among rubbifh every where. 
Blitum rubrum minus \ BugloJJim angufiifdium *y Carduus 
galaSiites J. B. i. e. hucographus tenuifolius Mejfanenfis 
P. Caftcl. Cerinthefi,o. pallide luteo\ Chondrilla vimirtea 
Lob. Cieer fativum ; Plurimse Afiraguli^ Lathyri i5f Fi- 
d^ (pecies, quas tempore excluli non fatis accurate dif- 
tinximus; Cymbataria Italica i Cucumis a/minus \ qui & 
hfc & pluribus //a//>, Melita^ Siciliaque locis ruderatis 
frequens occurrit. Hyofiyamus abus major ^ mimr^ 
which fort only we found in Italy and Sicily ; Juncus a- 
cutus maritimus capitulis rotundis C. B. Stoebe Salaman- 
iica prima Clufii Park. Cqticalis maritima fupina echi- 
Hat9 magnofrtUfu i Ad maris litus ubique Um in &Vi* 

R a M 

244 ObservaticJNs Toppgrapbicat^ 

lia quam in ItaSay NigeUa arvenjis ; Oxys lutea ; Ger. 
Refieda major fiore albo^ Rhamnus faUcis folio \ i. c. Ole^ 
oner Germanicus Cordis ut vult P. Caftel. Saturaa 5. 
Julians Gcr. ScrophtJaria urtica foHo ; Linaria puJUla 
procumbens latifcUa^ fore alboj ri^u luteo. Radix buic 
(implex quidem, verum multis fibris majufculis ftipata^ 
fublutea, annua. CaulicuU exinde emergunt plurcs in-^ 
firnii, rotundi, glauci. FoUa Polygon! folionim figuiri 
fed minora, glauca, nunc bina ex adverlb nunc tenu 
& interdum edam quaterna fimul ad eundem exoitum^ 
& proinde ramuli nunc (Inguli, nunc bini, nunc temi 
fimul. Flares longis pedicellis fubnixi, aibi, xvBta luteo, 
calcaribus tenuibus longiflimisi pars ilia fioris quae eri* 
gitur, in medio fiiTa in duas velut auriculas dividitur. 
Florem quinque circunfbnt foliola viridia pro ealice* 
Poflquam ilos evanuit dediculus ejus deorfum incurvatur* 
Vafculum feminale rotundum apparet, Anagallidis valculo 
fimile ; Verum fi curiofe fpeSetur, duos habet lobos fe- 
minibus repletos pufillis, ruffis. Frequens efl Meffafue 
in vineis & hortis. Quam primum femen inatuitfcit 
vafculum feminale dehifcit, adeo ut diflicile^fit ejus ib- 
jnina coUigere. Hjjfopoides major fiore grandiore ; A&- 
^ffa quicdam fpecies non <leicr. Tithymalus arboreus i 
^ithymahis folio longo glauco^ caule rubro^ femmbus verrk- 
cofis \ Teucrium arborefcens lucidum ; Iberis Cardamantica \ 
Alaternui ; Elatine fiore zttrvko $ Cyperus panicuUs fqua- 
mofis\ which I take to have been Trafi^ but we re- 
garded not the root of it. Anthyllis Ugumnofa fiore rw- 
bro\ Erica ramulis per intervalla temis^ Chamaafim 
annuus fiore luteo. Urtica Romana^ paffim ; Securidaca m^ 
nor Ad. Lagopus altera angujHfoUa Lob. Coronopus fo- 
His acutis in margine dentatis. 

And now that I have named fo many ftrangers, 
let no man imagine that there are no plants common 
to Sicily and England ; for that is fb far from being 
true, that I believe there be but few plants growing in 
England but may fomewhere or other be found in 5f« 
cily. There is in this refpeft great difference between 
northern and fouthern countries, the foiithern having a vaft 
number of fpecies which the northern mi<s, whereas the 
northern have but few whidi are wanting in the Ibuth- 
ern« And the rea&n is o^ious^ becaufe there are pla- 

Morale and Pbyjiological 345 

in fouthern countrys which agree with the northern 
in the temperature of the air ; as for example, the fldes 
and tops of mountains : but no places in the northern 
which have h'ke temperature of air with the fouthern. 
From this experiment I have made in comparing Eng- 
land with Sicifyy I ani induced to believe, that there 
are fcarce any two countries in this continent fb far re* 
mote the one from the other, but they have Ibme comr 
jDon plants i however it be thought there be none 
common to America and this continent; which I can- 
not but wonder at, and wiih it were more diligently 
inquired into. 

We hired a Febua to carry us to Maba and hack z-Ma^ j. 
g^in* The firft day being May 6. We had a brisk 
gale of wind, which brought us into Catania^ 60 mks Catania. 
diftant from Mejjma^ by three of the clock afternoon. 
Here as in Spain we were fain to go into the market tQ 
buy all our provifion of bread, meat, and drink ourielves. 
This is hut a mean town, only ibme good cloifters there 
are in it. We beard much of St. Agatha their peculiar 
protedrefi. May 7, We proceeded as far as Syracufa^ 
AO miles i^ the way we had in profpefl Augujia^ famous^oj^^^ 
fi>r the goodne£ of the wine there n^ade, a^d ient abroad 
to Mejfoui^ Malta^ and other places. 

Syracufa that now is (lands in a Peninjuta^ and is otAy Syracufyn, 
fliat part of the ancient Syr^cuftg called Nif^@r It is at pre-? 
^t but a fmall city, ihdiiierently well built, and thinly 
inhabited, tt is fortified with very flroiig walls and baf: 
lions, efpeci^Uy towards the lana. Thefe works they 
tokl us were mside by the Knights Hofpitallersy when they 
were driven out of^ Rhodes by the Inrks. They then 
intended to have fettled themfelves here, but the Empe- 
ror Charles V. not liking their company in Siciiy^ gave 
them Malta, About a mile and half fi-om the prefent 
^ity we (aw fonie ruins of the ancient Syracufa^ among 
omr things the rudera of an Amphitheatre, f We &w t The 
iJfi> what is commonly (hew'd to all ftrang^rs, the grot grot caK 
at pident called orecchig di Dionyfio or Ditmyfm^^ ear, led Diotrf- 
IxeoHiie it is bc^wn out of the rock in iafhion of a man'sAf*^ W\ 
car« They fancy that Dimffius had a chamber abova 
this cave or grot, wherein he £ite and over-heard what-. 
fvor was fpoJ^en^ or but whlfpered in the grot below,^ 

• R3 ^ Vh^jrq 

246 Observations Topographical 

where he ufed to put fufpefted perfons together in prifon. 
The grot is cut out of the fide of a high cliff or rock, 
and is itfelf very high, and goes a little winding, but is 
not long. In our return from Malta we entred into 
and viewed one of the ancient * Kotfj^mieut or burying 
places, which they call Catacumbe^ and of which there 
are feveral both here and in Malta. That we entered 
into was of St. Antomo*% church. Herein were many 
vaulted or arched walks hewn out of the rock, and on 
each hand all along other vaults at right angles with 
them, the floor, or bottom of which lateral vaults, was 
fome foot and half higher than the floor of the main 
walk, and all hewn into troughs or locult^ wherein they 
depofited their dead bodies ; in fome of thefc were 20 lo- 
cult, in fome more, in fome lefs. In this coemtterium at 
intervals are round rooms or halls aipolo'd, where feve- 
ral of the foremen tioned walks meet: for the whole is a 
kind of maze or labyrinth, and very difficult to thread, 
being of a huge extent \ fo that I believe, there were ma- 
ny thoufands of bodies laid up here. Thefe cunicuU or 
vaulted walks are in many places carth'd, and ftopp'd up 
by ftones and rubbifh fallen from the roof. They told 
us that the vault of St. Lucia reach'd as far as Catania 
under ground, which though it be a monftrous untruth, 
yet we may thence gather, Multum ejfe qmdvcrofuperjit. 
Mctj 8. The wind being contrary, we were forced to make 
**po ufe of our oars, and rowed as for as Capo Pajfaro^ 
'^J/aro, anciently called Promontorlum Pacl?ynum^ forty miles 
diftant from Syracuja, Upon the utmoft point of land 
f^ands a little caftie held by a garrifon of about twenty 
men. This caftie ftands now in a little ifland, made fo 
by the force of the fea, which not long fincc. brake it 
off from the land. The wind being contrary, and Wow- 
ing a ftiff gale, made the fea fo rough, that we dared 
not venture out, but were forced to reft here two nights. 
Howbcit we entertained our time pleafantly enough in 
fcarching out and defcribing of plants, which thb little 
ifland afforded great V2x\ttf of. v. g. + Lotus JiUqua qua- 
dratd Gcr. Lotus ftUquis Ormibopodi! \ Lotus edulis Cre* 

• TTic ancient KOifAHirieJM, now ^lltd'CatacumBe, 
f f lants obfcrvcd in the ifland of Cato Pajaro^ 

Moralj and Pbyjiologicai ?47 

ttcus Park, forti Lotoptfutn Bdli^ which we found al/o 
about NapUsy tho' it be not there mentioned. Lentif- 
CHS ; Chamarrhipes five Pabna minor ; Limonium folio 
finuato Ger. Chryfantbemum Creticum Ger. yljier luteus 
foliis adfiorem rigidis C. B. Medica magna turbinata J, B. 
Auricula muris Camerarii, Medica doliata fpinofa ; Gr.a-' 
pbalium rofeum Park, Hedyfarum clypeatum minus /lore pur- 
pureo ; Onohrycbis fruSfu echinato minor C. B. FJores huic 
parvi purpurei, femen grande ; Tri/olium halicacabum five 
veficarium ; Afphodelus major ramofus flore alho ; Afph, lu- 
tmsj fivi Hajia regia ; Afp. minor Cluf. Echium procum- 
hens Jbre paruo c^eruleo j omithogalum fpicatum Ger. Ja-- 
eta baea capite fpinofo ; Carduus la^eus peregrinus Cam. 
an p§tius Silybum majus annuum Park ? Carduus galaSiitcs 
J- B. Teucrium Baeticum Ger. Tragopogon perenne foliis 
anguftis incanisy fiorihus dilute caruleisj an potius Scor^ 
nosura dicenda? Sanamunda tertia Cluf. Anonis vifcofa^ 
fpims carens lutea major C. B. Convolvulus caruleus mimr^ 
folio Ahngo Ger. Ammi vulgar e l^ foliis magis incifis ; Medi^ 
ca orbiculata major J. B. Tordylium majus ; Scorpioides 
BupUuri folio \ Crithmumfpinofumfive Paftinaca marina \ 
Pafferina Lob. Aparine femine Coriandri Sactharato ; ,7ri- 
felium flellatum C. B. Cerinthe fore luteo ; Meliffa pere- 
grina fkre alboj Cortex ramulorum antiquiorum (caulesi 
enim perennantj cinereus, juniorum ruber. Caules qua* 
drati. FtUa bina ex adverfo, quam Meliflse minora, 
pediculis fatis longis fubnixa. Flores cucuilati albi, cum 
aliqua tamen ruboris mixtura. Vafcula feminalia qualia 
Moluccx levis fere, excepto quod in 5 lacinias dividan- 
tur, duabus inferius, tribus fuperius fitis. Semina itidem 
qualia Moluccae. Odor plantse gravis. Nigella arvenfis \ 
Syfirynchium majus \ Limonium parvum Narbonenfe oleafo* 
£um ; Cicborea fpinofa Cretica Ponse ; Daucus lucidus ; 
j^paragus petrous five Corruda ; Tragos five Uva marina 
major berbariorum Lob. Beta Cretica fpinofa Park. Tri- 
fUium capitulis glomeratis^ glomerulis Jpinofis \ Linum fyU 
vefirt C0cruUum\ Calpba arvenfis \ Atra^ylis; Cructata 
mimma mt(ralis Col. Coronopus foliis acutis in margine 
eUmtatis^ i* e. Plantagini affinis hibinella Sicilia: herbula 
J. B. Malva fo^ cameo minore i Ex radice alba fimplici 
plures cmittit caules humi procMmbqntes, hirfutos, fuperna^ 
parte rubentes. Folia ima fubrotunda, longis pediculis 

R 4 annexe 4 


248 Observations ^pographica}^ 

annexa ; qux in caulibus funt in tres aut quinque lacinias 
difk&3Lj htrfuta & circa margines crenata. fhres parvi, 
quinquefolii, carnei. Semina qualia malvae vulgaris ; jUa- 
temus ; Phyllyrea latifolia feu /errata fecunda Qui". Glaux 
peregrina annua \ Iva mofchata MmfpeUenfrnm \ Afpara- 
gu$ fylveft, fpinofus Cluf. Sedum minus lutann ramuUs re- 
ftixis ; Giranium procumbens Althaa felio^ 

I/Itp 10. We put to fea again, but the wind ftiil continuii^ 
contrary, and tlie fca very rough, when we were gotten 
about half over the channel, we were forced to return 
))ack again to the prirno terrene of &V/^, vi%. the caftle 
of Puzallu, The greatne(s of the waves not permitting 
us to come a (hore there, we rowed fix miles further 
ibuth, and put in at a little cove^ called the harbour of 

?!ir'* A. P^^^o Cercich. The weather continuing foul, we were 
detained here three days, having no other (belter than 
a pitiful fmall hut or two, which the tyfo centinds 
(who (land conftantly at this point to watch and give 
notice to the country of the Comuig of Corjairs) had 
fet up for themfelves to creep into in ftormy weather. 
We fiiould have been glad of frefh ftraw to lie in, having 
nothing in our kennel but old fhort ftraw, lb full of fleas, 
that we were not able to fleep in it. Our diet was the. 
blood and fle(h of fea tortoifes that our feamen took by 
the way, and bread we brought along with us. Wine 
we got at a houfe about half a mile oflF our lodgii^, 
but when our bread failed, we were lain to fend eight 
miles for more: fift or fleth we coidd get none. Thb 
ftop gave us leifure enough to fearch the Ihores and 
neighbouring country for plants ; of which we fbuad^ 
f Panax Herculeum majus Ger. Cinara Mvtflris Gcr. Ritta 
fylveflris 5 Ltmonium eUgans Rauwolfit 5 neta Creticajpi^ 
^fa Park. Medica orhicvdata fru£fu minnre ; Mid. arU- 
culata eligansy fruShi circum oras rugoji ; Hypericum fa- 
liis parvis crifpis feu finuatis i Perfoliata ongufHfoUa man^ 
iana Col. Siiiqua arbor feu Ppims S, ycatmis; Medica 
maririn ; Anonis lutea parva procumiens. In arenofis na(^ 
citur radice alba, longd, iimplici, fibris nunc pauciori-* 
bus nunc pluribus & majoribus donata; Folia ei parva, 
tripartito divi&, pedtculis nuliis, veruih dus inferiores 
partes cadi adjiacent ut in Lotis fit, ac proinde luec 
■ f Plants found about Pun/o Cerdoia: " ' 


MoraJ^ and PbyJbJegicah ^^49 

. ■ " • 

Phnta eodem modo trifblia eft quo Loti quijiquefbliae. 
Quinetiam folia fitture viridia funt, in margine elegan- 
ter dentata, alternatim pofita. fhres lutei Anonidis vul- 
garis. Siliqua breves, tumidae, fubrotundae, duobus in** 
tus oidinibus feminum iigura lienb praeditorum. In are- 
nofis maris litoribus circa Siciliam frequens, v. g. prope 
Cataniam, circa Promontorium Pachynum ii hoc in loco. 
Cj/his mas 4 fiUo AlMgo albido J. B. Lotus JUn luteoy 
ctmicuUs articulatis. tladix ei fimplex aiba, in non-» 
nuUis tamen planus ima parte in iibras fpargitur. Cau- 
Uculi plures in terram procumbentes. FoUa glauca, pen- 
taphylla fi auriculas ad caulem hinc inde appofitas ad- 
numeres. Fkres parvi, lutei, Trifolii comiculati fed 
minoies ad nodos nunc fii^li nunc bini, & inter- 
dum etiam terni. SiUfua graciles, longae, contortae 
in ipiram feu oornicutatae, articulatae, femina oblonga 
in fingulis intemodiis continentes. Caucalis maritima 
J. B. Smfmium Creticum ; Gladiolus Narbomnjis ; Polium 
snmitaman album; Saxifragia Vimtorum Ad. Pfyllium 
vulgart i Acantbium lUfricum ; Teleplnum fc^rpwidis An- 
guiUarae: Tragos five vua marina major J. B. O^ntia 
marima^ in litus rejeOa, and many others before obiibrved 
m other places. 

The wind ceafing we put to fea again, and had zMa^ 13^* 
very good paflage over to Malta. By the wi^ we (aw 
our faimen take fevend tortoifes on this manner. % When 
they efpy a tortoife floating on the top of the water (as 
they can eafily do at a good diftance) with as little noife 
as they can poffibly they bring their boat up dofe to 
Imoi ; then they either catch him with their iiands and 
draw him up into the boat, or, if diey cannot get near 
cooiigh to do fo, one leaps out of the boat into the 
lea, and turns the tortoife on his baclc, and then with 
cafe drives him before him up to the boat; the tor- 
toife beiiig not able to turn himfelf, or fwim away 
on his back. They fay (and it is not unlikely) that 
the tortoife, while he floats thus upon the water, fleeps ; 
which is the leafon why they arc fo fiill, and make 
lb little Dotfe in bringing their boat up to him. One 
of thdb tortoifes which they caught bad two great 

% He nminer of taking tortoifei. 

.^ bunchei 

250 Observations Topographical^ 

+ Bemaclc hunches of thofc they call f BemacU-Jhclls flicking or 

lliells growing to his back, and fome of them the largeft and 

growing faireft of that kind which we have fecn. As for that 

upon the opinion of a bird breeding in them (which fome have 

back of a ati^rmed with much confidence (and of ^\iv^^ Michael 

cortoile. ^cyerus hath written a whole book) it is, without all 

d mbt, fjlfe and frivolous. The bernacles, which are 

fjid t;o be bred in them, being hatched of eggs of their 

own laying like other birds ; the Hollanders^ in their 

third voyage to difcovcr the north eaft paflage to Cathaia 

and China, in 80 degrees, 1 1 minutes of northern la« 

titude, having found two iflands, in one of which they 

obfervcd a great number of thefe geefe fitting on their 

eggs, (ffc, as Dr. yohnfin relates out of Pontanus. As 

for thefe (bells, they are a kind of BaUnus marinuSy as 

Fubius Columna proves, never coming to be other than 

what they are, but only growing in bignefs as other ibelb 

do. All the ground of this fancy (as I conceive) is 

faecaufe this iifjii hath a bunch of cirriy fomewhat re- 

iembling a tuft of feathers, or the tail of a bird, which 

it fometimes puts out into tlie water, and draws back 

again. We were much furpriied to find of this iheU-fiih 

in thefe feas fo fouthernly, and far from the icene oC 

the bernacle-fable. 

Plants ob- ^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ down what plants we found about Cat 

fei-ved tania and Syracufa. About Catania^ Scammonea Monfpe^ 

about Ca- Haca offinis Park. Plumbago Plinii ; v^»eri cajius ; which 

far in and two w^e obferved alfo in many other places. Cruciata 

^jvaaifa. marina y Anmis marina procumbent flore luteo, jam defcripta ; 

Sedum minimum non acre totum rubrum^ flare hexaphyik 

purpureo. Upon mount /Etna we found Tragacaniha C. B. 

Towards the top of the mountain we obferved Barberry^ 

trees growing plentifully, which is a rare flirub in hiot 

countries, and which we found no where elfe in Italy 

or Sicily. At Mejfma they (hewed us, for a rare plant, the 

common Goafeberry bu(h. About Syracufa, Thymum Crt' 

ticum Ger. Origanum flore alboy capitulis fquammatis ro^ 

tundis ; Verbafcum 4 Mattbioli. The fame kind of MeUffa 

we found about Mejfma^ and have already defcribed ; 7^ 

crium Barticum ; Jacealutea capitulis fpinojis ; Lagopus qaue^ 

dam procumbensjptca longiore ; Ononis purpurea nummafupina 

notj fpinofa. Many others we might doubtlefs have foi^nd, had 

it been fafe for us to have fearched the rocks near this dty, 

Moraly and Pbyjiohgical. 251 


U A L T A 

THE ifland of Malta is twenty miles long, twelve 
miles broad, and fixty miles in circuit; diftant 
ftom tlic primo terreno^ or neareft part of Sicily^ fixty 
miles; from the cape of Calipla^ anciently called Pro^ 
ntontortum Mercuriiy the neareft point of the continent 
of Africa.^ 200 miles (as divers of the moft skilful and 
experienced pilots did affirm to Abela for an undoubted 
tnithj from the cape of Spartivenio in Italy^ but 190, 
So that upon account of vicinity, it is rather to be at- 
tributed to Europe than Africa j efpecially if we allow 
Sicily to hslve been of old time united to, and fo part 
of the continent. The reafon why others make it a 
member of ^rica is, becaufe the prefent inhabitants 
of the country fpeak a kind of Morefco or Arabick. 
. The old city, called Citta notahile, fituate about the 
middle of the ifland, hath 35 degrees, 15 minutes of 
northern latitude, and the longeft day there is of 14 
hours, 52 minutes. 

I am not ignorant that Heylin and others, who reckon 
this among tKe ifles of Africa^ place it nearer the 
coaft of Barbary, affign it le(s latitude, and allow the 
kmgieft day no more than 14 hours; but I do in 
thefe, and other particulars, follow the more accurate 
obfervations of "Jthannei Francifcus Abehy a learned 
man and native of this ifland, in his Malta illuftratay 
written in Italian and publifhed in Malta ^ Anno 1646. 
in folio. 

The whole ifland, from the fhallownels of its (oil, 
there being in few places above two foot depth of 
earth before you come to firm flone ; and from the 


252 Obsbrvations Topographical^ 

lowneis of its fituation, not much devated above the 
kvel of the water, and having no €»nfiderable hill in 
it, feems to have been in the moft ancient times no- 
thing elfe but a great nx:k, whoQy overwhelmed and co- 
* vered with the fea ; efpecially if we coi^der the mul- 
titude of fea (hells of all forts, (harks teeth, vertebre^ 
of thombacks, and other fifli bones petrified, found all over 
the ifland, even in the highcft parts of it, and moft 
remote from the ihore. For, that thefe were formed 
by ibme plaftick power in the ftone*quarries^ being no- 
thing elie but the efieds or produdions of Nature (port- 
ing herfelf in imitation of the parts and (hells of tbde 
animals, I can hardly be induced to beUeve; Nature 
(which indeed is nothing elfe bu( the ordinary power 
of God) not being b wantofi and toviib, as to form 
fiich elegant figures without further eno or defign, thaa 
her own pailime and diveriion. But a very Ukelv 
thing it is, that the iea being (hallow above this rock 
for fome ages before it came to be uncovered, there 
(iiould great beds of (hell- fifii b^rboiu: and breed in fi> 
convenient a place, and, the water leaviog them, thdur 
(hells remain and petrify. I con&j^ it's nard tp ima* 
gine, how the carcailes of to many (harks (hoiujid come 
to be lodged here, as by the miutifude of teeth that 
have been for fo many years psijft, and axe fiill daily 
digg'd up, we o^uft needs £rant ; unleis perchance tjiey 
remain of the heads of fucn (haxks ^ were .caught and 
eaten by the iifhermen, who it is likely, after the dl(^ 
covery of this rock, frequented here, and m^e it a 
ftation (or £fhiog bdbce it c^njie to he inhabited. 

To this difficulty, Mr. Stem returjcss ^wjac in tliefe 
particulars, i. That fuch (hacks, or fea-rdi^; haye eacli 
of them fixty teeth and worCy and thataU the iimp ibey 
live they breed neyr teeth. 2. That the iea, ^tated by 
the winds, is wont to protrude thofe ly^iea It jmeets' wit^ 
towards fome one ptace, and there l^p j^em t^ether« 
3. That Xharks fwioi in great tipops .or (boals, and 
confequently that the teeth of many 0/ them may have 
been left ^n one phoe. 4. That in die Maba earth, 
befi^es jthde (harlcs teeth, are jTound alfo fundry 
cockle-ibelk s fo that if the number ol teeth ibpuU in* 


Moraly and PbyfiologicaL ±^\ 

dine a man to afcribe their produ£lion to the earth, on 
the other hand, the make of the fame teeth, and the 
abundance of them in every animal, and the earth like 
the bottom of the fea, and other marine bodiies found in 
the fame place, do favour the contrary opinion. 

^ The foil, notwithftanding the rockinefs and (hal- 
loivhefs of it, hath been by the ancients celebrated for 
fertility 5 

Feriilts eft MelitefleriK vicina Cojjra 
Infula. Ovid, Faft. 

But uhdeiervedly ff ^e nnderfland it of com^ for there 
h not much wheat fewn here, and that we faw upon 
the grounds was but thin and flight. And though barley 
be their chief crop, and of which the country people 
make their bread; yet have they not near enough of that 
to ferve the ordinary ufes of the inhabitants ; fo that they 
are forc'd to fetch moft of their "bread-corn out of Sicily. 

t The main commodities which the ifland yields, 
wherewith the inhabitants drive a good trade, and enrich 
theinfelves, are x. Cumsn-feed^ which they call Cutnino 
egro or fliarp Cumin ; of which are gathered about 3000 
' Cantons yearly j One Cantare being equal to 1 16 pound 
weight Englijh. 5t. Anife-fiedj which they call Stv/et- 
cuminy of which are gs^theied and tranfmitted into foreign 
parts 1000 Cdntares yearly. Thefe feeds are fold at 7, 
8, or 9 crowns the Cantare : and we were told that the 
jrcar before our being there [Ann. 1663.] were vended 
7000 Cahtares of both forts. 3. Cotton-wool, called in 
Latin Xybne or Goffipiufny of which they fend abroad 
yeviy 14000 Cantares in the husk. 

*rney have of late begun to plant Indigo^ which my 
author (alth agrees with the foil, and likes and thrives 
there Yery well. He alfo mentions a fort of'excrefcence 
or nx)& or fcurf, which the rocks about S, Maria el 
jfaSa and other places on the north fide of the ifland na« 
tunilly put forth, Called by the country people ^c^/Ar, 

* The nature of the foil. 
f The commodities of ilfii//ir. 


254 Observations topographical^ 

which they fcrape oiF with an iron inftrument, an^ 
. having wafhed it with a certain liquor, and mingled it 
with other ingredients [he tells us not what that liquor or 
thofe ingredients are ) they expofe it to the fun, and ufe 
it do dye wool of a carnation colour. This kind of mo6, 
called in fValei Kenkerig , and in England Cork or ArctU 
is gathered and ufed for the fame purpofe in Wales and 
the North of England. 

Malta hath been famous of old for a breed of little 
dogs called Catuli Melitaiy the race whereof is quite ex- 
tind : and now their cats are as much efteemed. The 
rofes oi Malta contend for fweetnels with thofe of Paftum ; 
and the honey with that of Hybla or Hymettus : fo that 
fome fuppofe this iiland had its name MeUta from MiAi 
fignifying honey. 

The air is clear and healthful, and the people long 
lived. Not much rain falls here, yet fufficient to fupply 
water to feed their fprings j of which there arc feveral 
in the high grounds, or fmall hills about the middle of 
the ifland. Tiiat thefe ♦ fprings proceed from rain-water 
only my Author doth very well prove, becaufe they are 
found only at the foot of little hills, confiding of a cer- 
tain porous ftone which the Maltefe call GmgioUna^ or 
a chalky earth which eadly imbibes the rain. And to 
fpeak in general, that all fprings and running waters owe 
their rife and continuance to rain, feems to me more 
than probable ; I. Becaufe I never yet faw any fpringiiig 
of running waters breaking out, either on the top of a 
hill or fo near the top, but that there was earth enough 
above them to feed fuch fprings, confidering the condition 
of high mountains, which are almofl conftantly moiftened 
with clouds, and on which the funbeams have but little 
force : and yet I have made it part of my bufmefs in view- 
ing the higheft hills in England ^nd Wales to examine this 
particular. Nor have I yet ever obferved fuch fpringing 
and running voters in any plain, unlefs there were hills 
fo near, that one might rcafonably conclude they were fed 
by them. 2. Many fprings quite fail in dry fummers, 
and generally all abate conftderably of their waters. I am 

? The original of fprings. 



Morale and PbyfiohgicaL 255 

not ignorant that ibme make a diftintSlion between failing 
fprlngs and enduring fprings, and would have the former 
Co proceed from rain, and the latter from the fea \ but 
I fee no fufficient foundation for fuch a diftin£tion, and 
do think that both the one and the other are to be attri- 
l>utal to rain ; the failing and enduring being to be re- 
ferred either to the difierent quantity and thickneis of 
earth that feeds them ; or to the different quality, the 
one more quickly the other more (lowly tranfmitting the 
water, or fome fuch like accident. 3. In clay grounds, 
into which the water finks with difficulty, one (ball 
feldom find any fprings ; but in fandy, gravelly, rocky, 
fiony or other grounds into which the rain can eafily 
make its way one feldom fails of them. 4. They who 
would have fountains to arife from and be fed by the iea 
have not as yet given a fatisfadory account of the afcent 
of water to the tops of mountains and its efflux there. 
For though water will creep up a filtre above its level, yet 
I queflion whether to (o great an excefs above its aquili- ' 

Mum with the air, whereas in pumps we fee it will not 
ri(c above two or three and thirty foot j or if it fhould, 
whether it would there run out at the top of the filtre, 
we not having as }Tt heard of any experiment that will 
countenance fuch a thing. For the afcent and efflux of 
iap in trees I fufpe6l may be owing to ^higher principle 
than purely mechanical. As for the Sabulum J^llem or 
jlrma bultiens of Helmont^ I look upon it as an extrava- 
gant conceit of his \ and yet fome ground there is to be- 
lieve, that there is a kind of earth lying up and down 
in veins, which doth like a filtre retain the water and 
carry or derive it along as it lies from place to place, 
till it brings it to the fuperficies of the earth, where it 
runs out. In other places there are fubterrancous channels 
like the veins in aniinab, whereinto the water foaking into 
the earth is gathered, and wherein it runs as above ground 
out of fmaller rivulets into greater ftreams : and where 
one of thefe veins opens in the fuperficiei of the earth 
there is a fpring greater or lefTer according to the mag- 
nitude of die vein. Nor need we wonder that fprings 
Ihould endure the length of a dry fummcr, for in many 
forts of earth the water makes its way but flowly ; 
Cncc we fee that in thofe troughs or leches, wherein 


456 b6sEftvAtid»s topographical^ 

kundrefles put afhes, and thereupon water to make a Uxi- 
vium^ the water will be often many hours before it gets 
all through the afh, and the lech ceafes to drop ; and iii 
manj chymical preparations which are filtred, its long 
before the liquor can free itfelf and wholly drain away 
from the earthy and feculent part. 

Some attribute the original of foiiittains to Watery va- 
pours elevated by fubterraneous fires, or at leaft by that 
generally diffufed hoLt which miners fihd iii the earth 
when they come to fifty or fixty fathoms under ground ; 
and condenfed by the tops and fides of the mountains as 
by an alembick head, and (b diftilling down and break- 
ing out where th^y find ifliie. And in reafon one vrould 
think, that generally the deeper one digs in the earth the 
colder one (hould find it, fith the urinators affirm that the 
deeper they dive in the fea the colder ftill they find the 
water. And yet were there (iich fiibterraneons heats^ 
they are not (b great as that it is likely they (hould ele- 
vate vapours fo high, through lb thick a coat of earth, 
which it muft be an intenie heat indeed will carry tfaeni 
through, which heat none by is found near the fupeifi- 
cies of the earth. 

Mr. HooJ^s account, v!z. that fiilt water being heavier 
than frefh, by reaibn of its preponderancy it may drive 
up the frefli as high above the furface of the fea as are 
the tops of montains before it comes to an equilibrium with 
it, is very ingenious, and would be moil likely, were 
there continued dofe channels from the bottom of the 
fea to the tops of mountains, not admitting the air, which 
I believe will not be found in many places. What is 
faid about f ebbing and flowing wells in confirmation of it 
adds no flrength ; for none of thofe ebbing and flowing 
wells that I luve yet (een do at all obferve the modoii 
of the fea, but reciprocate two or three times or oftener 
jsvery hour, excepting one on the coafl of Smth-ivaks 
in a fandy ground by the fea-fide not a quarter of a mile 
from the water, which obfcrvcs the tides ; but it is no 
running Water, nor doth it I believe ari/e above tb^^ 
level of the fea. I do therefore fhrewdly fufpeft fo -' 
fabulous whatever hath been written of weUs xtmoez 

f Ebbing and flowing wells. 


Morat^ and Phyjiological. ^S7 

from the lea, which in their ebbing and flowing obferve 
its motions. But for a reaibn of the ebbing and flowing 
of thefe welk I muft confefs I am hitherto at a great lofs. 
Whereas fi>me fay that rain finks not above a foot or 
two deep into the earth, if they underftand it of all 
earths it is manifeftly falfe, for that we fee in coal delphs/ 
and other mines, in wet weather the miners are many * 
times drown'd out (as they phrafe it) though no w^ter 
run down into the mouths of their pits or (hafts ; and in 
funij and heathy grounds, in the greateft rains, little 
water runs oflT the land, as on Newmarket-heathy Gogma-^ 
gog-hilUy Salisbury-plain^ fcfr. and therefore it muft needs 
fink in : and out of the mouth of Pole-hole^ near Buxton^ 
in the Peak of Derhy^ and other caves in the fides of 
mountains, in rainy feaibns^ ftreams of water many 
times run out, v/here in dry weather and fummer time 
there are none. 

Neither is this opinion we defend any more repugnant 
to the (cripture than the other. For whereas it is iaid, 
Ecclef. I. 7. All the rivers run into the fea^ yet the fea is 
not full; unto the place from whence the rivers come thither 
they return again ; we grant it to be mod true \ nay we 
think fuch a circulation abiblutely neceflary to the being 
of fprings, only we aflert it to be performed not under 
ground, but above : that is, the clouds take up water out 
of the fea, and pour it down again upon the earth ; and 
from part thereof falling upon and (baking into the 
higher grounds arife the (prings. 

* But to return to Malta ; the haven is very commo^ 
dious and fecure, divided into two by a little promontory 
or neck of land fome 1500 canes long, and 380 broad, 
upon which the new city is built. Of thefe two that on 
the weft fide the city is called fimply and per Antonamaftant 
Marfay that is, the haven, and is in length 1800 canes 
or poles, of ten palms the cane Roman meafure, and is 
Alb-divided into other creeks ovjinus^s. That on ihe eaft 
fide, called Mar fa mofcettoy is as large as the other; in a 
little ifland within which is the Lazaretto \ near it ihipa 
tliat come from infe£led places keep their quarentine. 

• The haven. 

S +Thc 

258 Observations Topograpbicat^ 

t The new city, called f^aletta^ is divided into twenty 
ftreets, eight in length and twelve in breadth, all ftreigbt. 
Though they be not paved, yet they need it not, the 
town being built upon a (olid rock. They want no 
uniformity but being level, ;which, the place being un* 
^ven, up-hill and down-hill, will not admit. The 
houfes are all of done, flat-roofed and covered with 
plaifter, which is fufficient here, there faUing but litde 
rain; tho' they be not tall, yet are they neat and 
pleafant. Upon the roofs of their houfes in fummer 
time the people iet their beds, as at Aleppo^ and fleep in 
the open air. The number of the inhabitants of all ages, 
according to a furvey taken in the year 1632, was 
10744, the number of houfes 1 891, which nun is I 
believe fmce that time much increased. Over the gate 
of this city leading to the land, caUed Porta reakj you 
have this infcription, giving an account of the firft 
founding and building of it. 

Fr. Jo. de Valeita facta Domus HofpitaUs HierofoL 
M, Magl/leTy perictdorum armo Juperiore a fuis iw- 
litlbus populoqiu Melitao in oiftdione turcica per^ 
pefforum memory de condenda nova urbe^ e^que ma- 
niisy arcibus V propugnaculis ad fuftinendam vim 
omnem propulfandofque inimici Turcm impetus autjal- 
tern reprimendos muniendaj inito cum Proceribus con- 
ftlio^ Die Jovis 28 Martii 1566, Deum omnipeien- 
tern Deiparamque virginem & numtn tutelare D, yo- 
annem Baptijiam Divofque cateros nodta precatusy ut 
fauftum felixque Religioni Chriftiana fieret^ ac Ordi^ 
ni fuo quod inceptabat bene cederet^ prima urbis fim- 
damenta in monte ab incolis Sceberras vocato jectt^ 
eamque de fuo nomine Valettam (dato pro injignibus 
in Parma miniata aureo leone) appellari vohdt. 

Fr. Anionim de Paula M. Mag, invi£fijf. Conditoris tan- 
taque rei monimentum P. C, Anno ab Urbe Fun- 
data 68« 

It is fortified with impregnable walls and bulwarks. 
efpecially toward the land, where one would think there 
are too many, and yet they are ftill adding more. 
Within the outmoft wall, or between the two waUs 

t The new city called Val{tta. 


Mbrai^ and Pbyfioiogicai. 259 

and outworks, they have indofed a great fpace of void 
ground, whether with defign to enlarge the city, filling 
that ipkce with houfes, or to receive the country people 
in cafe the enemy Ihould land upon the ifland, I know 
not. All th^ Walb and bulwarks are mined or vaulted 
underneath, that fo, in cafe the befieg^rs ihould get upon 
them, they might be blown up a(nd renderM ufelefs. 
The charge of all thefe walls, caftles, and fortifications 
would be intolerabte, had they not ftohe at hand, and 
Haves to work. This city is well ferved with all provi- 
fions, there being every morning a market plentifully 
fumiflied with bread, nefli, fifh, poultry, fruits, herbs, 
tfr. of the beft in their feveral kinds, and to be bought 
at eafy rates. 

Thfcmoftconfiderable buildings in this city are, i.The^^ Z^^ 
church of St. John Baptift^ patron of the order, wherein Sa^^fp^ 
are many chapels and altar-pieces richly gilded and adorned, church. 
Here lie buried the grand mafters that have been fince the 
order was tranilated hither in a vault under ground ; feve< 
lal of them having in the church monuments with infcrip-^ 
tions. This church is not yet quite finifhed. . 

The caftle of St. £iW, which ftood here before this jj,^ ^m^- 
city was built, on the utmoft point of the promontory : of s.E/mo: 
a ftrong place but of no great capacity. Here we iotv 
ferved the like winding afcent to the top without any 
fteps or ftairs, as in the tower of St. Mart at Fenice, 
Upon the top of tliis caftle is conflant watch and ward 
kept. When they defcry any veflel coming toward the 
illsuid, be it great or fmall, they fet up a flag fuitable to 
the bignels of the veflel ; if two veflfels two, if throe 
diree, and fi> on according to their number ; iignifying 
alio by the phce where they fet thefe fls^ from what 
quarter, eail, weil, norths or ibuth, fuch veflfel or veflels 
oome : 6> that the city is prefently advifed what veflels 
and how many are near the port. In this caiUe are im- 
priibncd fuch knights as have committed any mifdemeanor, 
and hdd in reftraint longer or Ms time, or further pro- 
ceeded againil according to the merit of their fault. 

Before this cafHe are the Granaries^ where the provr- 3- 
fions of corn for the city are kept. Thefe are nothing ^f ^^\ 
but caves hewn out of the rock in the form of a cupola^ ^J^ 
or ordinary bee-hive, having each a narrow mouth above. 

S a They 

26o Observations Topographical^ 

They are conftandy ftored with com enough beforehand 
to (crve the whole city for a year. They have alfo ma- 
gazines or (lores of wine, oil, and all other neceflaries. 
4. The jflberghs or halls of the eight feveral nations 

The Al- (Lingue they call them) of the order. The nations are 
bergs or French^ Italiafiy Germany EngUJhy Provencal^ Aitoerg^ 
**'^** nouy Caftilian^ and Aragmian. Thcfe Athergi are moft 
of them fair buildings like college ; and in each of them 
is a publick hall, wherein the knights of aach nation dine 
and fup as many as pleafe; the others have their parts 
or demenfum fent to their lodgings, or difpofe otherwife d[ 
it as they fee good. The feignior of each nation is fupe- 
rior of the Alberg^ grand prior of his nation, of the 
great cro(s {Gran Croce they term it) and one of the 
privy council to the great mafter. Thefe are diftingui&ed 
from the reft by a great white crofs upon their breafts, 
made of filk fewn into their garments. Here is an iff- 
berg for the Engli/h nation, or rather a piece of ground 
inclofed, with the foundation of an Albergy the walls 
being (carcely reared up. This ground, we are told, 
feme of the citizens would have bought and built upon, 
but the grand majier and council refofed to fell it, not 
defpairing, it feems, that ' one day our nation may be 
reduced again, to the obedience of the Romijh church. 
;. The Armory [Sala di Arma} within the palace of the 

The ar- ^reat majier^ confifting of two rooms j the one (which 
''^^Vf* they call the hall) the faireft and largeft room employed 
for fuch an ufe that we have any where feen \ the other 
much lefler. In both together are kept arms for 30000 
men, fo intire, clean, bright, and fit for ufe, tbit we 
^ were much taken with the fight of them. Here are 
fome of thofe little drakes that may be charged behind, 
a leather gun, and other curiofities, the like whereto we 
have feen in feveral armories. 
6. The Hofpital [Infermaria'] a fair building, which they 

The Hof-are now enlarging. The fick perfons are ferved by the 
pitaliVff/^ knights, viz, fuch a number of knights are appointed 
dochium, to carry tliem their meat daily with cap in hand; 
which thing we law them do in this manner. The 
meat v^ras all brought into the middle of a great room 
where many of the flck lay. Then one of the knights 
(the fteward I fuppofe be was) read the names of the 


Morale and Pbyjiohgicah 261 

fick one by one out of the ph]rfician's bill, wherein was 
prelcribed each fick peHbn's diet. As he read a name 
the cook took his part whole name was read, and, diih- 
ing it up, delivered it to one of the knights, who car- 
ried It to his bed-fide, where flood a ftool covered with a 
napkin having bread and fait upon it. This duty their 
Tcry name intimates to belong to them, viz, knights, 
J. e. fervants of the hoipital, and therefore we may be 
excufed if we have been more particular and circum- 
fiantial in delcribing the manner of it. If any of the 
order falls fick, he is not to flay in a private houfe, 
but prefently repair hither, where he is moft carefully 
tended, one or two knights being appointed to be always 
by him. 

The Palace of the Great MafteVy where he hath fcve- 7.' 
lal apartments for winter and fummer. There is alfo a The Gt. 
flableof good horfcs, in which, befides coach-horfes andMaftcr*s 
ordinary faddle-horfcs, are kept 40 or 50 great horfes. Pala*^* 
A thing worth the noting in this ifland, where there is 
fo great icarcity of horfes, that knights and perlbns of 
quality ride upon no better than afles. 

The Slaves Priforiy a fair fquare building, where allTheflavcs 
tlic flaves in the city lodge every night fo long as thepnfon- 
gallies are abroad in Corfo. At the ringing of the Ave^ 
Alary htU^ which is juft at fun-fet, they are to repair 
thither. When the gallies are at home, thoie that be- 
long to private perfons are permitted to lodge in their 
jnafters.houfes. The number of flaves now in town 
was about 2000 belonging to the order, and 300 to pri- 
vate perfbns, befides thoie that were abroad in the gallies. 

Befides this new city, there are three confi&rable 
towns diftant from it only by the breadth of the ha- 
ven. I. The Ifofa (as they commonly call it^ or town*^^^ -5^'^' 
tXSengUa^ vnth the fort ot St. Michael^ ieated in a Pen- 
infiila made by two creeks running out of the principal 
haven. It coiltains 994 houfes, and 4050 fouLs. For 
the ftout refiflance it made to the l^urks in 1565, it 
obtainM the nam^ of * Citta invitta, 2. The BorgoT^litBwT^ 
fas they call it) i. e. Burgo del Caflelb i marey bqilt^. 
litewife on a little lingua^ or neck of land, between 

* The inriiicible city. 

S3 two 

262 Observations Topographical 

two creeks of the fame haven, on the utmoft cape where* 
of (lands the caftleof St. Angek^iWviti for greater ftrength 
from the town by a ditch of water cut cro& the Lh^ua^ 
This burgh contains 782 houfes,and 3063 fouls. For its 
valour and fidelity in holding out fo refolutely againft the 
Ottaman army bedding it. Anno 1565, it is defervedly 
honoured with the tide of* Ciua vittoriofa. Between tbefe 
two burghs is a fecure harbour, where the gallies and moft 
ofthe other veflels of the city lie \ which, in time of dan* 
ger, is (hut up with a great iron chain. 3. Birmula^ 
rather a fuburb of Senglecy than a diftinA town : it con- 
tains 642 (ires, and 2778 (buls. 
^^ «5- We rode out to fee fome part of the country i poffing 
The old xy^ro great villages (Cafales they name them) we came 
^^Y' to the old City^ called anciently Melita^ after the name 
of the ifland, now Citta netabilg^ a (hiall place at pre- 
fent, but well fortified, containing no more than 565 
houfes, and 2620 fouls. It hath been formerly much 
greater, and incomparably more populous. The new 
Cityf as being more conveniently (ituate, daily draining 
away, and withdrawing its inhabitants. Here they 
jQiew'd us the pillar of St. Paui (as they call it) where 
when he ftood preaching (as they fondly believe, or at 
leaft would perfuade us) his voice was heard diftindiy 
all ovier the ifland. 2. The Grot of St. Paul, Here 
out of a fmall cave is taken that white earth, calkd 
Terra di 7-^^^ ji g, paoh, and, by fome. Terra figiUata MeR- 
^^'Ut '^^^> which they feal and fell to ftrangers, attributing 
jj^^^^^^^thereto great vertues againft all poifon and infiBdiQn. 
"^ ' This cavern, though there be continually great quan- 
> tities of earth taken out of it, according to their con- 
ceited tradition, retains ftill the fame dimenfions, beco- 
ming no greater than it was at firft. That St. Paul 
fu(Fer'd (hipwreck on the coaft of this ifland, and win- 
tered here, and not on that other Melita in the Adria^ 
tick iea on the coaft of Dalmatian now called Meleda^ 
I think it fufficiently proved and made clear by Cbeoe* 
rius^ Abeldy and others : but that,upon occafion of a viper 
faftening on his arm, he changed all the ferpents of the 
ifland into ftones, and endued the earth i^ith sui akxi- 

• The vidorious city. 


Morale and PbyJiohgicaL 263 

{iharnucal quality to refift and expel poifon, is a fuper- 
ftitious and ungrounded fiincy. 

From the old city wc rode on to the Great Alafier'sThe Gr. 
BtfcbittBf where he hath a pretty little palace in form dialler's 
of a caftle, from the top whereof wc had a good prof- ^'/^'"«- 
fc& of the ifland. Here are a great number of gardens 
and orchards well fumiih'd with all ibrts of fruits and 
flowers, good water-works, and a grove of trees : in- 
deed this palace wants nothing for convcniency or de* 
]^ht. The palace is fituate upon a little hill, and the 
gardens lie under it in a hollow or bottom, almoft 
oompafled about with rocks. 

But to fpeak of the ifland in general, * Malta hath 
been inhabited by (everal nations, and often changed 
inafters. The moft ancient inhabitants are by Cluve- 
rats taken to have been the Phaacesy mentioned by Homtr^ 
who were expelled by the Phopnicians, The Phcemci-- 
CHS were moft of them driven out by the Grecians. Ahtr 
this it changed matters rather than inhabitants, being firft 
iubdued and held by the Carthaginians ; then for a long 
time by the Romans: after that the Gcths came hither, 
who were driven out by the Eaftem Emperors. Next 
the Saracens poflefs'd themfelves of it. The Normans 
expelled them and got the dominion. Then the Ger-^ 
wumsy or 5«m, became lords of it ; then the French i 
then the AragmianSy and Spaniards '^ and now laft of 
«]1 the order of the knights hofpitallers. The hiftory of 
•D which chaises* if any man defire to be fully and 
particularly acquainted with, let him confult Mela, In 
all thefe change it followed for the moft part the fortune 
of Sinfy, as having little ftrength to refift any foreign 
power invading. It is now fo well fortified and manned^ * 

dot it would prove a very difficult matter for the great- 
eft Prince or Potentate in the world to take it by force ; 
bsving, when it was in fiir worfe condition than now 
it IS, rcfifted and baffled the arms of one of the greateft 
Emperors the lisris ever had. 

f It is very populous, containing between thirty and 
forty great Caffales or villpg^^ ibme of them abov? 50Q 

* The fcveral inhabitanu and conquefts of Malta. 
f The number of the villages and people. 

S 4 boufe^i 

264 Observations Topographical^ 

houfes, more like to great towns than villages, and twenty* 
fix parifh churches, befide thofe of Goxa. The number 
of fighting men was faid to be about 2500c, but I believe 
there are icarce (b many, for, according to a furvey 
taken in the year 1632, the whole number of fouls upon 
the ifland, befides the knights, was about 50112; of 
which we cannot reckon mu^h above one fifth part to 
be fighting men. And tlx)' fince that time the number 
of inhabitants be much increafed, yet I think Icarce 

The X language of the natives is a corrupt Arabick^ 
or Morefco^ introduced by the Saracensy the ancient Ian* 
guage, before their coming in, probably having been 
Greeiy with a mixture of Pttnick: whence I think one 
may reaibnably conjecture that the Saracens did either 
deftroy or drive out the former inhabitants. Howbeit 
the people can generally fpeak Italian^ there being no 
other language but that and Latin ufed in any of the 
courts of Malta. 

The great majier of the order is now Prince and fu- 
preme governor of the whole ifland, which with Gm» 
and the adjacent iflets, after the lols of Rhodes^ was 
granted to this order by the Emperor Charles V. in the 
year 1530. The government is managed with that 
prudence and juftice, that the ifland is now in a very 
flourifhing condition, the inhabitants enjoying a great 
deal of freedom and fecurity ; being alfo in their carriage 
and conver&tion among themfelves, and to ftrangeis^ 
fince the coming in of the order, very civil and cour- 
teous, however formerly they have been branded for the 
contrary; fo that few fubjeCb live more hapjMly than 
they do. 

The great majier when he goeth abroad is attended 
by many of the knights, and two or three pages, of 
which he keeps (as we were told) about twenty-fbur. 
The knights of the order are always uncovered in the 
prefence of the great mafter, excepting thofe fixteen 
which are of the Gran Croce : they take place, of what 
birth or quality foever they are, according to their fe^ 

J Thjs language. 

P The great mafter, Princ^ of the Ifland. 


Morale and PhyfiologicaL 265 

niority from the time of their admiffion ; b that there 
is never any difikulty or queftion about precedency. 
All the knights are of noble or genteel extradion, none 
being capable of admiffion but fuch as can prove their 
nobility for three or four defcents. The great mafier 
"wears a black fliort gown with hanging fleeves, the 
reft of the knights are habited a» they pleafe at home, 
but when they go in Curfi (a^ they call it) upon the 
galliesy they wear the proper habit belonging to their 
order. The number of knights was (aid to be between 
2000 and 3000, of which, for the moft part, refide ia 
the city the major part, except when the gallies are 
abroad. The name of the great mailer, at our being 
there, was Nicobus Cottoner of Majorca^ and I fuppofe 
he is ftill living, not having fince heard of his death. 

The names of the great mafiers that have been iince 
the order removed to Atalta^ are as follows-: 

43. Prater Phillppus de Vtlliers UJUadamy a French^ 
man^ who brought the religion into Malta^ Anno 1530, 
being the forty-third great mafter from the firft iii^i* 
tution of the order. He died Auguft 21, 1534* 

44. Fr, Petrinus del Pmtey an Italian^ the firft that 
waschofen^rftf/ mafter in Malta Auguft 26, 1534. He 
died Nvuemher IJ, 1535. 

45. Fr. Deftdertus di Tolmo Santaialla^ of Daulphiny^ 
chofen in his abfence November 22, 1535. He died Sept^ 
26, 1536, being on his way coming towards Maba^ 
at Montpellier. 

46. Fr, Joannes Uomedei^ an Aragoman^ eleAed O^A* 

20, 1536, died Sept.6y 1553. 

47. Fr. Claudius della SengUj a Frenchman, chofen 
while he was ambaflador for the order at Rome^ Sept. 
II, 1553. He died A^. 18, 1557. 

48. Fr. Joannes di Faletta, a Gafcwgner, elefbed Aug. 

21, 1557. died u*^. 21, 1568. In bis time ^fl/Ttf was 
invaded, and the city befi^ed by the Turks, who were 
nocaUy repulfed. 

49. Fr. Petrus de Monte, an Italian, elefled Aug. 23, 
1568, died 7tf«. 27, 1572. 

50. Fr. Joannes Uevefque de la Cajfure, an Auvergnian, 
deAed Jan. 30, 15729 died in Rfime^ Decmb. 21, 1581. 


266 Observations Topographical^ 

51. Fr. Hugo Louhenx VerdalUj a Oafcoigfterj after* 
waids made cardinal, eleAed Jan, I2> 158 1, died Ma^ 

5 2. /v. Martinus Garzesy an Aragman^ eleSied J/ojr 
8, 1595* died /!p^. 7, 1601. 

53. Fr. Alayfws de Wignaccurty a Frtnchmany ekSied 
A^. 10, 1601, died &epU 14, 1622. 

54. Fr. Lewis Mendez de VafcmceUsy a Portugtaje^ 
clK)ren Sepu 17, 1622, died March Ty 1623. 

55. ir. Antmus de Pauhy a GafciigntTy chofen jl&r« 
10, 1623, died y^ir/ 9, 1636. 

56. Fr. yoanms Paidus Lafcaris de Cafiellar of Nhsxay 
defied June II, 1636. He was living in the year 1647^ 
when Malta iUuftrata was publiib'd \ and to him fuc* 

57. Fr, Martims de Reditiy a Spatuardy in the year 

58. Fr. Gajfant de Cienrmt of Dautfhfijy in the year 
X659, and died in the fame year. 

59. Raphael de Cetener of majorcay who died in the 
year 1663 ; he was brother to the preient giand mafler*. 

About five miles difbmt from Malta weflward, lies 
Coxa. ^^ ifland Goaoy called by the ancients GauUsy twelve 
miles long, fix and a half broad, and about thirty in 
circuit. The foil like that of ^ilfy very deep and 
fruitful of wheat and pther grain. This iflapd is moun<* 
tainous, yet all cultivated, ftirnifhed with flore of freih 
fprings. It maintains upon it 3000 perfons, the num- 
ber of houies being about 500. It was much npre 
populous before the Turkijh Armata mofl inhumanly 
wafted it, in the year 1565, carrying away prifoners 
6000 perfons. 

In the flreight betwixt Malta and Gmoy lies a little 
jAand called Comirto^ anciently, according to Cheviriiis^ 
Hephajiiay about five miles in compais, and well culti- 
vated ; for the defence whereof, the great maflcr fVig-^ 
nacourt caufed a fort to be built, oppofite to that on 
the other fide the flreight in Gozoy to fecure the flreighr, 
and hinder any ve0els paifing between the ifbods with- 
out leave, 

Morale and PhyJiologicaL 267 

Hiat there is great plenty of (hells and fifli-bones pe- 
trified found in Mahay I have already intimated. I (hall 
now therefore only name thofe which are not at all, or 
but rarely found with us in England. 

I. * Gloffopetra^ which are nothing elfe but (harks 
teeth, of feveral (hapes and fizes. Thefe the Maltefe call 
ferptnis ttmgues. 2. The vertebres of thornbacks and 
other cartilaginous fi(hes. 3. Cats heads (as they call 
them, from their likeneis to a little skull.) 4. Serpents 
gyts^ of feveral figures and coburs. Tlie moft of them 
led and like to thofe they call toadJimes\ the exterior 
iijperficies being a fegment of a fpherical, and (hining 
as if it were poli(h'd, fo that they are commonly fet 
in rings. I have ieen great lumps or ma(^ of thefe 
cemented tc^ther. Tl»t the f toad/lone is nothing elie 
but the jaw-tooth of a fifh, called Lupus marinus by 
ScbanfeldiuSy Dr. Merrety in his Pinaxy hath firft puh* 
liihed to the world; and I doubt not but thefe have 
the fame, or like original 5. Serpents teeth^ which 
are (hiall, oblong, ftriate ftones of a polite fuperficies, 
but no certain figure. Whither to refer thefe as yet, 
I know not, as neither 6, thofe they call ferpents eggs^ 
which are fomewhat like the former, but not ftriate 
with lines. 7. Bajlons of St. Paul [BacuH S. Pauli] 
having the refemblance of fmall fnag^ fticks. 8. Pe-^ 
trifled lentilsy becaufe for colour, figure, and magnitude, 
fomewhat like to that pulfe. Befides, I found, among 
the flones I bought there, fome exadly figured like the 
fore teeth of a man ; and doubtleis many other forts by 
diligent fearch might be found, which have not as yet 
been named or taken notice of. 

As for plants I found here very few forts, but what 
I had before obferved in Italy and Sicifyy viz. Cucums 
et/htimtsi Hypericum tementofum'y Confolida. regalis pere- 
grtHa parvo fhre J. B. Carduus laHeus peregrifius Cam. 
There are but few trees growing upon the ifland, the 
greatefl want they have, being oJF fewel, to fupply 
defcA, they have of late begun to make ufe of 

• The petrified (belli in Maba^ &c. 
f What the fadfotut fo cdled, is, 


268 Observations Topographical^ 

fea- wreck to burn in their ovens, prepared after a certain 
manner, invented by a peafant of Malta^ for which he 
is highly commended by Mila^ as a great benefa£lor 
to his country. 

Here I firft noted the cuftom of flitting up the noftrils 
of afles; becaufe they, being naturally ftrait or fmal], 
fuffice not to admit air enough to (erve them when 
they travel or labour hard in thefe hot countries. For 
the hotter the country is, the more air is neccflary 
for refpiration and refrefhment of the body ; there being 
lefs of that menftruum which fervcs to nourilh or con- 
tinue fire, and confequently the vital heat of animals 
^which hath great likenefs thereto) in hot air than \xt 
cold; whence w6 fee that fire burns furioufly in cold 
weather, and but faintly in hot. Whether it be becaufe 
the air is thinner in hot weather and hot countries, or becaufe 
the refleded fun-beams fpend and confume a good part 
of the forementioned menftruum^ or from both thefe caufes. 
That the air is thinner, and confequently the menftruum 
alio more diiFufed in hot weather, is clear in experience. 
I need mention no other experiment to demonflrate it, 
than the air inclofed in the (hank of an ordinary weather- 
glass, which in hot weather dilates itfelf, and in coM 
contradb very confiderably. So then to give an account 
of the raging of fire in the coldefl weather, we need 
not have recourfe to the infignificant term of Antlpertfta^ 
fis ; the true reafon thereof being the denfity of the am- 
bient and contiguous air containing plenty of that m^« 
Jfntum which nourifhes the fire. 

I omitted to mention the ancient Ccemeteria^ or fiib- 
terraneous burying-places called Catacumbe^ of which 
there be many in Malta^ becaufe of thefe we have 
already had occafion to difcourfe in our defcription of 
Syracufa in Sicily, 

That this ifknd produces or nourifhes no ferpent or 
other venomous creature, the common people affirm ; but 
becaufe I find no mention hereof in Abehy I give little 
credit to their report : fhould it be true, it would be ta 
me a great argument that this was not the ifland upon 
which St. Paul was cafl when he fufiered fhipwreck, but 
rather that Milita bcfotre montionod upon the coaft of 


Morale and PhyJiologicaL 26^ 

Dalmatian for which there is alfo fome ground in the 
Icripture, which iaith A£fi xxvii. 26. 

For that St. Paul upon the viper's Biftening on his hand 
did by his prayers obtain of God, that all the ferpents 

' in Malta ibould be turned into ftones, and the iiland for 
the future wholly free from all venomous beads, is a Mon- 
kifh fimcy, grounded upon the forementioned petrified 

, filh-bones, which they fondly imagined were fometime 
parts of ferpents : whereas in other places where plenty 
of fuch ftones are found therd is no lack of ferpents. 
I confeis it b difiicult to im^ne how ferpents fhould come 
at firft to breed here, if the whole ifland were once (as 
we conceive) a fubmarine rock coverd with the fea ; and 
there be no fpontaneous generation of animals, as we 
alio believe : becaufe it can fcarce be im^ined that any 
man (bould on purpofe bring over ferpents hither, unlefi 
perchance to ihew them for a curiofity. Whether there 
be venomous beafts or no I am fure there are venomous 
infers here, the very biting or ftinging of the gnats ("with 
which the city is much infeftcdj being more virulent than 
in other places. For my part I do not remember that 
in England the biting of a gnat did ever caufe a fwelling, 
or leave a mark behind it in the skin of my face ("though 
I know in ibme it dothj but there it both raifed a fwel* 
ling, and left a mark behind it that was not out for a 
month after. The Maltefe eafily defend themfelves from 
from the annoyance and bitings of this infeS, keeping them 
out of their beds by large linnen curtains lapping over one 
another. At firft we were not aware of the trouble 
thefe animals were like to give us, and left our curtains 

From Maha we returned the fame way to Meffina ; 
fiaying a day at Catania ; where we hired horfes and 
took a (bidier to guide us up mount Mtna^ now called Mount 
Mcn^GhibeUo, The top of which at Catania was told us JEtna. 
to be 30 miles diftant. Weafcended for the moft part all 
along from Catania^ and we found the ground rich, and 
well cultivated, and the country well inhabited ; for the 
flag and cinders caft out of the mountain, being in pro- 
cefi of time dtfiblved by the weather, doth mightily fiit- 
ten and enrich the feil. We rode up (b high till we 
came co the confeivatories of ihow i and feeing the moun- 

270 Observations topographical^ 

ta!n above us all covered with fnow, we did not, nor in- 
deed could we afcend any higher. The trees hereabout 
liad at this time fcarce put out their leaves. As we went 
up we found in one place the ground cover'd for a 
quarter of a mile broad, and four or five miles in 
length, with cinders, which had been thrown forth by 
the mountain, and was certainly the relique of a huge 
ftream of melted coals, iron, ftones,*and lulphur poured 
out in the time of the laft eruption, nothing as yet 
growing among thefe ftones and cinders. This moun« 
tain hath in former times thrown forth flones and flag 
as far as Catania itfelf, as we could manifefUy fee ; but 
of all the eruptions that ever were I believe this laft 
which happened {Anno 1669.] fince our being there, was 
the greateft and moft horrid ; for a full defcription and 
exa£l account whereof I refer the reader to Btrellufs 
learned treatife De Incendiis Mtna. Thb mountain is of 
a very great height, and we were told by credible per- 
fons, that one might lee it at lea over the whole ifhnd 
any way one came thither. We could clearly diibem the 
top of it as far as the iftand of Maka^ which, in a right 
line, mufl needs be at leafl 100 miles diflant. One 
thing we could not but wonder at, that there (bould be 
a ring of fnow about the top of Mtna^ but the higheft 
top itielf bare, without any fnow upon it. 
Obferva. The inhabitants of Sicily are noted for churlifh and uiv 
tionsabout civil to flrangers, and I think not undefervedly. The 
theinabi* Italians have a proverb, Omnes inftdam mali^ SicilUmi au^ 
^" ^^^.tem peffimi. All iflanders are bad, but the Sicilians worfl 

S"*' ^^ ^"' ^^^^ '^^^ ^^ confefTedly a very ill place to travel 
'^* in, by reafon of the robbers and Banditti wherewith it is 
infefted, thanks to the good government, which takes no 
more care to cleanfe it of fuch vermin. Thefe bandits 
will not be content with your money, but will aUb 
(eize your peribn, and detam you prifoner in the moun- 
tains till you give them a good ranfom for your deliver- 

We took notice of feme laws and cufloms, proper to 
Sicily^ during our flay here. 

I. It is unlawful to carry out of thb ifland in money 
more than ten crowns a peribn ; if any one carries out 
more and be taken, all is forfeited. But the ibrchers are 


Morale and PbyfiohgicaL 271 

not £> ftrid, but that if you give them a little money 
they will let you pais, efpecially if you be a ftranger and 
Craveller, without any fearching at all. 

2. It is unlawful to kill any calves in this ifland, fo 
that no veal can be proaired here. And yet at Malta 
they have veal enough, tranfported hence by ftealth. 

3. It is unlawful to take above one ounce of filver with* 
out weighing of it ; (o that if you buy any thing which 
comes to more, though your money be never fo good, 
you (hall fee them pro forma put it in their fcales. 

4. No perfon under age [imberhis Juvenis] may be re- 
oeived at any time in Sicily^ unlefs he hath a patent and 
licenfe to travel, 

5. It is prohibited under pain of death to any man to 
cany piftols about him \ but long guns they may and do 
all carry. T^ht reafon is becaufe a piftbl may eafdy be 
hid, and to men murthered unawares. 

6. All the money current in Sicily is coined at Mef- 

After our return to Meffina^ May 27. We paffed by jij^^^j-^^ 
boat over the Fretum to fee Rhegio or Rhezoy ancient- now i^i6^- 
\j Regiuniy an old city, but now very mean and poor, ^a. 
All they have to boaft of at prefent is their gardens well 
fiored with all forts of the beft fruits ; their filk, of 
which (denty is made hereand(if we may believe themfelves) 
the beft in Italy or Sicily : and St. Paul's pillar which 
burned, of which they have but a fmall fragment re- 
oiaining. They told us many ftories and legends of it, 
which we gave little heed to. 

We rook boat and went as far as ScyHa^ to fee the May 29. 
fifliing of the Pefce Spada or fword-fifh. The man- The man- 
Dcr whereof is thus. On the top of cliiB by the fea-ner of 
fide fiand Speculatores {Huers our fifiler-men call them) catching 
to elpy the fi(h, who fo foon as they fee them, either ^^^ < word- 
by voice if they be near, or by known figns if at dif- *^* 
tance, give notice to the filhing-boats whereabouts the 
fifh axe. The boat prcfently makes towards the place ; 
then one gets up to the top of a little maft in the boat, 
made with fteps on purpofe, and there ftands to ob- 
ferve the motion of the fiih and diretfl the rowers, who 
accordingly ply their oars. When they are come very 
near one, he upon the maft comes down, and taking 


zyi Observations ^opograpbicaty 

tbe harping iron in his hand, if he can, ftrikes it intd 
him. The fi(h, being wounded, plays up and down 
and wearies himfelf, and when he is iaint and fpent thejr 
draw him up into the boat: this is much like the 
whale-fifhing. The harping iron is put on a ftafF or 
pole of wood. The point of it is fharp and hath beards 
on each fide like a barbed arrow, fb jointed that if you 
hold the point upward they clap clofe to the (haft, if 
downward they fall ofF from it on each iide, fo that 
they refift not the going in of the iron but only the 
drawing out. This fifli is held a great dainty by the 
Mfffarufey as much longed for and as greedilv bought 
up by them as Soland geefe by the Scots ; fola in Mef^ 
fina at firft coming in for fix pence Engltjh the pound. 
In May and the beginning of June it is taken on the 
coaft of Calabria ; about the latter end of yum it 
comes over to the Sicilian fide, and is taken about the 
Faro till Auguji. There, becaufe there be no rocks or 
cliils hanging over the fea, they prepare a large boat or 
brigandtne, and pitch up in it a tall maft with (hrowds 
like tbe maft of a fhip, on the top of which the Specu^ 
lator or huer ftands. 

In the beginning of June yearly is celebrated at Mirf- 
fina 2i great feftival called the feaft of our Lady of the let- 
ter : it continues near a week's time with great iblern- 
nity. During this time all the houfe-keepers hang out 
in all the ftreets a multitude of lamps, candles, and ta* 
pers, and fet their windows as full of lights in paper- 
lanthorns as they can hold, which burn all night, (b 
that the ftreets are as lightfome almoft by night as by day. 
Nay, the light was fo great, that at a good diftance 
from the town, as we came thither late at night, the re- 
flexion thereof from the clouds and atmofphere appeared 
to us like the Aurora or Crepufculuniy though wc faw not 
the lights themfelves, and it was no dark night, the moon 
as I remember (hining. They call it the feaft of our 
Lady of the letter, becaufe it is held in memory of a 
letter written to them (as they fay) by the Virgin Mary ; 
which how forry and ungrounded a fid^ion it is, the 
pretended letter itfelf (of which alfo they ooni^ them- 


Moral and Ph^iohgtcal. 273 

fi^Ves not to have the Greek original, but only a Latin 
copy) win beft demonfbate to any not grofly ftupid rea* 
der« It runs thus. 

Maria virgo Joachim fiUa Dei bumiUima^ Chrifti Jefu . 
- €nuifixt mater y ex tribu Juday ftirpe David Mejfa^ 
nenfibus annibus falutem i^ Dei patris emnipotentis bene-- 

Vos otnnes fide magna legatos ac nuncios per pub« 
licum doaimentum ad nos mififle conftat: Filium nor> 
trum Dei genitum Deum h hominem efle fatemini ; 
& in ooehjm poll fuam refurredionem aicendifle, Pauii 
Apofloli eleAi prsedicatione mediante viam veritatis ag« 
aolcentts. Ob quod vos & ip&m civitatem benedicimus, 
cujus perpetuam proteAricem nos efle voluituTs. Anno 
Filii noftri XII. Indi^l. I. Ill Nonas Junii, Luna 
3CXVII, Fcria V. Ex Hierofolymis Maria virgo quae 
fiipra hoc chirographum approbavit. 

We departed from MeJJinay taking a Feliua for Na- June 6.' 
fUt. The firft night we lodged at Tropia^ a fmall tovfn^rofia^ 
m Calabria about 60 miles diihint from Meffina. Here 
we obferved growing on the rocks near the town Z/W • 
fhusfme Jtguba fyheji. Park. Cenyxa minor vera Ger, 
jtHdrofamtm fortidumfztk. i. e. Tragium\ beiidesmany 
odieis which we'had before found in Sicify. 

The Iclcond tiight we lay at St. Lueidoy where we 7- 
adfo obferved the wfld Jujube. St. Lucido. 

The third night we lay at Porto Nicoloy a little creek % 8, 
or cove not far from Scaleoy where there is a fmall caftle« Scalta^ 
Hcr^'^aml at Scalea we obferved the common Cyprefi 
tree 9 LamiuM peregrinum five Smtellaria C. B. Rofmari- 
man vkigarey- quod in toto hoc litore in rupibus copioid 
provenit: Sabiaa l^aecjferay called ii!h Cedrus Lycia r#«- 
iu/a Beilonii ; ^OhondrtUa rata purpurea^ Crupina Belga^- 
mm dketa Park. Meum alterum ItaUcum quihufdam J. B. 
Carjophitbi Hiakimut ruber ; the largeft and faireft flow- 
•r^d wild Pink. or July^fiawer-y which I have any where 
feen, on the»fOck» at icalea \ CaryophjUus gramtneo folio 
rmnimnt ; « fort of fmall S^ottwteray or Goat*S'beard^ 
Jacea imranay -tmdur laciniata, capituUs Jacea nrgna^ 

T vulgar 

^74 Observations Topographical 

Wilgaris; VaUriaua qu^am fupina fnffU^Umy n. d« 
This was afterward fhewed us dried by J^an. Marim 
Ferro^ an apothecary in Vinicij to whom it was fcot 
by the name of Periclymemm : Myrtus communis /to- 
Kca C. B. Auricula wrfi ; Which we w6nder'd tdiind bdPb 
upon the rocks, being an Alpine plant, and which de- 
lights in colder places* Cafta pottUa I^« Not to men- 
tion Firrum equinum JiUqua fmgulari C. B. . AfiMHiUuM 
Illyricum ; Polium montanum album C. B. and ibme forts 
of S0i'ttriJacay common elfewhere in Itafy. Here alfo I 
firft found that fpecies of Campanuiay which I have de- 
nominated mimr^ fcRo rotundo^ fiwrt cigruU$ feniagtm^ 
grandi. It hatha leaf like to the coQimon Camp€mtda 
minor rotundifoliay ibmetimes roi^h and hairy, fometimes 
fmooth. Agnus caftm in toto hoc litore in aienofia 
frequentiffimus eft. 
9 The fourth night at a little place call'd Chiiip^ 

10. . We lodg'd at Salern^y where we quitted our boftt^ 
Saurm. ^uid ftaid one day. Salerno^ tho' the fte of an arcbbifliop* 
rick, is at prefent but a mean city, having narrow ftreets. 
Whatever there hath been formerly, th^re is itow jileU 
ther univerfity nOr Schgla illuftrii in it, that m^ could heiftr 
of : fcarce any footfleps of the old fchool remainiiig. In 
the cathedral church dedicated to St. Matthiw^ we ob« 
Iprved the monuments. of the famous HMArand^ HA^ 
brand the Germans call, him, the great introducer of 
the celibate of priefts, and oppofer of the Emperor^ 
called Pope Gregory the VII. In the pofch faefbie the 
- church lie many ancient Seaman grave^flones, with ioi^ 

2^*^^*^ feriptioiis. As for plane^we here noted, Baria Jmnt 
bout ia- fi^^^9 on the rocb plentifully ; "Samreia ditritr J. B* 
/ertt9. Laurus Tinus cmruka tacta Lob. QfH/us giaber fi&qma 
lata J. B. on the rocks , which pbht it was not my Ympt 
to meet withal growing wild anv vrheze. elfe beyond tbe 
fisas : Cohttea nummafi'de CormiUa Ger. AMffafiheftrit 
hirfutior & minus whrata ; Ecbium majus & afpmusjlmra 
albo C. B, Thlaf^ Candiig Ger. Lanttum,f>engrimimfifM 
Scutellaria \ Sorius dmneftit^ Lob. Peucedani facie pufiUb 
planta LA. Lotus arbor ; ^taphj/^dindron ; CoUis Jovis ^ 
Befides thefe maliy before let down, fouod in Sieii^ 
^fxd other parts of ^ ftafy^ viz. jAsiin^bimini wsajus.fearpoo^ 
rmni Linti/cus^ Aiaanmi Vw^w mgor Mn^duts/h 


Mbrat^ and Ph^fidhglcaL 275 

wdmrata J. B. RUinus five Palma Ghrijti ; Scrophularia 
Jbda canina diSfa ; St^echat citrina angujiifolia ; Genifta 
ISJpanka ; Ttthymalus arhorms Park. Valeriana rubra Dod. 
Hex arborea J. B. Capparis ; Scorpioides Bupleuri folio ; 
Cbr/fanthemum Bellsdis folio Hort Pat* Teucrium majut 
vulgare Park. Colutea Jcorpioides ; Chr(focome capitults corn 
gMatis Ger« Gaprijicus ; Tri/mum bituminofum ; Meum 
skerum ttaEcwn; Cyclamen hedera folio 5 Pericfymenum 
fnfiliaUm caRdarum regtanum Lob. Anagyris fcetida i 
Smilajt afpera j Afparagus fyhejlris ftve Corruda; Acan^ 
Ales fmtivm ; Dorycnium Monl^Jfulanum fruticrfum J. B. 
7rj/Uwm ^rtflrm reSfum hirjutum valde J. B. Telephium 
fiftrpiMts Aag. Lob. Martagon Ghymjiarum Lob. (?f- 
faniwn Romarmm verjicohr five ftriatmn Park. ^<?;ff^ 
Jhgeh^ a mountain near this town, i3 a place noted foi* 
fer ▼arietjr of plants, but we had not time to fearch it. 

From Salerno we tnivell'd by land to Naples^ paffing til 
dirough La Cava, a pretty town, having portico's on 
each fide the ftreets ; and Nocera^ both epifcopal fees; 
Stafata ; Torre tTAnnknciata ; Tom di Crecoj confidera- 
hk burghs. 

We returned back from Naples to Leghorn by water, 3^^ 
baulking Rahte for the prefent, being deterrM from 
going thither by the general vogue in Itafy, that in the 
fummer months, and, till the rains £ill, it is very dan-' 
gerous for him that is in Rome to go out thence, or him 
that is out to enter in there. 

The firfl night we reach'd no further than Nifita^ a 
little ifiand in the mouth of the bay of Pozzaolo, z* 
bout five miles diftant from Naples. 

The ieoond day we proceeded as far as Sperbnga, » 
little (hort of Terracina^ anciently Anxur^ about iixt/ 

The third day we paflU by Monte Circelb, or th« 
Prmuntorium Clrceiumj where the famous enchantrefs 
Circe is r epoited to have dwelt. This promontory ffamdtf 
out a great way into the fea, fo that at a difbnce wtf 
took it for an iiland. As we were juft over-againfl 
the utmofl point of it, we obferv'd a great number of 
iltfeAs very like to Citada^ and which we have rM 
dfewhere feen, flying about in the air. Our boatmert 
called thtih Grknge. Diven of them w^ caught in ouf 

T % boati 

27^ Observations Topographical, 

boat ; and yet 'we were at leaft two leagues diftant frojtv 
land. Poflibly they might fly out a great way further to 
fea ; for what realbn we cannot eafily imagine > perhaps 
only to fport themfelves in tiie fun. Howbeit we <k> 
not remember to have feen any other land-infeS iaUjr* 
ing out fo far from land. And now that we have made 
Cicada, mention of the Cicada, it may not be amils, by the 
way, to take notice of a common Qrror committed uv 
our EngUJh fchools^ in tranflating or rendering this 
word Cicada in Englijh by Grajhopper, whereas a Ci*. 
cada is a much diiFerent infedl, of a rounckr and fliortcr 
body, tliat fits commonly upon trees, and makes a ndife 
five times five times louder than a Grajhofper^ wliofetiue 
name in. iMtin is Locujla, and not Cicada. Of tbde 
Cicada there are great numbers in the hot countries^ 
but none on* thi$ iide the Alpi and CeveHmis. This 
night night we lodged at J/iura^ where yet remain 
ibme ruins of an ancient town^ and (he foundations of 
ibme buildings in the water. 

Not far from hence, the ibarth day, we pailed the 

Jn/io, new town of Jntio, and about a mile diftant great ru- 

t ' ins of the old town, and of a great mole for the, ha- 

yen ; and this night lodg'd at a little tower called St. 

Michady near the mouth of the river Tiber, not far from 


The 5 th day we had a fiivourable gale of wind^ whicb^ 
brought us to a little place called; St. Stefan$, not hx 
from Orbeielb, This day we paflbd in fight of Citrita 
Vecchia and Parto Hercole, compafling Monti Argentars, 

The 6th day there ha{^n*d a great Bonfco (a$.they 
term it) that is, a ftorm of thunder, lightening, and 
rain, accompanied with a violent wind, which contix\Med 
all the forenoon ; in the afternoon we rowed about 18 
or 20 miles, and put in to a little cove or harbour un- 
der a tower called Calo di Furn^, On the fea-fhore 
hereabout we found thofc openula cMcparum^ which ibme 
naturalifls make to be iloncs, a^d ^al) Umbilici martnL 
Tht ItaJians call them St. Lufji^s eye$^ 

..Thg,7th day we proceeded as far as the iiland Trpui, 
when,itiie wind 1 being contrary, ^ we wct^ forced to cake 
up at anlitde harbour under ihs^ {Jielcer of s^ imali tower 
called Lo Molino. 


Moral, and PbyfohgicaL 377 

The Sth day we palled Piemiino, a walled town which 
hath a Prince of its own, Popuhnia P. Barrela, St. 
yitictnlia, Cajlagnela, and t^ada, and lodged at a tower 
ailed CaftigUont. 

The 9th day it having blown hard allnIght,notwith- 
Aanding there was no wind Itirring in tlie morning, we 
found the Tea very rough, yet, through the good pro- 
vidence of God, we got fafe into Leghorn, ahoutnoon. 

Tbe plants we took more efpccial notice of in this 
voyage were, Rofmar'mum vulgart \ Cedrus LyciafiUare^ 
tufa Bellonii ; Barla 'Jovh frulex, on the rocks and 
cliffs by the fea-fide in many places: Crudaia marina^ 
00 the fands at A^ura plentifully : Thlafpi capfulh fuh~ 
hng'ii incamim J. B. ibid, Cichmum verrucarium five T-a- 
Tynibo, at the mouth of Tiber, and about St. Sttfana, 
plentifully : Latui fthquafa lutea ManfptlUnfis J. B. bcGdcs 
another fort of Lotut, with a longer and flenderer cod : 
Ariftilethia eUmaShis ; A I'empcr-virent flirub with a leaf 
like Oleander ; Terebinthus ; Paliurus; Thlafpi bifeutatumi 
Ambrafia vulgaris ; which it was not our hap to meet 
with dfewhere m all our travels ; Cirfsi quxdam fptciet 
quae jam defloruerat, at Sfi Stefans : ChamiErrhlphcs Jive 
Palma bumilis about OrheuUo and clfcwherc on the clif& 
of Etruriii : Draba quirdam ftUquafa folirs loagh anguflii 
incanit ; Euphrajia pralenfn lutea ; Pbilfyrea anguflifiliaf 
in monions prope maris litus in toto hoc trai£ht frequen- 
tiOima j Philfyrea ftrrata 2 Cluf. Colutea minima five 
CaraniUa Gcr. In rupibus niaricisiis propc turrim Cafigt 


Sj^yZ Observations ^opographicaly 



fiorinet* ^ ROM Leghorn wc travelled through Pifa to Florence^ 
^ z city *which anfwers its name and epithet F\creiifu^ 
la Bella J Florence the fair. Yet for beauty in my opi- 
nion it muft give place to Antwerp and (bme other ci- 
ties in the Low Countries^ only it excels them in mul- 
titude of large ftone- palaces, fcattered up and down the 
ftreets, fuch as are thoie of the Grand Duke both the 
old and the new called the Palazzo de Pitti^ becaufe pur- 
chafed of them ; of the Strozzi^ the Salviati^ iic. Ma- 
ny of the' ftreets are ftreight, .which adds no littk to 
the beauty of them. They are all paved with great 
broad ftones, like Luca or Collen ii| Germany i yet but 
narrow as in many other towns of Itafy and Gallia 
Narbonenjis to keep off the torching beams of the fiin 
in fummer time, which refle£led from thefe brood flones 
would elfe make them more than fuificiently hot. The 
paper-windows, and they too for the moft part broken 
and tattered, do very much difgrace the &ir ftone-hou- 
fes. The river Jrno divides this city into two parts, 
which are joined together by 4 fair ftone bridges; one 
of which, called Ponte vecchio or the old bridge, hath oa 
each fide of it a row of ^oldlmiths^fliops. All of them, 
but efpecially the two middlemoft, ^re remarkable for 
the breadth and flatnefs of their arches. The circuit 
of the walls is (aid .|o be 6 Italian miles : but therein 
is comprehended a great deal of wafte ground, [ I mean 
not filled up with buildings] t&e gardens and walls of 
the Great Dukes's palace being at leaft a mile in com- 
pa6 ; bcfides, on the other fide the river, are Ibme hun- 
dreds of acres of land taken up In vineyards and g^- 
dcns belonging to private perfons. The number of pa- 


Morale and PbjifiologicaK ^179 

riflies taking in the 12 oriorates is 44, the number of 
Inhabitants according to Schotius 85000 fouls, and I be* 
lieve be exceeds in his account, though fomc make them 
90000, and others 1 00000. There are an incredible 
xuimber of nunneries : '5r/^//i<i faith 54; we were told 
56 i whereas there are but 24 monaderies of f iars. 
But that which is moft ftrange is the multitude of hof- 
pitals and alms-houies, of which there are faid to be 37 : 
one of which, viz, the Orphanotrophium maintains 900 
peribns, and hath 70000 crowns yearly revenue. 

This city is of no great ftrength, being incompafled 
<xnhr with an old-ia{hioned wall : but the Grtat Duke 
hadi three caftles or citadels in it, I think rather to bridle 
than defend it; one on the fouth-fide, held by a good 
garrtlbn, neatly kept and diligently watch'd, wherein are 
laid up arms for 30000 men. Another is a fmall fort- 
Itfi in the Great Duie's garden, to which he may retire 
in cafe of any fudden danger or exigent : here they fay 
Ills treafure, or a good part of it, is kept. The third 
WC viewed not. 

The churches in FUrenciy tho' they be not fo richly Churches 
gilded as fome we have (een, yet, for their architedhire, viFknnce^ 
they excel moft, efpecially the Domoy or church of St. The Dom9. 
Maria Florida^ which, in fomc mens opinion, is the^'cathe- 
compleateft ftru^re that ever. was fet upon the earth. ^^1 
The pUafiers that fupport the nave or body of the church 
ftand at (b great a diftance, and arie withal fo very flen-* 
der, that they do not obfcure the ifles, but at one yiew 
you enjoy the whole church. Befides the cupola^ tho' 
the firft and pattern of all the reft, is the largeft and 
and talleft of any in Itafy^ excepting that of St. Peter'^ 
in Rmi: under which is the choir, of an o^gonal 
£gMre. The walls of this church are crufted over on 
tl^ outfide with marble of feveral colours, cut into 
imall pieces and varioufly chequer'd ; which, though the 
balians now defpife ^d count but a toy, yet makes^ 
a pretty guidy (bew. Within this church, beyond the 
the choir, are four infcriptions % one concerns the buildir^ 
of Ch( chMTcba and is as follows. 

28o Observations Topographical^ 

Infcrip- Jnno a Chrifti ortu 1 280 Florentini magnis divitih par^ 

t">a». f'ts^ y rebus domi forifque cTmmodi cmfliiutis cum 

i» urbem mcmthus attxijfenty fulcherrimifque adificiis 

publice dccorajfent^ ut Rem Divinam quoqui €ptime 
ordinarent^ & pojieris injignis magni/uenti^t ac Re-- 
lighnis fua exetnplum proderentj hoc auguftijjimum 
iemplum in Dei homrem ejufque matris femper Virgin 
nis Maria inftituerunt^ bf Pwtificio Legate Car- 
dinale prafente^ prinmmque lapidem ponmte fumma 
cum omnium latitia ac devcti$ni inchoarunt VL Id, 

The (ecx>nd concerns the dedication or confecration of 
this church by Pope Eugenius IV, and runs thus. 

i2« Ob injignem magnijicentiam Civitatis i^ Templi Eugemtu 

PP, nil. onini folennitate adUbita dedicavit 7,$ 
Martii 1 436. Cujus dedicatims gratia Pons lig- 
neus injigni magnificentia tf omutu faShts eji ah 
Ecclefia San^a Maria Novella ubi PP. inhabita^ 
bat ufque ad banc Ecclejiam^ &c. 

The third concerns the union of the Greek and Roman 
churches in thefe words. 

3. Ad perpetuam rei memoriam ; 

General! Concilia Florentia celebrato pojl longas difputa^ 
tiones unio Gracorum fa£fa eji in hac ipfa EccU^ 

fwy Die 6 JuUi 1430. Prajidente eidem Concilia 
Eugenic Papa IK cum Latinis Epifcopis W Pralatis^ 
fsf Imperalore Conjlantinopolitano cum Epijiopis ^ 
Pralatis faT Proceribus Gracorum in copiofo numero^ 

Jiiblatifque error ibus in unam eandemque reiiamfidem 
quam Romana tenet Ecclefia conjpijerunt. 

4. The fonrth concerns the tranllation or removal of the 
body of ZcKobius from the church of S. Laurence hithcrr 
by archbifhop Andreas- his fucceflbr. 

Some monuments al(b I obfervcd iu this church j the in- 

fcriptions whereof they being of confidcrablc perfons it 

K#nay not be amifs here to fct tlown. Of MarfiUus Ficinus^ 


Morale andPbyJtologicah . iaSi 

En hj^es! hie eft MarfiUus Sophia paUr: 

Platomcum qui dogma culpa timporum 

Situ obrutum illuflrans^ iSt Atticum decus 

Sirvansy Latio dedit ; fires primus facras 

Divifue aperiens mentis^ a£ius mtmine. 
Vixtt beatus ante Cofim nunure 
Lauriaui Medicis^ nunc reuixit puhUco. 

Of Jottus a good archited, and the firft reviver of 
painting in Italy ; though Vajjari in his lives of psunten 
snakes CimabUi to have been the firft reviver, and to have 
taught Giotto and others. The veries of his epitaph weie 
made by Jng, Politiany and are as follows. 

lUe ego fwnper quern PiUura extin^a revixit% 

Cui quam reHa manus tamfuit VfacHiU 
Natura deerat mflra quod aefmt artii 

Plus nulli Hcuit pingere nee meliiis. 
Miraris turrim egregiam facro are fonantem : 

Hac quoque de modulo crevit ad ajtra meo. 
Deniquefum JottuSj quid opusfuit tfta referre f 

Hoc nonun longi carminis in/lar erit. 

Otiit Anno 1336. Concives pofuere B. M.\i490# 

Of Philippo Brunellejchij a iamoos architeft, who de- 
figncd the cupola of this church, and alio that of St Lau^ 

D. S. 

Quantum PhiUppus ArchiteHus arte Dadalea valuerit 
cum hujus celeberrimi templimira teftudof tumplures 
machina divino ingenio ab eo adinventa documento 
effepojfunt, ^uapropter ob exinuas animi fui dotes 
Jmgularefque virtutes XV. KaL Maias 1446. qus 
B. M. corpus in hac humo fuppofita grata Patria 
fepeliri jiffit* 

In this church on the north wall is the (Mdure of aa 
Engli/h )cnight on horfeback ; Jotmrns Aculut Uiey write 
him, and therefore Ibmc think that his name was Sir 
Jshn Sharp s I incline latjier to tlieir opinion who fup- 
pofe his name to have been Sir Jobtt Hawkufood^ efpeci* 
ally feeing Guicciar^ne writes lum 4ua4u$ and not Acutus. 
Whatever his name were he was a valiant man and an 
eminent captain. 

Here is alfo.a painted t^ble bung up in memory of 
Dante, the &mous Italian poet, who was native of this 
city, but lived in .ekile and was buried at Ravfima^ Oa 
the frame of this tabte vc thefe vcrijbs iofcribed, 

J^f ca^bm ceanit medium fug iummpee trUmiud^ 
LuJira%HtqHe anim^ cun&a pHiafiw, 

Do£lm adeji DanteSyfua quern Fkrentia fafe 
Senfit canfiSU ac pietate fa$r/nh 

Nilp9tuit tanto mors Java n$cffris,fo^m^ 
Siuem vivm virtus, $armmy imago fadi, . 

The In the church of Santa Croce h the i^ionument of 

charch of JlCchael Angelo Buomrotaj the £imous archite^ fculpCor, 
^Croci. and painter. AJbove ftands hise^'esj and under that 
is a coffin, and upder the coAn three ftatues fitting of rare 
workmanfliip, worth their weight in filver, which fig-^ 
nify paint iDg, fculpture, Rnd s^Ql|ite£|ure. Qdow this 

ASchaeli Angelo Bmmiio^ 
E vetujia Simoniorum familia, 
Sculptori, Piifori ist Jfrcbite^o^ 
Famd omnibus n^lJRmo, 
Leonardus patruo amantiffimo 13 de fe optimi merits 
tran/ktis Roma ejus ijHSbus, atgue in hoe Um^^ 
Major, fupr. Sepukhro cfindi^is, cohortante Seremffl 
Cofmo Med. M^gno Etruri^ Duce P. C. Anno 
Sal. CIO 10 Lxx. 

The In . the church of the Anmmfi^ta befides feveral others 

church of is the monument of John Bologna, a .man well known in 
%\itAttnutt' Italy. It ftands in a chapel behind the choir built by 
^'*^*« rllinifelf, and is thus infcribcd, 


Morale and Phyfiolt^kal. 283 

Johamui Bol^na Belga^ Midkeorum PP^^ nobiUs 
abtmnusy Pi£fura^ Sculpturd ^ ArcUu^lurd clarusy 
virtutt notkSf m&ibus ^ Pictate infignis Saallum 
DiOy Sep, fibi cunSiifqui Belgis utrundem artium 
cukoribus A An. Dam. ci3 id ic. 

In the church of St. Mark is a fmall monument for a The 
great perfon, viz, Joanms Picus Mirandulanus, with church of 
this infcription, St.Mwi. 

yohanms jac4t hie MirandtJa^ cetera mnmt . 
Et Tagus & Ga^esj for/an & Antipodes, 
Ob. An. Sal. MCCCCLXXXXIIII, vixit An. XXXH, 

Hiiro/Pfmus BeniviniuSy ne disjunHus pfft mortem hem 

f}feparet quorum animos in vita ewjunxit amor^ 
: bumo fuppojita poni euravit, 
Ob. An. MDXXXXII. vixit An. LXXXIX. Men. VI. 

In the doifter of St. Laurenee by the church door i$ 
the monument of Paulus Jovius thus inicribcd, 

Paub fvuio Novocomenji Epife. Nueerino 

Hi/loriarumfui temporis Seriptori 
Sepukhrum quod Jibi tejtamento deereverat 

Pofieri ejus integrafide pofuerunt ; 
fndulgentia maximorum ^timorumjfue Co/mi 

Et Franeifei Etruria Dueum. 

In the Bapti/ierium or church of St. Jehnj fuppofed to 
have been anciently a temple of Mars ; of an o£t^onal 
figure, and having three pair of brais doors artificially caft 
or engraven with curious figures in metzo relievo^ is a fair 
monument of Pope John XXIII. who was depofed 
in the council of Con/laneej with this inicription, 

Jchannes quondam Papa XXIII^ obiii Fkrtntia Anno 
Domini MCCCCXVIIIL XI. Kalendas Januarii. 

^84 Observations Topograpbicalj 

St. Lau' In the church of St. Laurence are interred fevcral of 

rends the Great Dukis family. And to this church bebngs the 

church. &mous chapel of St. Lorenzo^ built by the Great Duiesy 

The cha- which, when finiih'd, is like to be, for its bignefs, the 

pel of St. i^Qft fumptuous, rich, and magnificent ftrudure in the 

Laurence, ^QrU, This chapel is of an odbgonal figure, and the 

roof of it a large cupola. The infide of it is incrufied 

over with feveral forts of precious {tones, I may call 

them, for they are all above the rate of marble, vAe. 

jafper of feveral kinds and colours, agate. Lapis Lazuliy 

touchftone, i^c. all polifh'd and refplendent, inlaid and 

wrought into various figures. Of this odagon one fide 

is left void for the high altar, for which there is a fump- 

tuous tabernacle preparing, that now ftands in the Gredt 

Duie's gallery. The fide oppofite to the altar is for the 

door. On the reft of the fides are to be placed ftatues 

and monuments for fuch as have been Great Dukes, The 

firft, beginning on the left hand as you enter in, intended 

(as we conje<^ured) for Alexander^ who was only Duke 

of Florence^ is not yet made up. The reft have on the 

top the names, and underneath, in a nich, the efi^ies 

of the Great Dukes^ fomc in ftone, and fome in bna^ 

under that a coffin or cufliion with a ducal crown 

lying upon it, and nethermbft an infcription in this. 


Francifcus Mag. Dux Etruria 11^ vtxit 

ann. XLVL oh. XlXOSlok. CIolQLXXXVlh 
Cojmus Mag. Dux Etr. /, vtxit ann. LF. 

oh. XI Kal. Maii CloIoLXXUlV. 
Ferdinandus Mag. Dux Etr. III. vixit ann. 

LX. ob. Vn Id. Febr. CIoIjCIX. 
Cofmus Magn. Dux Etr. IV. vixit. ann. 

XXX. obiit XXVIII Febr. CIqIqCXX. 

So there is one fide more remaining for Ferdinand IT. 
the fifth Great Duke^ who is deadxfince our being there j 
tlie prefent Great Duke's name being Cofmus III. 

Between the monuments of Duke and Duke arc the 
arms of two of the cities fubjea to tht Great Duke^ 
the names whereof are thefe, Monte Pulciano^ Borgo San 
Srpolchroj Cortona^ Volterra, Arevx^y Piftday Pifay Flo- 

Morale and i'hy^hgicah 285 

rekce^ FiefoU^ Siena^ Grojfetto^ Majfa^ Monialcij Suana^ 
Chiufa^ Pitntiay all epifcopal fees: befides which, in 
Tufcany are many conlideraSle towns, caftles, and fortrefles. 

I ihall enlarge no farther concerning the churches, 
towers, piilar«, fountains, ftaiues of brafs and flone, 
and pi£hires, of which .f here are a great, number in this 
city, and of excellent workmanfhip : only I cannot omit 
to mention two JStatHa: equejins in bra&, much greater 
than the life ; one of Cofmus L upon the great piazza: ^ 
the other of Ferdinand L in tlie piazza of the Annunclataj 
cre£led by Firdinani II. : 

The Great J>uke\ gallery is in ^he old palace, aThcjpUc- 
handibme pile of building. Under ground, as it were, ry of the 
in cellais, are the ibbles : above them fair portieds or Gr* Duke^ 
doifters to walk in^ Ablove the portu$'s are (hops for 
all manner of artificers to work in for the Great Duh^ 
The uppermoft fiory is the gaiUry properly &> called;, 
where, in an open walk free for any man to come 
into, ftand many ancient, and fome alfb modern flatues, 
RoMnd about on ea^hfid^ this walk, hang the pidi^urcs 
of numy Princes and other perfons, wbo have been famoust; 
in the world for learning or valour. Among the reft we 
noted the piSurcs of of ^uem Elizabeth^ King Jamesy 
Oliver Cromwelj and Johannes Acutus^ before remember'd. 

The chief rarities are lock'd up in dofets, of which 
we faw four. The things which in our tranfient view . 
we took more efpecial notice of were, a huge terreftrial 
globe, and a $pha:rq armillaris bigger than that. A 
branched cai^dleftick including many little figures of ivory, 
or white wax- appcarli^ thro' tlie tranfparent amber : an 
engine counterfeitii^ a perpetual motion, like thofe of • 
Seplaliuf at Milan. Several fiohe-tables, fo curiouflv in* 
laid with fmall pieces of precious flones of divers colours,. 
a3 to compoTe figures of plants, fruits, and .flowers, birds, ; 
beafh, anid infeSs, fo natural and to the life, that fcarce 
any piflurc drawn by the hand can excel them. One* 
of thefe, ttic bpd and tichefl that we have any where' 
keuy both fur the excellency of the workmanfhip, andf 
cofUinefs pf the m^iterials, being fet with many rubies, 
and pearls, . tliqy -valued ^t i ooooo Florence Scudi, which 
is more than fo many Englijh crowns. Several rich 
cahiiiet$« 1 bat of tiio grcatelt value, which th^y rated 


at86 O B s e'r V a T I ti s ^pogYapbicat^ 

at 500000 Scu£^ was ricb fet with gems of the firft 
magnitude; a {>earl of an enormous greatnefe, but not 
perfeAly round ; feveral topaees almoft as big as wal* 
nuts, large rubies and emeralds^ b^fides other ftones of 
inferior note, finds of amethyft, (^r. Here we alfi> trat 

' the nail, pretended to be one continued body, half iron, 

half gold, part of the iron having been turned into gold 
1^ on6 Thurnhauffirusy an atchymift of BafUy before- 

\ mentioned. To us it feemM counterfeit, and not neady 

I neither, the iron and the gold being but bun^Iingly' 

joined together. A large topaz as big as a pulkrs egg. 
An intire imffige made of one Turchois ftone: many an* 
cient RomaH uMs of brais ; old Raman lamps found in 

\ lepukhrei, of feveral fidhions: a prefi full of turnM 

work of ivory, very fine and fubdle : rhinoceros horm, 

\ fffc. I omit feveral pi£hires^ and ftatues wherewith the 

nxMns were adorned, made by the befl mailers, and 
much efleemed by thofe that have judgment In fticli 

[ Thear- In the armory we faw feveral remarkables, as the 

^®n^- Minour of many great pcrfbns of Europe^ amoi^ odiers 
erf Henry IV. King of France^ and Charles V. Emp6* 
ror : HanmbaFs head^piece (as they called it) it had en-^ 
graven on it many ancient Morefco charaders: a fiiit of 
Perfian armour for a man on horfe^badk, made of littk 
icales of iron. Albadftoncj faavinjg its poles at the 
greatefl diftance I ever faw any:- feveral InHan royal 
vefts, made of feathery. Five great fwords, fuch as the 
Pope ufes to blefs on Chriflmas day, and fend to Princes. 
A King of Clnna*s armour made of fifh-bones, and a 
wooden fword. - This fure they miftook for an Indian 
Ki^ng's, the Chinefe having of a long time had the ufe 
he«h of iroft rfnd gUns : Je^an arms and fwords with- 
out point, arid broad at the top. Divers TurKftf fcymi- 
tftts; Scanderifg*s fword: the hair of a horfe's mane, 
feveii yards in length ; the skiii of this horfe ftufied up, 
fent by the Duke of Lorrain: tbrtnl conceited guns: 
{»ilols, on whofe muzzles were fcrewM the heads of 
halberds, or pole-axes. Nine pifloUbartets fo laid on a 
frame, that by letting down one cock ^ey were all 
difcharged, making eighteen (hot,* for each is double 
tharged, and a train of powder leads from the^ totidi^' 

Me.of itbt middleinoft, to die touch-holes of all the teff, 
in channels made for that porpofe. An engine made like 
a h«t> With ieveral piftdls in the crown ; this they called 
the Una noUi^ beihg to be dilchai]ged upon your enemy 
wfadi yoit GDhiplinmnft him, and bid him good-night: 
a long gdn, and alio a piAol^ whofe barrels are of b^ten 
gold. SevenU round bucklers, one with^A&lij^s heni 
pakittd on it by MkhaA Jngeb^ an highly efteemed 
piece. Utaiian k>ck» ibr fnfpeiEled wives: ancient Balifta 
(as thqr catted themj whith are no othfcr than great crofi^ 
faoilk . A thong Qit «it of the hide of a bidSilo, 250 
ymnb/'loiig. A prB& fiill of rich prizes of. arms taken; 
fiom the 7iirij« 

In the Argentiria^ or wardrobe, we &w feveral preflbThe Jr- 
ot cupboards [twelve in number] fiill of rich plate. Ing^^^^ ^ 
one,* all 'manner of vefleb of beaten goU. In another,'^^'^^'^' 
a fumptuoua akar of the. lame metal (as they told us) 
iet with diamonds and other precious ftones of the highttfl? 
value. On it was infcribcd in great capitals ("the let- 
ten as madd up 6f rubies) Coftnus IL Dei gratia mag^ 
nus Dux Btruriig^ ex .vote* 

In (ome t>y-<n3Qfm 'we fiiw the skin of a metjji^ ot 
ioKfa^rfe, ftuffed; the skin of an elk flufied ; the skin 
and daekton of an elephant, which was (hewn in Flo^ 
r«ncr feme eight or. ten years ago, and died there. 

I might fpend .many words in defcfibing the* Great 
DhVs new palace and gardens, ftored with great variety 
of tsots and fhrubs,' valuable for {hade, beauty, fruity 
or Icent; adorned' vvith a multitude of Aatues thick Hex, 
up and down the walls and knots : pleaiknt fountaim 
and water- works.; ftately and delicious walks both clafe' 
aad openv goodly flowers and choice plantt;. We took 
notice of DiSiamms Creticus^ ^uamecUt Inderwn ; TVtf^ 
geriganumi Stramonium fengrinum Ger. i. e. pemo Jprncfh 
nttaida\ \Pifian cerdattan^ Ba^mtna cueumerina^ Cha^ 
itiMrrbipbeSi &c. Hbre, in an inclofad place wtre kept' 
two m^ oftriches, and one female. 

In the duke's Therititrophium we obferved thefe fortsr 
of -iHM beafts, tioity tiger^ leopard^ heary wAf^ p^r* 
tapimi wild ioar. Thefnout of this was longer in 
Vr&poKiion than that of tame or domeflic fwine: theears- 
rounder and (horter and of a black colour, as were alfo 


288 OBSEftvATlo'^s Hopogrdpbical, 

the feet and tail. Thefe wild fvine are coitfently of 
the fame colour, which is a griBy or iron-grey. Its 
worth the obfervation that moft wild animals keep to 
the fame colour both beafts and birds ; but thoft that 
are kept tame vary infinitely, which Is ( I fuppofe) to 
be attributed partly to the variety of their food, and 
partly to the hi^neis of. their feeding ; to which the 
difference of the climate and foil may contribute- feme* 
thing* So we fee that upon the jt^s and other high 
mountains covered for the mofl part with fhow, fevc- 
val animals, as hears^ foxet^ barny fartridgesj . &c. 
change their natural colours, and become white, by reaibn 
of the coldnefs of thofe mountains, or of the oonfiant 
intuition of fnow. 

In Florence many of the palaces are made of great, rough 
hewn flones, not laid fmooth, but each protuberatmg 
above tht fuperficies of the wall : which fidhion of boiU* 
ding the Italians call maniera rufttca^ 

This city at prefent is rather in a decaying than 
thriving condition, there having not been ( as we were 
credibly informed) a new houie built there thefe forty 
years : the citizens generally being but poor. This comes 
to pafs partly by the great decay of their trade ; for where- 
as jbrmerly they Icrved France with ftlks, now the Fr€ncb 
themfelves work them as well or better than they ;: part-, 
ly by reafon of the great exa£tions of the Great Duke^ 
who lays immoderate gabels upon all commodities that are 
bought and fold. The greateft foreign trade they have at. 
prefent is with our nation ; and that is not much, we faav* 
ing mofl. of our filk from Meffina^ ^^^ ^^ c'ther pla- 
ces in the Ltoant and working it at home* This dty is 
well fituate in a good air, only fomewhat (harp in win* 
ter time ; the inhabitants are ingenious and quick-witted. 
It hath bred more excellent patnten, fculptors, and aif:hi- 
teds than any one city in Italy befides : and for fchohus 
and great wits it may vie with mofl. 

It's the fafhion here for gentlemen to fell their own 
wine by retail. Yet no body goes into the palace to drink ; 
but there is a hole made in the cellar or buttery-wall, to 
give in and take out flasks or other veflels ; and there b a 
fervaat attending for the mofl part fo long as there is wine 


Morale and Pbyfiokgical. - 289 

to Icll. At the palace gate or wall they ufually hang up 
tbe hackles of old flasks to give notice that there is wine 
to be fold there; 

The gentlemien think it a dirparagement to them to 
pfeaAife phylic ; fo that none of them bring up their chil* 
dren to the ftudy of medicine; but they think it no dif* 
paiageroent to exercUe merchandife; and for this they 
have the example of the Great Duke himfelf, who is the 
greateft merchant in Europe i nay Lett iaitb, that it is 
reported, he trades for more than all the merchants in 

The Great Duke is both here and lA all his domi^^i- 
ons fupreme and abfolute lord, and may pro arbitrio im- 
pofe what taxes and gabels he pleafes ; and therein he is 
not fparing. Every houfe pays to him the tenth of its 
yearly rent. No Koufe or land fold but a good part of 
the price (at kaft one tenth) goes to him. No womert 
iBarried but he hath 8 per cent, of her portion. Every ont 
that goes to law pays 2 per cent, of what he fucs for. 
Eveiy young heifer that is fold pays a crown ; not fo 
much as a bfl^et of eggs comes to market but it pays fome** 
what for toll. So that his revenue muft needs be great: 
feme £iy8 a million and half, others two millions of crowns 
yearly. Hb expences amount not to one million ; and 
confeiuently, confidering alfo the income of his trsiding, 
he muft needs have an immenfe treafure ; by LetPs reck- 
oning more than 60 millions of crowns : but it's well 
if it amounts to half that fum. And though fome at 
Fbnnee would have perfuaded us that the world was 
miflaken in this (pinion of his great riches, yet we faw 
good reafon to continue in that belief s he ufing all ways 
of thrift and fparing as Mrell as getting ; keeping no houfe 
but allowing his fervants board-wages, and being at a 
iet rate with his cook, and his baker, who for the mo- 
nopoly of fine bread {Pane di txca they call itj furnifli- 
es his private table, and pays 1000 ScuJi per annum be- 
fides. Moreover it was a maxim with him, that a good 
tnafore of money is the greateft ftrength and fecurity of 
a Prince, and he would often (ay of our late King Charles 
L that want of money ruined him, and therefore it may 
well be prefumcd himfelf would Uke care to fill his cof- 
fers with that 

290 O B s E R V A T r o N 8 Topogfapbtcat 

Beftdes the territories of Flonnce and Pifa^ called the 
old (late, of which he is abiblute lord and iovereign ; and 
the territory of Siena^ called the new ftate, for which he 
is feudatary of the King of Spain^ he is alfo po&fled of 
part of th^ ifle of EWa^ which he holds of Spain^ part 
of Graffignana^ bought of the marquefles Malafyma $ 
the eaildoQiof St. Ftta-ay purchafeil of the Stroxxi i the 
marquilate of Scanzam^ and the earldom of PitigUam and 
Soram formerly bebnging to the Urjimy and ibme other 
fmall places, for all which he is feudatary of the Emperor. 
Radicofani in Tujcan^y and Borgofan Sefokbre in Umbria^ 
for v/hich he is feadatary of the Pope. 

His citadels and fortreiles, efpeciaUy thofe on the bofw 
ders, are thought to be the beft fortified and provided with 
ammunition and viduals of anjr in Eurcpe ; for the guard 
of which he keeps four or five thouiand fouldiers in con- 
ftant pay. The three principal offices of tnift are the go- 
vernors of Sienay of Leghorn^ and Pitigliano* He hath al« 
ways about his peribn a guard of German foldien. He is 
able to fend into the field 40000 footmen and 3000 horfe- 
men. Lai faith, that he hath 40000 footmen enrolled^ who 
are obliged to ftand ready at every call; and 1000 h^e* 
men lifted and divided into 12 companies, and thefe hft 
have the privilege not to be imprifoned for debt. He can 
alfo put forth to (ea upon occafion twelve gallies, two gar- 
leafles, and twenty (hips of war. 

He entertains and diverts the citizens of Florence in fiim* 
mer-time with fports and (hews, efpeciaUy races for prices 
(^P^j/AVs they call them) fometimes fitfri^ry hories, fome^ 
times ordinary horfes running through one of the ftrcets of 
the town (which whence they call the Curfo) without any 
riders. To make them go, they fatten little flaps of lea- 
ther ftuck with prickles upon their backs. 

The great Duke holds goo^l correfpondence and amity 
with all Chriftian Princes and States j except the Pope 
[upon account of Borgo San Sepekhroy to which the Pope 
pietends ; the marquifate of Monte feltre^ to which the 
Duke hath fome pretenfions in right of his wife, who was 
heircfe to the late Duke of JJrbin -^ and thcbufmcfi of 
Cajiro .] and the Duke of Savty^ between whom and him 
there hath been an antient emubttPa about piwcdcncy. 


Moraty and Thyfiological. 29! 

The Duke hath the nomination of the bifliops and go- 
vernors of all the cities in his dominions. 

The ecclefiaftical revenues of the Duke*s whole ftate, 
according to a furvey taken in the year 1645, ^^^^ found 
to be 765000 Scudi or crowns per arm. For this Lett is my 

The femily of the Medici have had two Dukes befides 
thole of Tufcany^ viz. fViUiam Duke of Nevers and Lou- 
rence Duke of Urbin ; two Arch-duchefles married td 
them, viz, Jmk daughter of the Emperor Ferdinand I, 
wife of Francis I ; and Mary daughter of Ferdinand IIj 
wife of Crfmus II : four Popes^ viz. Leo X, Clement VII, 
Pius IV, and Leo XI : two Queens of France^ viz. Ka^ 
iharine wife of Henry II, and Mary wife of Henry IV, 
mother to ouf late Queen-mother, who died in Collen 1640. 
Their greatnefs began to exceed the meafure of other fa- 
miliesC&ith my Author) by the death of Pope John XXIII, 
depoiedinthe council of C^JT^^/ir^ in the year 14 14, who 
died in the houfe of John Medicesy and made him his 

The gentlemen and citizens of quality keep not their 
daughters at home after they be eight or ten years of age, 
but put them into nunneries, where they are bred and 
taught all maimer of women's work. Out thence they 
Gome not till they be married. He that makes love to 
any of them may with the parents confent fee and fpeak 
with them at the grate of the nunnery. This Is not only 
a iecure but alio a cheap way to bring up their daughters* 
For they pay not to the houfe above fixteen pounds a year 
for diet and alL 

About Florence we obferved very few plants but whatP'ants 
wc had before met withal in other places, Thofe we noted ®^^^^^^ 
ntextCarduus chryfanthemus Narbonenfis G^t. Acarna Jlorep^^^ 
furpur^-rubente pattdo C B. Echium majus i^ afperimjlore 
atbo C. B. Carduur foljliiialis Ger. Atra^lis ; Conyza 
major Mon/pelienfis odorata J. B. Galega \ Scrophularia^ 
Rita canina diHa j Lotus pentaphylUs JiliquofuSy villofus 
CL B. After biteus foliis adjlorem rigidis C. B. Iberis J. B. 
ywuus acuius maritimus capitulis rotundis C. B. Ageratuns 
nmlgare ; Stoechas citrina angujlifolia ; Sideritis vulgaris 
Gcr. Nigella arvenjis Park. Satureia aftiva hortenjis Ger. 
5€$rpioiJes Telephium Ang. Lob. Pajferina Tragi J. B. 

U a CU* 

^9- Observations Topographical^ 

Globularia Monfpeltenjium ; Melilotui mmjmr fare albo i 

Chryfanthemum Belttdh folio Hort. Pat. Medica orhtcidata 

J. B. Solarium vulgare fru^u luUo j Melijfa vulgaris \ 

Cbondrilla juncea Ger. Chamafyce ; Stcebe calicuHs or- 

genteis C. B. Ifchamon vulgare ; Granun da^yloida ra£c4 

repente Ger. Buphthalmum vulgare Ger. Bugbffiim angufti" 

folium \sh, Botrys ; PfylUum vulgare ; Cichorium verru- 

carium five Zacyntha ; Scordlum ; Xeranthemum ; Kali 

fpinofuniy fo far from the fea. Gramen fupinum acuUa^ 

turn J. B. Gramen amoris diffum ; dux varietates. Iris 

floribus albis in muris urbis copiofiffime, unde Fhrentina 

dcnominatur. In collibus urbi vicinb. Arbutus ; Laurus ; 

Lotus arbor ; Cyclamen folio angulofo J. B. Philfyrea fer^ 

rata 2 Cluf. Erica arborefcens mmfpelienfis^ fori furpu-- 

rafcente^ ramulis terms J. B.. Satureia S, yuliani J. B. 

Cijlus foemina Ger. Lychnis minima rigida Cherleri J. B, 

Pyracantha^ in fylvofis juxta Amum j Arijlohchia Sara^ 

cenica Ger. ibid. Gratiola ; Colutea veficaria ; Rbamnus 

I Clufii flo. albo Gtr. Digitalis bitea vel pallida parv9 

fore C B. 

The red Florence wine is moft commended for a table 
wine of any in Italy ; and doubtleis it is moft wholefome^ 
and, to them who are u(ed to it, alfo moft guftfiil and 
pleafant. It is of a deeper colour than ordinary claret, 
which is caufed by letting it ftand longer upon the husks 
or vinacea before it be preiled. For it is the skin only 
which gives the tinAure, the interior pulp of the grape 
being white. 
Sept, I . We began our journey to Rome. Firft we pafled through 
Cajlianoj a pretty little town eight miles diftant from 
Florence ; and when we had proceeded four miles further, 
we left the ordinary road to Siena by Poggi bonzi (which 
is the plainer but longer) and rode to St. Buco^ a good 
large village, and from thence to St. DonatOj a poor walled 
town fixteen miles from Florence^ and fourteen from 
Siena. From St. Donato we rode on to CaftelRna di 
Cajnpi five miles forther from whence to Siena we had 
nine miles more ; the firft four mountainous and flony 
way, the laft five good. All this country we rode throi^fa, 
and generally all Tufcany is mountainous and barren* Yet 
are not the mountains very high. 


Morale and Phyjiological 273 

About 5 miles from Florence we took notice of tlie 
Certofa or Carthujian cloifler, feated on a pleafant hill 
bjr the way fide. We had the profpefl: of Siena about 
ten miles before we came at it. Siena is a &ir city, (om^Siena, 
four miles in compafs. The piazza or market-place is 
compais'd about with good buildings, and, for the figure 
of it, not unfitly refembled to a cochle or fcallop-ihell. 
This fimcy had they who paved it, for on one fide, 
VIZ. that next the palace they have placed the figure of 
the heel of a cochle- (hell made in ftone, and from thence 
have drawn rays or ribs of Aone (anfwering to the ridge& 
or Jlriee of a cocble-fhell) to the edges round. The 
Domo^ or cathedral church, is a (lately edifice of mar* 
bk, having a beautiful front, adorn'd within-fide with 
the heads of all the Pope^ placed in the wall, round 
about the body of the church. Part of this church is 
paved with marble inlaid, or a more e!egant fort of 
moiaick work, containing part of the Hiflory of the 
Bible, done by Micherino Sanefe, This pavement i& 
cover'd with a moveable floor of boards to preferve it« 
Had it been iinifli'd as intended, all Eurape could not 
have (hewn the like ; but there is not a fourth part done« 
The painting of the library walls in this church, contain- 
ing the hiftery of Mneas Sylvius^ afterwards Pope Pius IL 
half by the hand of Petrus Peruginus^ and half by Ra^ 
pbad Urbin^,; is, in my judgment, the moft excellent 
painting that ever I beheld, and fo (refh and lively as if 
it had been done but yefterday. Here are alfo other 
good churches and handfome palaces. We afcended the. 
tower called Tonr di mangioj from whence we had a 
fiur profpeft of the whole city, which runs out into three 
angles. The walls indofe much void ground, which i& 
made.uie of for gardens and vincj^rds. All the ftrceta 
and Piazza are paved with brick fet edge-ways, after 
the manner of Venia^ and the fides of the ftreets 
of the Holland towns. The whole town is well 
built, and (ituate upon a hill, and by that means alwaya 
dean. They here make no ufe of fnow or ice to cool 
or refrefh their wines, their cellars keeping it cool enough; 
In the palace of the Podffta we faw a room, the w^lls 
^d roof whereof were painted by Micherino Sanefe^ va- 
Iiie4 at more than the whole palace befidcs. We took 

U 3 notice 

294 Observations Topographical^ 

notice alfo of the theatre for comedies, a fair brick build- 
ing 5 and the Studiu.v^ called the Sapienza, where aie 
the publick fchools, a merm building, much like that of 
Pifa, This cirv is couiutd a very good place to fo- 
journ in for a (Iranger that would learn Italian^ as well 
becaufe the citizens liere (peak the pureft language, as 
for that they are very civil and couneous to foreigners. 
Befides, by reafon of its fituation, the air is temperate 
even in fummer-time ; provifions alfo are reafonable. 

Sept. 3. We traveird to Radicofani 34 miles, paf&ng through 
I. Lucignanvy a poft- village, and in fight of Cuna a village 
on a hill \ alfo a little wall'd town call'd Buon^mvento^ 

S. ^iri' then Tornieriy a poft-village, and laftly, St. ^richo^ \. e. 

^•' S. Cyriaci opp'tdum. Which fo foon as I had palled, I 

found great ftore of lavender-cotton, which grew all 
along by the way-fide. There grew aMb all this day's 
journey in great plenty, Abjtnthtum Remanum Csef. Be- 
tween St. ^iricho and Radicofani Chtara fylv. and two 
Other fpecies of thiflle, one I guefied to be Carduus to- 
mertfo/usljoh. the other I knew not ; Arcana fiore pur^ 
puro-rubente patulo ; Veronica Jpicata caruka ; IVinter^ 
Savory \ Ajler luteus Linariie folio \ Colchiaimvavet*d dH 
thepafturcs. Between &t ^iricho zni Radicofani wc 
pafled no confidcrable town or village. AH the country 
we rode through this day is mountainous and barren^ 

Jtadico- very little wood growing on the ground. Radicdfani^ 

fani. being a frontier, is ftrongly fortified, and held with a 
garrifon of 300 foldiers by the Great Duk^. This Ra- 
dicofani is fituate upon a high hill, fo that obe may fee 
it going or coming 1 2 or 14 miles. 

Sepi, ^, We traveird from Radicofani to Titirbo 38 miles. 
About 10 miles from Radicofani we pafled overafmall 
river called at a place called Ponff Argmtinoj 

which divides the State of the Great Duke and of the 

It is to be noted, that in all this country the towns' 
and villages are generally fct upon the tops of hills, for 
Goolnefs, I fuppofe. We obferved alfo, that the coiintty 
fubjedi to the Great Duke, at leaft that part wetraVellM 
this voyage, was • craggy and bare of trees, and feem'd 
to us to be dry, parch'd, and barzien land. But fo foon 


Morale and PbyJiohgicaL 295 

came into the Ecchftaft'teal State the world was 
.veil amended ; for the hills were for the mod part co« 
Ycr'd with trees, and the vallies very fruitful. Fourteen 
miks from Radkefani we paficd Aqua-pendentt^ a krge ^qt^'^- 
old town, ex renomenhahens^ for it ftands upon the hro^ P^'^'^^^^'' 
<f a hill fiora which the water falls perpendicularly. Then 
we pafled St. L^enzoy a little town on the edge of the 
lake of Volfinii^ now called Bo^iy and rode a4ong the 
briftk of the lake five miles to Bolfe, From B^lfe we 
inounted up to A^te Flafcme^ where we tafted tiie ^oMoite 
much cektuatBd wine ; and, after eight miles further ri- Ficjcon \ 
ding over a fpacious and fruitful plain, arrived at Hter Viterba, 
icy a large and well fituate town, but not very fairly 
built. All that we took notice of there was two or three 
handfbme fountains, and the monument of Pope yohn 
XXI in the Domo. 'There are fulphur- wells and hot- 
fprings about the town, but we had not time to exa- 
mine or fo much as view them. 

We rode to Baceano 22 miles from Viterbo^ palling ^^^, 5. 
through Rmciglione a pretty town belonging to the ftate 
of Caftro. In the woods we travelled through this day 
upon the mountains near f^tterbo^ we found many rare 
plants, V, g Carduus gkbofus Ger. Viola matronalis ; Ca- 
Jia pcetica Lob. Cerrus minare glande Ger. Orobus fylva- 
ttcus viciit filiis C, B. Cyclaminus folio angulofo J. B, 
plentifully in all the woods between Viterbo and Rome : 
Mefpilus vulgaris \ Hefperis Jyheftris latifolia^ Jlore parvo 
albo Park. Thlafpi Candia Ger. Lamium fcutellaria dic^ 
turn ; Sorbus ; Linaria major purpurea j Blattaria luiea ; 
Cytifus cortice cinereo aut albidoy Jiliquis hirfutis. We can-* 
not yet certainly determine what this plant is called 
by botanic writers. Plumbago Plinii at BolTena and a- 
bout Rome plentifully by the way fides ; Polygonum vet 
LinifiRa per terram fparfa flare Scorpioidis J, B. Helle^ 
hsrus tiiger bortenfls flore viridi J. B. in vepretis mon- 
tofis paffim. 

We travelled from Baceano t!b Rome 16 miles. From j, 
a mountain we pailed over not far from Baceano we had 
a wide profpedl of the Campania of Rome^ which, being 
covered over with a thick mift, appeared to us (looking 
d^wn ^ipon it fzom the clear sky above) like a hugQ 


29^ Observation s^opograpbical, 

lake of water, nor could wc have pcrruaded oarfelvos 
otherwife, had we not before oblcrved the like Pbm- 
mmtnm in fome places of Ef^nd. About 3 miles Ibon 
of Rome we palled by an ancient monument like to thofe 
we had obferved at Afadma, which they czll the lepul- 
chre of Nert ; and, fomewhat more than a mile bdbie 
weencer'd the city,wc pafled orcr the Tiher by ihePmte 
Melle, anciently Ptns Milvius ; and came upon the Fui 
Flaminia, a flreigbt paved way having FtSt and gar- 
dent on either fide it, which brought us to the gate caW 
led Porta dtl Pep^, whereat we eiUer'd the city. 


Morale and Pby^okgicaL 297 


O F 

R M E. 

f\ F RO ME both ancient and modern, though mora 
^"^ might be laid than of any city in the world, yet 
bccaufe fo much hath been written by others both in 
Latin and EngU/b^ I (hall be very brief, it being need* 
left to trouble the world with what hath been already 
publiihed in other books. 

The moft remarkable antiquities to be feen in Romg 
are ibme ruins and remainders of Htathentfii Tempks, 72»- 
atris and An^biiheatris^ Circi, Baths^ Afuadu£lSj Obi^ 
Usks^ Trnm^al Arcbis^ PiUan^ Fora^ MaufJaOy Sfa^ 
tms^ Altar-JivniSy Grav^-Jimei and oiber Jiwis witb ith- 
firifiims^ MidaU^ Entagtie or Gems engraven witb figures^ 
facrificing vejfeb and in/lrumentSy Sepnkbral ums^ Lachy" 
maJwiUf ancieni Lamps^ Weigbts^ Rings^ Fibida^ and a-^ 
httndame ef ether implements, 

Firft, for ancient temples the moft remarkable that I Ancient 
oblerv^ yet reniaining, either antire or ibme parts or ru-^Temples. 
ins of were 

I. The Pantbeon^ now dedicated to the Firgin Mary'^^ ^^' 
and AttSaints^ and commonly adled the Rotunda from-^^^^'' ?^ 
its figure. Its heighth was 144 feet, and its breadth as^^'^ 
jnucb. The roof was vaulted in form of a cssp^^ and 
all the light it received was by a large round hole of 3 
yards diameter juft in the top. It had a porch of 16 
tall and mafly pilhuis of fpeckled marble called ori* 
ental granite ; each pillar being of one intire ftone ; of 
which there are at piefent only 13 remaining. Upon the 
architrave of the portico is tnfcribed in large letters. 



298 Observations Tcfograpbical, 


And underneath that in lefler Letters this, 


This temple ms covered with copper-phtes or t3es» 
taken away by Pope Urhan VIII \ whence that pafipii* 
nate, ^uod nm fecere harbari ficere Barherim. Hethore* 
upon (as was thought) to filence and appeafe the clamour 
of the people, caufed thereof to be made the four Ceuhous 
wreathed pillars and canopy of the high altar in ^.Peter^n 
church. Of the very nails [clavi trahales] which fattened 
the tiles of the portico was caft a great gun of the weight of 
•2800 pounds now to be feen in the caftle <iSSt.Afigeh^w\Ak 
the figure of one of the naib, and an infirription upon it 
ftgnifying whereof it was made, vi%, Em elavis iralal^its 
Porticus Agripp^g. This tempfe remains ftifi ifittre, onlf 
defpoiled of its ancient ftatues and ornaments. For heie 
beAdes many others was that famous Minerva of Phidias^ 
When it was firfl built it had an afcent of feveiK fleps 
which encompaflfed it rounds now you defoend eleven 
fleps to go into it : fo much is the n^Mifh an^ earth 
grown up above it. Indeed a great part of old Rtme 
lies buried under ground in its ruins. One reitiarluMe 
thing in this temple they bade us take notice of, which I 
find not in books, that is^ that the lined and fide-pofts Of 
the great door of this church (which' is o£ a ht^ heigfath 
and breadth for a door) are all of one intire ftoyie ; which 
we were content to believe rather than put oitirfelves to the 
trouble of examining. In this church is Che monument 
of Raphael Urkin^ whofe epitaph (he being fo eminecit « 
perfon and one that carried on painting to its highefl per« 
feaion} I Ihall hw infcrt, ' Rafhaed 

M»ralf and Pbyfiohgicai, 


Raphaeli SanSlk yoan. F. Urbinat, 
Pi^9ri enunentiffi V^terumque ^emub^ 
Cujus Jpirantes prope4maginis Ji 
CwiimfUrty nature atfU9 artUfesdm 

Facile infpixeris. 
*Jvln II Crf Leoms X Pontt, maxtc, p§^W4ff 
Et Archite£f, optribia ghriam auxit^ 

Vn A. XXXVII integer integros^ 
^w iSe natus eft eo ejfe defiit^ 
VII. U. Jprilis MDXX. 
ITufitus eft Raphael, tmmt fuofijpite vines 
Rerum magna parens^ & moriente mm. 

2. Ten^Jum Fortune virilism According to foiiQe ; ac^ 
cording to others Templum Lun^^ but more probably of 
the Zuu and Jupiter. It (lands by the river fide not far 
from the broken bridge \ is now called St. Maria Mgyp^ 
iiaca^ and therein the Armenians have their fervice. 

3* Ten^Jum Salis ; according to (bme Temphim Vejia ; 
and to others ^em:^^ Herculis Vi£ioris. It ftands near 
the precedent, and is now called La Madonna del Sole^ 
or St^ Strf4tn9 alU carrozze. It is but fmaU, of a round 
figiire. Having a fortic^^ or ^lery of ftriate pilbiis round 
about it. The wajls are of ftone^ and it hath no win* 
(IbwSy but receives all its light from a round hole in the 
top, like the Rttmda. This and the former remain ftiU 
aloftoft intire. 

4« Templum Diana Aventina^ now the church of 
St. Sabino. It is large ; the walls of brick and the nave 
divided from the ifl^ by twelve ftriate pillars on every 

5. Ttnfphm Herculis Aventini\ now the church of 
St. Alexius and Bonifacius ; fituate on the top of the 
Aventine mount, not far from the former. 

6^ Ten^Jum . Jam fuadrifrentisj in the cow-market. 
This feenis rather to have been an arch than a temple. 

7. Timpban Cencerdia^ at the foot of Mens Capiioiims^ 
of wbiclf there remains only the p^ticOf having eight 
great pillai? of marUe, moft of them of one ftone. 

8. Ten^ban faturniy anciently the treafury, now 
St. Adrians church; at the fo9t of the capitol, near 


joo Observations Topographical^ 

Sewrus*s arch. The frontifpiece of this church is a 
remainder of the old temple. 

9. Templum Antmini 6f FanJUme ; now St. LoraaL§ 
in Miranda. The portico of this remains ftill intire with 
Its ancient infcription, and a great part of the walls made 
of mafiy fquare ftones. The marble pillan of the porch 
iUiler much by the weather, being of that (brt of ftone, 
which hath a grain lying one way, and (o riving or 
dcaying like wood. 

10. Templum Romuli CsT Remi^, now of St. C^Jina f^ 
Lamiano \ little of the old temple remaining : the ficxies 
it feems being carried away by Ignatius Loyola for his 
foundation. There is a concurrent echo, in a a^Ui 
you pais under to go into the body of this church. 

It. Templum Ifidis V Serapidis five SoSs & Lufnt, 
now St. Maria nuwa^ near Ti/i/r's arch. The prefent 
church is no part of the oM temple, nor built exafUy up- 
on the place where it flood : but behind the doifto* arc 
fome part of the ruins of the old temple ftill remaining. 

12. Templum Pacts. This was the largeft of all the 
ancient temples in Reme^ built by Vefpajian. There are 
yet ftanding part of three vaults or arches ; and the 
plan of the whole may eaftly be difcemed. The great 
ftriate pillar fet up before the church of St. Maria mag- 
giere was taken hence, and was one of eight which fup- 
ported the nave or body of this temple. It is the grcateft 
pillar of one intire ftone now remaining in Rome. 

13. Templum Jovis Statoris. Of this the three pillan 
remaining in the Campo vaccina near the Palatine moun« 
tain are fuppofed to have been part. 

14. Templum Jovis tonantis. Of this the three pillars 
almoft buried in the earth, on the architrave whereof are 
thefe letters ESTITUER, ftanding xhI the left band the 
elivus as you go up from Severus^s arch to the capitol are 
fitppoied to liave been part. 

15. Templum Fauni^ now St. Stefano rottmdo^ a brgje 
round iabrick, having two circles of pillars concentrical, 
the outermoft of leflcr pillars ; the innermoft of larger : 
in the outermoft are forty four pillars, in the inner the 
juft half of that number. Beftdes the pilhrs of the inner 
circle ftand exaftly at the fame diftahce one from another 
as do thofe of tt^ outer, 

16. Templum 

Morai, and PbyJiohgicaL 3® 

i6« Tifnplum Hirculis Callaicij now Gattuxxo. It 
ftands in the vineyards near St. Bibiana', a rery tall 
building of brick not exaSly round but decagonal. The 
roof of it is a vault or cupola not fo great as that of the 
Ratondaj and yet not much lefs. It had two doors dia- 
metrically oppofite, and m the other fide were eight 
niches for ftatues^ 

17. Temphm BaccU ixtra portam Piam^ one mile 
without the city walls : now the church of St. Cojianza. 
Xhis alfo is a round ftru£hire. The walls are of brick, 
and of a great thicknefs : within it hath a leiler round, 
or concentrical circle of twelve large pillars. There 
ilands an ancient monument of porphyry of the fafhiori 
of a huge cheft or trough, having a ftone to cover ic 
This is curioufly engraven with feveral figures of branches 
of trees, boys treading of grapes, of birds, l^c^ They 
call it the monument of Bacchus, In feveral places of 
the roof are to be feen very fre(h the pidures of 
bunches of grapes, and feveral things belonging to the 
vintage. The frefhnels of the colours and rudenefs of 
the figures make me doubt whether this was ancient 
Roman painting or no. 

i8. Templum Sdis. Of this there was lately a piece 
ftanding in the garden of the Columns upon Monte ca^ 
valb^ cailed Frmtifpiclum Ncrcnis and Torre di Nerone by 
the vulgar. It b now quite thrown down ; only there 
remain in the garden vail marble ftones, the greateft 
that ever I faw, and feme of them curioufly carved 
which came from the top of this building. 

19. Templum Romuli (sf Remi fuh monte Palatino^ now 
dedicated to St. Theodore. This is a round brick build- 
ing, into which you defcend by many fteps as into the 

Secondly, For Amphitheatres and Theatres there arc ^; 
yet remaining great ruins of the amphitheatre of Tttus 
now called the Colifeo, round without, and of an oval 
figure within ; capable of 85000 men to fit and fee. 
There are alfo (bme footfieps of the amphitheatre of Sta^ 
tilius Taurusj near to the church of St. Croce in Gieru- 
faUmmi ^ and laftly, a good part of the walls of the 
theatre of Marcellus^ Upon which the Savelli's palace is 


Jdi OBSEftvATlONS Topographic at^ 

5. Thirdly, Of Circt there is, I. A good part of that 

©f Antoninus Caracalla^ a mile out of the city. 2. Of 
the Circus maxtmus there is little remaining, only the 
fafhion of it may be plainly difcerned. 3. The Circus 
jtgonalis flood where now is the Piazza Navona, 4. Of 
the Circus of Ncra in Campo Vaticano nothing remains 
now to be feen ; as neither of 5* the Circus Ftaminhu- 

Fourthly, For baths there are great ruins of thofe of 
}. Diocletiany wherein there were feats for 3200 perlbns 
to bathe themfelves without feeing or hindering one 
another ; in the building of which he is faid to have 
empbyed 40000 Chriltians for fifteen years together. 
2. Antoninus Caracalla^ in which were 1600 feats or 
clofets of polifhed marble. Thefc were thofe ThemuB 
in modum Pravinciarum extruSfa, Befides there are fbme 
ruins remaining of 3. The Therma of Titus. 4. Of 
Agrippa^ near the Rotonda^ called Ciambella. 5, Of 
Conjiantim near St, Syheftet^s. 6. Of Ner6 near the 
church of St. Eujiachius. 7. Of Paulus jEmiSus at 
the foot of Monte cavalloj cali'd Magnanapdi. Many 
others there were anciently of which now fcarce any 
footfteps to be feen. 

Fifthly, Of aqusdufb the Author of Roma antsca f^ 
moderna mentions 4. of which fbmething remains, viz. 
that of I. the Aqua Martia brought thirty feven miks, 
2. the Aqua Claudia^ brought thirty five. Upon the 
gates called Porta di St. Lorenzo and Porta tnagpon 
there are ancient infcriptions fignifying what Emperors 
repaired and built thefe aquaedufb. 3. The Appia^ 
brought eight miles. 4. The Aqua Virgims broi^ht 
eight miles, which was repaired by Pope Nicholas V, 
and is yet made ufe of, being called Fonte di Trtvio, 
Of new aqusedudis there are two very ftately ones 
built by late Popes, of which the two following ift- 
fcriptions will give the reader an accounts 

t Sixh^ 

Morale and PhyJiologicaU 303 

Sixtus V. Pont. max. Picenus This work is 

Jquam exagr9 Columns faid to have 

Via Pran^, Emftrorfum coft above two 

Alubarum coat^ione venarum hundred thou- 

Eht&u jmmfo u receptaculo iaad crowns* 

MdL XX. a Capiti XXII 

Adduxit : 
FadUimqiu de nomine 
Ant. Poni. dixit. 
Ccppit anno I. abfohit IIL 


Panlus V. Pontifex maximus aquam in agro Braccia^ 

mnfi fabAerrimise fontibut coUeSfam^ veteribus aqua Alfea- 

tim^t duSibus nftitutis navtfque odditis XXXF ab Vrbe 

nuiUario Juxity Anno Domini MDCXIL Pontificatus fui 


Sixthly, OboSsh we took notice of nine, i. That in 
the piazza within the Porta del Popolo. It ftood anciently 
in the Circus maximus^ but, being Allien down and broken 
in feveral pieces, was by the appointment and at the charge 
of Sixtus V, taken out thence, and, the feveral pieces 
being handfbmely fet together again, ereded here upon a 
fair pedeftal $ on each fide of which it hath an inicrip- 
tion ; two ancient ones on the oppofite fides in the fame 

Imp. Cafar Divi F. 

Pontifex maximus 

Imp. XII. Cof. XL Trib, Pet. XI/ 

jEgypto in potejiatem 
Popuii Ramani redact. 

Sfili donum d^dit. 


304 Observations Topogtapbicat^ 

two modern ones on the other two fides : on one this^ 

Slxtus V. Pont max. On the other this, 

Obilifcum hunc 

A Cafare Aug. Soli Ante Sacrem 

Ik Circo max. ritu lUius adtm 

Dicatum impioj Auguftior 

Miferandd mind Lattorque fiirg$ 

FraSfum ebrutwnque Cujus ex uUro 

Eruij transferrin Firgina/i 

Forma fua reidi^ Aug. imperante 

Crucique inviSfi/jT. Sol Juftitiis 

Dedicari jujjit. Exortus efi* 
A. MDLXXXIX. Pent. W^ 

It is engraven on each fide with three rows of hiero- 

2. That in the piazza before St Peter's church, tlie 
only one that dill remains intire and unbroken^ It waf 
taken out of the Circus of Caligula and Nero^ and fet t^ 
by Dominicus Fentana, by the order and at the charge of 
Pope Sixtus V, as were sdfo thofe of St. Maria maggun 
and St. Job. Lateran. This obelisk hath no hkxo^* 
phicks upon it, is feventy two foot high befidcs the pe- 
deftal, in all 108, (aid to weigh (according to Laffeb) 
956148 pounds. Of the manner of taking up and rearing 
this (lone, and the engines employed about it, there is a 
particular book written. The four modern infcriptions on 
the four faces of the pedeftal, and the ancient one on the 
obelisk it felf, may be feen in Rnna antica V modema.. 

3. That of St. Joan. Lateran having three rows or files 
of hieroglyphicks on each fide it. This is the greateft of 
all the obelisks in Romej being X12 foot long befides the 
bafe, and at the bafe nine half feet thick one way, and 
eight foot the other. Who brought it to Rome^ and 
where it was fet up, this infoription upon it will acquaint 
the reader. 

Fl. Conftantius Aug. Conftantini Aug. F. cbelifcum apatre 
Ucofuo motuMy diuque jSexandria jacentem trecentorum 
remigum impofitum navi nuranda vajlitatis per mare^ 
Tiberimque magnis molibus Rmam conoeHum in drc9 
maxima pomndum cwravit S. P. ^ R. D. D. 


it was broken into.icyenil pieces but is well mendeJ 
^nd lee together ag^m^ and the wanting bierogjypbicks 

4. That of St, Maria maggiorcy lefler than any of the 
Yorementioned, hayinzon it no hieroglyphicks. It was 
laken out of the Mamdeum of Augujim. 

5,' That oF the ria^aa Navona^ ercflrd by Pope /;§- 
iuccnt X It was taken out of the Circus of Coracalla^ is 
the leaft of all the forementioned by much, having but 
bne row of hieroglyphicks. . Of this Athan^ Klrcher baxb 
wrfttenabook in^/rV,' which he calls Obelifcus Pamph^^ 
fitf. frpm t^e Pope's name to whom he dedicates it* 

Q. .That of St. Mahito faft by the J^'// church. It 
(eoiQs .to be but a finall piece of the top of an obelisk 
broken off| it^ is engifiven with hiproglyphicks^ and fct up 
liegligendy on fouf rude ^gnes. 

7. That in tbe' garden of the Medici: it is full of 
hierodyphicks, and fet upon a bafe witbput any inscription* 
It is put a fmall things and (e^ms to have been o^iiy the 
top.of a broksnone. 

8. That in the garden of thp MaiUi^ giA^^n them by 
the fenate and people of Rome. This alfo is a fmall one^ 
and broken in two pieces, wheypeof the^ u^^rmoft hath 
toward the top igoie ^ipfX)giyphicks, tbe loiwer pi^ot 

hatb m^^ . 
J. \^ due court, of ^.jj^lace. of the Prinee of Pg^ 

i4ffiri9a of the fijnily. a^ the BarJ^ini lieth an obelisk 

\mkfin in three pieces,* ^ngr^vw with hieroglypbidH^ 

which it*s like waslpc^^i 

KO. Rtma antics mientk»is a|iotbqr fianding fit the foot 
of the fiairs in tbe pala«e of tbe XJrfim in the GmBp9 Ji 
fitn: but this we. &w not. 

II, We were told of an obelisk tyUi|; in tbe Canfta 
Martius under a row of boufcBi as big, if not bigger thao 
%ii^ of ihofe already «re<3ed» aOf) frpp^ed to cooekiud 
intire 4nd unbrokoDA • 

Thefe obeliskBi all that arc eilgr«ren wkh kioogly^ 
pWpklb. W ^f'Ofie pmd iibe, iame kind of ftone^ vis. a 
«mrb|i4iir a mwgM o^feur* red and white, wUcb fiwia 
call. . r very bai4« aod whidi hath 

Dot An ^o many ages fufiered the leaft by the weather. 
As for the figure of them they are made taper-wHe^ leflen* 

X ing 

3o6 OBSERVATidNS Topographical 

ing from the bafis to the vertex by little and little, fo that 
indeed they are not much unlike a fpit, from whence 
they took their name. Yet are they not continued till 
they terminate In a point ; but when they are become too 
fmall to engrave moxc hieroglyphics upon, the tops are 
cut into the form of an obtufe pyramid. It is laid, and 
I think truly, that the hieroglyphics engraven upon thefe 
obelisks are from the bottom to the top greater and greater 
by degrees ; fo that the lowermoft and the reft all along 
to the uppermoft appear to the fpeAitor of equal big- 
. 7- Seventhly, of triumphal arches there arc yet remaining 

Trium- ^1^^^ ^f Septimius Severus ; that of Titus Vefpafian ; that 
ches ^^' ^^ Conjtantine the Great ; that in the cow-market called 
the goldfmiths' arch erefted tb Septimius Severuf^ fon 
Jntoninus : that of Gallienus and Salonina commonly called 
the arch of St. Vito, As for the arch called Arco di P#r- 
togallo in the Via Plaminiay mentioned in Roma antica^ it 
is I fuppofe demolifhed, for we could find nothing of it. 
The infcriptions upon thefe arches, and the places wkere 
they ftand, may be feen in the book indtled Roma antica 
l^ modema. 
8- Eighthly, of pillars befide fuch as belonged to temples 

Pillars, there are four remaining. i.The Cohonna milliaria^ which 
flood in the Forum Romanumy as it were in the center of 
the city, from whence they began to reckon the diftance 
from Rome to all parts. This pillar is marked toward the 
top with this humeral letter I, of a great bignefi, fignify- 
ing one or the iirft ftone, and upon every public way at 
a mile's end was fet upa fecond ftone marked IT, and A> 
in order at every mile's end a ftone marked with the mim- 
ber of the miles of its diftance ffdni Rome: fo that adfe^ 
eundum lapidem fignified at one mile's diftance front this 
pillar; ad tertium two, and fo on. 

This pillar is nqt coiiiiderBble for its greatnefi but only 
for the ufe of it, and the ancient infcriptions upon it. It 
is now iet Up Ononis fide* of the Af^aoi the. Capitol. 

t. The Colntma ro/fratay trcSt^ in the Forum J?^- 
mankm to C. Duiliusj wht^'- obtained a victory over the 
Carthdgmans in a (eshfight. •' There is upon it a tortg 

*^ inferip-' 

Morale ahd PbyfioJogicah 367 

inicription in old Latin^ full of lacunay and hardly in- 
telligible ; Ivhich as it is fupplied and made out may be 
feen in Rtnia untica. 

3; ThcColufhna Trajana or pillar 6{ Trajan of white 
marble, ftill ftanding ever fince its firft ere£Uoil. It is 
1 28 foot high befide the bafe, which is of 1 2 feet. With- 
in it ishoUowand hath a pair of winding fiairs of 192 
fteps, whereby one may afcend to the top, and there are 
in it 44 little • windows to give light. It is made up of 24 
flories, and every ftone hath in it 8 fteps. On it are carv- 
ed in an hdical argtiy oompaffing the pillar after the man- 
ner of a ibew from top to bottom, the exploits and aN 
chievements of Irnjan in his Da^c extsedition, ^c; The 
fedeflal of this pillar was all buried under ground^ aiid 
not to be feen; till they dug about it and laid it open by 
order of Pope Paul III. Upon it are infcribed thefe 

S. P. ^ R. 

bttp. Cafari Dhl Ntrv^e F, NiftVit Trajan(f Aug. Germi 
DacicoiP9»t,maxmoy Trib: Pote/l JO^h hrip. VLCos., 
VL PP. ad detlarandum quanta aMtudinis nwns ^ 
locus tOfkis cfiriius fit eg^uu 

4* The pillar of Antoninus^ niuch like the former, 175 
foot high, afcended by 206 {!eps» and having 56 little 
windowr This pillar was broken and miferably defaced ; 
but by Pope Sixtus V: mended and reftorol to its priftine 
form. Vide Roma antica. 

NintUy, of Ataufiktay thmzxepvly tbatofj^gu/ius -^J 
and the moles dt Adrian^ now called cattle St Angek^ MaufJ^d* 

Tentbly^ ti Statues there are. an infititte number in 10. 
the palaces and gardens about town, both ancient and mo- Statues. 
dern : I believe more than in all Europe bqfide. Some of 
the moft famous and efteemed afe,. the Eqtufins Statua 
in hratk of M4 Aurelius Antomms Pius, now {landing m 
the area of the capitol. The flatues of the two horfes 
^th men by them in flone, now flanding upon the Mons 
j^jiirinaUt which is thence called Mfinte OavaUo. The 
flatues of Laocoon^ the trunk of Hercules^ and Cleopatra^ 
in tbe Pope^s garden called Belvedere. The famous ftatue 

X 2 rf 

^o8 ObsbrvatIons Toff^fopbical^ 

of th^ bull ia the Dub^ of PMrma*9 palace^ cUIcd^ IL 7«v 
di Farnefi. The tncoonptrid^k ftacue of Femu ia tiic 
Duke oiTufcanfs villa, made by ApJUmnsikt /MinmB, 
Venus verecunda ibw Marfy^s hung up by the band% ib. 
The wreftieffSi {b« The Cmtmnhmau who dUcxMrcrad 
Cata tineas confpiiacy in a fitting poftusiB with a ^good-knife 
in his hand, ibw The ftatue oif Aiikcftr ia the palace of 
tiie Picbim, The Aatue of Pafiptitij wheraw the VkA 
ufe to be faftened. The ftatue of the ieUo# plucking a 
thorn out of his foot in the capitol. Tii? Aatue. of the 
.flie-wolf giving fiick, to Ibnmbts and Reaim in hn6, 
eftdemed the ancieiiteft in Rome^ Tht Radiator in white 
ni^rble worth la weight in goU^ in the VUla Bmr^gb^. 
A CQjpy of this in brafe ftaiids in St. Jamais padc, Lm- 
An. Two ftatiNS reiembling frididmip^ in tha Kfb 

''* Of altar-ftones, grave- flones, and other flonei with 

infcriptions there is great plenty in all quarters of the 

Ancient ancient Medals and Entaglie there are daily dig- 

medals i^^P fto^^y »id no wonder it is^ IbtthMring bnsi the 
and En- ^^ ^^ ^ i^mpirt fo long. They are to be fold w 
ii^iii. snany flaopa* and I have frequently SboBL of them lying 
upon the ftalls in the market^plaGes. Divea alfo of 
the Firtmft have collected whole feries of imperial me- 

„ ^. 

Sepuidifar ^^ fepukihial ims of feveral fafliidm and magnibidei, 
y^g, .fMoe made of earthy fane of flone, there are abmidhiice 
.to be feen in.tfae villa^ gairicns, and pakoes laf the gMtt 
perfbns, and in the cabinets of the Vwtuofi. 
<4« As for fKiificiiig vrftb aoiinftramentSy kchrymal 

urns, ancient lamps, tings* fiimla^ sM cither tmfin- 
ments, ufferw biffitnlkatU^ weights, i^c. ievrnd aatiqua- 
tm there are in cown, who hive Kfaewife made coite. 
Aionsofthem; z!^ Lmrnxtebii Augi^hmu, itm ^kiOL^op^s 
amiquiry, and J$lm Petri Belhri^ a very iageAiout por- 
iotk^ and skilAil in antiq ait i ct » who iliew'd us a great 
number of tbefe things, and very welLconfenrM That 
worthy and ingenious genclenMn, cavalier Harh Ammi m 
dal Pozxa^ wciu*A us ibme twenty volumes in fcfio^ 

• wherein were the figures-of itu^ of the antiqaities-in and 



Morale and Ph^ohgical. 309 

about Ronti^ drawn cxaflly by the hand. In one of ^ 
thcfe were all theveflels and inftruments ufed about fe- 
crifidng. In others of them we noted the Crepundia 
antlamj which were h'ttlc images made of earth like 
children, hares, apes, Wc. found in urns. The Sijirum 
of cavalier Gmldi figur'd in Roma Antica: ancient Sta^ 
t€r^: ancient weights. Of thefe ancient v/eights we 
few in the Mufaum of Lemardus Auguft\nm fome made 
of a dark red flonc, handfomely poliln'd, of the figure 
of Holland cheefes, and of feveral magnitudes, marked 
on one fide with the number of ounces or pounds which 
tfjcy weigh 'd. Of thefe weights I have feen two in the 
church of St. Maria in Ctfrmdiny called Schola GracOy 
and two in the church of &. Maria in Trqftevere of the 
bignds of good large Holland cheefes, which they have a 
tnuiition,and have infcribed on the wall where they were 
hung up, that they were (tones that the heathens hung 
at the feet of chnftian martyrs when they fuffer'd, to 
ftretch and torment them. A medal with the figure of 
a tahis on one fide, and on the Other this infcriptiony 
Att bidit arrham det quod fatis fit. The ancient FrU 
itlbis^ or dicerbox, like thofe now in ufe. The ancient 
Strigiks : a medal of that fort that was ufed to be hung 
about flaves necks, having on the one fide the figure 
of tbe wolf with Romulus and Remus hanging at her paps ; 
on tbe other, in three concentrical circles, thefe words, 
T'ern me nefugiam isf revoca me in foro Trefjani pur fur e* 
fna ad Pafcaffum Dominum meum. A drinking-glafs 
made like a Priapus^ which explains that of the poet^ 
Vixreo bibit ille Priapo. The ancient timbrel, like thofe 
we have &en ufed now a-days. It is made in fafhion of a 
ficvc, the bottom of itonv^'hich they ftrikcofvrfhim, 
the rim of wood, having feveral long holes or crannies 
in it, wherein are hung round pieces of brafs, like 
ereat medals upon their centers ; befides, there rs a 
ftring cro& the inftrumcnt hung full of bells. 

R&me is a large city, but feemed to us not (o poputons 
as dther Venicty Afdan, or Naples : they reckon the 
number of inhabitants to be ;ri>out i20,coo fouls, be- 
ddes flran^rl, of which there are a great number at* 
ways here. The extent of the walls is greater than of 
any city in Burcp^i viz. 13 miles i but they take in a 

X J great 

3 IP Observations Topographical^ 

great deal of waftc ground. The city is now crept 
down from the hills (upon which the chief of it for-r 
merly ftoodj into a valley by the river's fide furrounded 
with hills. It is generally well built ; many of the 
ftreets ftreight, and adorn'd with a great number of 
fiately palaces fcatter'd up and dpwn all over the town ; 
full of monaflcries and churches, of which, they fay, of 
all (brts there are above 300. It is well ferved with 
all proviAons for the belly ; yet are not things generallv 
fo cheap there as either at Naples or FlornKe, Their 
beef (zs I intimated before) is very good, not much in* 
ferior to ours in England. Before they kill their beafis 
they put them in a great heat and chafe, fQr the fame 
reafon, I fuppofe, that we hunt deer and bait bulls in 
Englattdf viz. to make the fle(h eat more tender and 
Ihort, which yet fpoils the colour of the meat, and, in 
fome men's judgment, the tafte too, difpofing it to pu* 
trefadion. Their fucking veal, which they call yitella 
mungana^ they imagine all Europe cannot parallel for 
goodnefs and delicacy. Their kid, or Caprette, is alio 
accounted very good meat ; and k is their fwine's flefh. 
Their mutton is the leaft commendable, a$ b^ing for 
the moft part tough and dry. Tame fowl they have as 
good and favory as in any place, v. g, hens, capons, 
turkies, tame pigeons. Geefe are feldom here to be ibid. 
Plenty alfo there is of wild fowlofthebeil forts, and cheap 
enough; as partridge of two kinds, the common and red- 
legg'd partridge, wood>cocks> ihipes, duck and mallard, 
wigeon, teal, gray, green, and baftard plover, curlews, 
qyajls. Of fmall birds the greateft plenty that I have 
any where feen : as thrufhes in winter time an incredible 
number, black-birds ftore, larks infinite. One would 
think that in a (hort time they (hould deftroy all the 
Inrds oif thefe kinds in the country. For befides that you 
iiever fail of great numbers of them in all the poulterers 
jpbops, there is every afternoon a market of finall birds, 
wherein they are fold by the country people. Befides 
the forementipn^, there are (bmetimes to be (old cranes^ 
wild geefe, fhell-firakes, Auofettay water-hens, bergan- 
ders, and feveral pther forts of wild fowl. IhaVe feep 
lying fi-equcntly in t)ie poulterers fhops, and therefore I 
prefume iome people eat them, fuch birds sis in England 


Morale and PbyfiokgicaL 311 

no man touches, vh* kites, buzzards, fpar-hawks, kef- 
trels, jayes, magpies and wood-peckers. Nothing more 
commonly iblu an4 eateQ here, and in all Italy ^ than 
coots and flares. They fpare not the leaft and moil \n* 
0Ocent birds, which we account icarce worth the dref- 
ling, muph lefs powder and &ot, v. g. robln-red-breafts, 
iinches of all kinds, titmice, wagtails, wrens, ^c. 

No want of fiih either of fre& or (alt water, though 
it be fold commonly dearer than flefl^, as being brought 
a great way. Scarce any fiih to be found any where 
on the coafl of Itafy^ but fome time or other it may 
be met withal here. Thofe that are the mofl frequent 
in the markets are, of river or frefh-iVater fifh, pike, 
carp, tench, trout, eel, barbie, chevin, dace. I da 
not remember, that I ever faw a perch to be fold iii 
Jianf. Of fea-jilh, Mullus antiqmrum^ which they 
call TrigUa^ of which they have a proverb, La Triglia 
mn mafigia cbi la piglia^ He that takes the Triglia eats 
it not. This fifh the French call Raugf from its co- 
lour ^ and we in Cornwall (where I have feen of them 
taken) Surmullet, Spiegole^ in Latin Lupus marinusj of 
which kipd I have not &en any in England \ Orate^ 
giltheads; Cephalic which we; in Engltjb call Mullet^ 
the ancients called it Mugil ; farde, a kind of fprat^ 
conger ; lamprey ; fol^ ; plaifo,. and others of the flat 
kjmd i merluzzos, which we call hakie i fometimes fmall 
ilurgeons ; dog-fifH of feveral forts -, tuny and fword-fiiU 
k alio to be fold here. 

Wild boar and vpyfon of wil^ deer you fhall feldom 
£iil of, to be .fold in the poulterer's (bop. Their wild 
deer they call CapreoUy it is for the moll part very Icafl,^ 
Porcupine alfo is fometimes to be fold in the markets* 

Orange and lemons are cheap in Rpme ^ pears and 
apples, if they be good and laige fruit, dear, they fell 
them by weight here, as they do generally all over //a^^ 

Their brotd is very good and light, notwithflandiqg 
they ufe po yeafl to r^ife it, and cheaper than ours v\ 
England. Ajid here by the way it. may nof be fmifi 
to. take notice, that the ufe of yeafl for th^ raifmg and 
fermenti|ig of bread in thele northern countries hath bee(\ 
v^ry antcient. \. find mention of ,it in Pliny^ Hk 1 8* 
^p. 6t whp ther^pon gives their bread the preeminence 

X 4 -for 

3U Observations ^^pt^grdfbicalj 

for lightncfe. GtiSm^ faith he, (if Hijpamaifhment^ 
in potum refofuto^ fmhus diximus g^/iBus^ Jh'f'Oi Ha e&n* 
ereta profermento utuntur, ^ua de cattfa uinor Hits qmam 
cateris pants ejl. 

Here is great variety of wines : rndre forts c o mmon ly 
fold than in anjr 6ther city of Itatf : ' as Greci, La- 
grime of Napiesj Languedoc wine, wine of Syragtfa and 
Augufta in Sicily^ Orvietanoy yenfano^ Mmtt Ptilcian»^ 
it Mmti fiafcone^ CafteiHy Romano^ and which is moft 
commonly drunk, jnhano, Moft of the wines are fwcrt 
and fuil-hodied, and' will bear half water. Sweet wines 
they call ahboccati^ and rough wines afcitai. They 
have little wmes ib harfli and rough upon the pahte as 
Our French claret and Fhrtnce red wine, though thofe 
alio ate to be had here. Their oKves are fmall, but 
good and fweet. They have (denty of walnuts and 
hazel-nuts, and other fruits the fame that we hafe« 
For apples and pears no country hath better, I had 
^Imoft faid fo good as we in Bnpand, Tor apricocks I 
tafted none beyond the leas comparable to oun. 

Rome is noted for fevera) commodities and manu- 
fa£hrres, as viol ahd lute-ftrings the beft in Earape ; 
perfumed gfoves ; tombs of buffles horns, v^mens lans^ 
vitriol, effenccs, 

Cpmrnonb' all ftrangere that tmvcl thither bay of Aofc 
things not for their tjfc orily, but to make prcfcnts of 
to their friends.- 

Here is doubtlefs the beft mvfick in the wofld, eC* 
pecially voices, there being many eunuchs and nuns, a 
great part ^ of whrfe" employment it is to fing in the 

. For prftuiies of the beft maflcrs Rome exteh all places^ 
fhere being more httie than I tfcmk in aB Jiafy befides ; 
fe that Rorhe is become the fchool of painters, wfio 
come from aD parts of Eurobe hither to fKidy and 
fASti^, At prdent cava3ier Berfum is the moft noted 
ind indeed onKr excellent feulptor, and Piefr9 de Oarima 
^hc moft eminent pointer.' 

The vilU (as they now call them) of the Princes add 
|?rime nobiKty of /?«»*?, for gardens of flowers, groves 
and thickets of trees,, cut iiedgcs of cypre6, j6oterHus^ 
h\xrt\^ hzy^'^ ffnlfyfnty Laurus timsy and other femper- 

' vinent 

Moraly and FhyJhlogicaL 3^3 

virefit plants, clofe and open walks of great length, 
orchards of fruit-trees, labyrinths, fountains and ingeni- 
ous water-works, bird-cages, ftatues and other ornaments, 
efpecially their greatnefs ffome being in compafs three or 
fcur miles) excel the orchards, gardens, and walks of 
|Uiy Prince in Chriftcndom that I have fecn. Of thefe 
there are a great number, but the chief of all are i. 
The Vitta Borghtfi^ of which family was Pope Paul V. 
This b efteemed the beft of all the vilta and gardens 
tbout lUme^ thoiigh it be not fo raft as 2. the villa 
PamphySay of which family was Pope hnocmt X. This 
is on the yanicniim without St. Pancras's gate, and is 
Slid to be four miles in compafi. 3, The Filla LudovU 
^bekmgtngto the Prince Zi//oT/^(9; of which family was 
Gregory XV. 4. The Pope's garden at the Vatican called 
Bfhedere. 5. The Pope's garden at MmU cavalh. 6. 
The garden oif the Grand EKike or the villa de Medici, *j. 
The garden of Mmtalto. 8. The garden of the Matiei. 
In adl which there are little palaces furniihed and 
adorned with excellent ftatues, bajfi relievt^ piftures and 
other curiofities, which I forbear to enumerate and 
defcribe at large, that I may not ipend time, and wafte 
ppcr in writing what few will think worth their 
while or pains to read ; and which hath already beea 
publiihed by Mr. Laffih in his voyage of Italyy to. 
which I refer the curious for further fatisfaftion. 

Of the palaces and public buildings t fhall fay nothing, 
only I cannot forbear a word or two of St. Pete^^ 
Churchy which is in my opinion the mofl flatcty, fump- 
luous, and magnificent flrufture that now doth, or per-? 
haps ever did fhmd upon th^ face of the earth. Thia^ 
was the only btuMing that furprifed me and exceeded 
my expeAation, being for a work of man the moft 
pleafant and goodly, not to fay ravifhing objeA that «• 
ver I beheld, The whole pile of that majeftic bullq 
and greatneis, that it exceeds in all dimenfions the mo(( 
fiunoiis temples mentioned by the antients : being ia 
length 520 foot (as Mr. Lajfels tells us} and 385 ii^ 
kreadth : and in fbme, the ^reatefl chriftian churches ; for 
though it be not fo long as St PauPs London^ yet is it mucl^ 
broader, and in that refpe£t nnich handfomer ; the breadth 
being more pr opoitiouatc to the length. The cupola of 


ji^ Observations Topograpbicaly 

that marvellous heighth and compafs (the diameter thereof 
being equal to that of the Pantbetn) and fuftaining on the 
top a huge ftone lanthorn, with great pillars of ftone about it» 
that it may well be accounted the boldefl: pieceof archite£hire 
(as he faith) that 1 think the world hath feen. The roof 
arched or vaulted^ and the vault divided into great (ipiares 
or panes like wainicot after the old Ranan faihion \ th^ 
ribs and tranfverfe borders which terminate thofe iquares 
orpannels being channelled and richly gilded, and the 
area of each iquare almoft ^I'd up with a gilt rofe. The 
oval portico encompafling a large ana before the church, 
confiiling of four rov^ of great ftone pillars ftandii^ b 
thick that they (hew like a grove of great trees : the 
ftately porch to which you afcend out. of this area by 
twenty four ftepe \ not to mention the incrufiation of 
ibme part of the walls with poliflied marble \ the ex^ 
cellent ftatues, ft^tely altars, rare pidtures, ax|d other or- 
naments, render this church p-uly admirable, and in aU 
refpe£ls, I will not fay comparable to, but excelling the 
beft in tlie world. 

During our ftay at Ronuy we rode forth to lee. i. Fref- 
caii twelve Italian miles diftant, anciently called 7ii^ 
culum^ where Cicero had a viUa ox country-hpu<e» of 
which as yet they ihew fome remains. Here are at pre- 
fent three noted villa \ i. That of the Bwrgbeft with the 
palace called Mandragmu^ and two others, 2. The Vilh 
Aldohrandina or Behedere belonging to Pfince Pantfbylio, 
3. The Filla Ludovifia\ all pf tliem for walks, groves^ 
labyrinths, gardens, and other ornaments not ii^erior to 
the bed about Kome^ and for cafcades or falls of water, 
wetting fports, and other ingenious water- works, beyond 
them. What we took more efpecial noticp of, as having 
not before feen, was the imitation of a tempeft or ftorni 
of thunder and rain. This artificial thunder they call 

2. Tivoity antiently Tibur^ eighteen Italian miles oflF 
Rome. Of this city Horace was much enamoured, pray- 
ing that it might be the feat and retirement of his oU 
age. Tibur Argeo pajitum colona^ Sit nua fedes mtinam 
feneBa^ Sit modus laj/o maris fcf viarum miUtiaqui. It 
ftands like Frefcati on the brow of a bill, and overlooks 
the campagna of Rome, Here ^le ibme remains of an-* 


Morale and PbyfialogicaL \ 1 1 

cient temples, and other buildings, and a remarkable cafT 
cade of the river AnUne or T'everem. The villa of Efie 
for gardens and orchards, walks and groves, the G'tran- 
dala and other water- works, is nothing inferior to thofe 
at Frefcatt. About five miles diftant from TivoH we palTed 
over the fulphur-river, the water whereof is warm, of a 
bliiiih colour and noiibm imell, much like to that of 
the fulphur-well at Knareburgb in York/hire^ It incrufis 
the channel' it runs in with a whitifh kind of friable ftone, 
which in many places in the bottom and fides of the chan- 
nel congeals in the figure of confe£b or fugar-plums 
which they call Confetti ie Tivoli, Of thcfe you have 
boxes full to be fold at Roffiij (b exadlly refembling con- 
fb£b both fbr.figure and colour, that no man can diftin-r 
gui(h them ; but they are not naturally found fo figured, 
as they would make ftrangers believe, but artificially 
made fo by cafling in moulds. About Frefcati vrt foimd 
great flore of Styrax arbor growing wild in the hedges^ 
which we found no where elfe beyond tKe feas. 

The campagna of Rome feems to be good land, but is 
efteemed a very bad air and unhealthful country to live 
in, which is the leafon it is fo defolate and thin of inha- 

I had almoft forgot one natural phaenomenon we ob-^ 
ferved at Rmu^ which did a little furprife us. In 
fliarp firofty weather in the middle of winter, the water 
wbi^h the (ervants brought up to wafh with in the morn- 
ing was hot to that excefi, tteit we did verily believe they 
had heated it over the fire ; nor could we be perfuaded of 
the contrary till we went down to the fountain, and found 
it there of equal temper with what was brought up. It 
waa formerly taken for granted by the Peripatetic fchools, 
that fountains of fpringing water are hotter in cold wea- 
ther or winter, and colder in hot or fummer than at other 
times, the reafon whereof they afligned to be an Antipe^ 
riftaRsy fatisfying themfelves with that, and feeking no 
further. Later philoibphers, who could not content them- 
felves with the notion of Antiperiftafis^ chofe rather to 
deny the truth of the experiment, and affirmed that 
fountain-water was not rcallv warmefl in the coldeft 
weather,or coldeii in the hotteft, but only feemed fo to ouf 
fenfc > the temper of which is much altered accoi'ding to 


3l6 Observations Topographical^ 

the difference of the weather. Sq that what b much 
colder than our temper, in hot weather, is not much colder 
in cold weather, and (o feems not <b cold^ and on the 
contrary. Or thus, we judging of the h»t and coU of 
other things by the proportion they bear to the temper of 
the air about us, when the air is very cold^ though the 
water hath the fame d^ree of cold it had before^ yet it 
may be hotter than the air, and confequently feem to us 
actually hot, and vice verfa. But for my part whatever 
the reafon be, I muft needs aflert the trnth of the expe- 
riment, being very confident that the water, at leaft oS 
Ibme fources, doth not only fecm to be hut really is much 
hotter in cold frofty weather than at other times i elfii 
this water could not poiUbly have feemed to us, as Jt did^ 
taorc than lukewarm. 

Great ftore of rain faHs here in winter time to make 
amends for the extraordinary heat and drought of the 

Rome is a place not only well worth the feeing, but very 
convenient to fojourn in, there being where- withal to 
entertain and divert men of aQ Ibrts of hun:x)urs and 
_ tempers. 

The prefent Romans feemed to nie in their hoiifes 
and furniture, particularly their beds and lodguig^ ia 
their diet, in their manners and cufloms, and in their 
very pronunciation (fo liquid, plain, and diftind^ flioce 
to fymbolize and agree with us Englijh than any other 
people of Italy ; whether it were that we learned of th«m| 
or they of us, or both mutually of each other, whea 
there was that ^rcat commerce .an4 intercourlc between 
vs and that city for (b many yeaiu tc^ethcr. 

To defcribe at large the court of Kmie, with all its 
officers and miniflers 3 the ccclefiaftical government of 
the Rmiijh church in general ^ their ceremonies and {hews ; 
the civil goveriiment of the territories fubjeS to the Pope, 
and particularly of the city of Rme ; the interefl of the 
Pope, and ^ the ternis he ftands m with other Princes^ 
would require a volume alone j ^A therefore I fliafl choofe 
rather wholly to omit thofe paj-ticujars for the prcfenC, 

^d paS on ^o the fclfirijtioa pf wu: fitcceeding 



Jhfmmy 24^ 1664^ We dtspartod from Rme^ and 
bi^^'Our JQumtjr. iXhFma ; rklitig atpng the ^tf /Z?^ 
4lVJif>^ «Qd fMffing the 77^ fl^in by i\ittP<mt4 Af^Uy 
«r /Var Mlvim. At feven tnilea diftanoe from Rme 
«te fiaflirf ft fintll village oilkd Prim^pmrut. Some bv^Prim^ 
poA fh«t andmcly the city epcteod^d thus fir : wfaich/o^^« 
^onjeAute I oonoftivc i^ grounded upofi the name of this 
yle ar . £kht milei iiiitSer riding brougk a iimail 
Mwm called Ctj^/im^ whekcwe lodgU AU th^ af- 
ImoM wc rode mar A^ Ti^iT) upon the Film FhimnU^ 
wbidi encfaBs aa jte.-asiAMfff. It it paved with broad 
flSptalaHi pcfabksiand <iaifa on «ach fi^ 9 b^^r of 
Aimr^ and mthatboMlef^ at t^^ feoondor t))ird pace, 
a flene fianding u^^ higher tliaii the kvtl of the border. 
We ^kferved in ihl Aatik >we paffed thaoMgb this dj^ 
freat .ftiae of vtraal ^r9fui% now in flowier. 

Wf4>nK»ededoii to Jnpnmo^ or Ariam^ a little town, ^v 
•iri aivib-ftige eight MikB. . Hera we left .the /^ /iiis. "^"^"^ 
wima^ and rode aainBl a liigh hill (which fta^ Angle, 
ted'fliUjr be 6en twnty miiea forward; toC^# ^^^'t'jlmL. 
i(M, ftlittito towa MiN« on a fafll ;and « poft-ftage, ^^/f^ 
■ioa mites. Not bi from iienee we ted^^ ^^Caprar^- 
CtfrvrAwdd. the Duke loSPar&ia^s paiKOi [wheie we/a. 
wete told ii a wM^fKriog: nkmi. like that; in, the (alaoe 
cf 9# ^ AfatMt] wJiicb AlAied not to b(^ jyiQri^ than 
tM»eEthnBe.miIn.idiflant in -.a right lineb M we weie 
nffineddbat as the way lay k iwas ten. or t^veIve miks 

FdnriiliIaiiiiFth^>we 'dame to a poor fmall txf^nBorghettw. 
«alM Betgbtmi alittk babw wMcb we pafied the. ?«-» , 
dv hrniini^ celM Fume RUce^ h^gm. by Si^m^ ^fXe 

and nnilh'd by Urban VlII, for the b^efic of ttfaveilofs 
mm pflgrfnus^ as appoan by mi infcription upon it. Not 
finr fraaathcmef, on our. xiighc faGmd* wo piUitd und^ 
nlitdeuiwvi, ftandiiigentbe top of a hilU cnUed Mag^^'^'^ 
Jmmot and lode on riKniK & miles near the bank of the ri- 
^res (hairiiig in pcoipe6tat a good diftancc on our left ff^r/ir. 
hand a town called Hnrta) tili wc GaKW to UtrU4JijUtnce!L 
wUch aown at prdant ifauHb e^Ntt a bill, but. by the 

ehaeaematn^the aaoient Otrkoli ksms toh^ro km 

ibe jBvacy at baft part ef^ it. 


3i8 OBSEkVAl'ioKS Topo^rapbicai^ 

From UtrlcoS we had ftony way over the fnotintains 
ifanti^ for five miles. For about a mile before we enter'd Narm 
we rode upon the brink 6f a horrid pretipice hf the 
river Nera^s fide; Naml anciently called Nequimmy Md 
afterwards Narma from the river j^r which runs be- 
neath that fteep rocky mountain upon the ridge where- 
of this city ftands, was formerly a RnHan colony, and 
a place of fome account, but is now very mean,, poor, 
and inconfiderable. Leander j/ltenus faith it was itifsi- 
ed and left almoft quite defohte by the Vkmtian fixd- 
diers, Who were quartered therein thetine that the £inp6- 
ior Charles V. befieged Pope CUmmt Wa iii the eaf- 
tie St. Aagelo. Gattanulata the famous captain far the 
Venetiafisy to whom they have eredni a brafi flafne on 
horfe-back near St. Anthmf% church in the city eiPatUa^ 
was native of thistowm Near NarmzTt fton the i^ 
inainders of vaft arches of ftone^ which feme fxf iivere 
of a bridge, othen more psobaUyc of an aqu^uo^ bm 
the river from one mountain ft> another. 
. a6i We rode from Narni over a plea&nt and froitfill va)^ 

ley, incompafied with mountains^ and cultivated after 
the mannei* of L^mbarifj to 7>m, anciently hitmrnmia 
from its fituation, a handibme little cfty, having a pret- 
ty piazza, on which ftands a church that feenn to have 
been an ancient temple. About fourmikftfrom this town 
h- that famous cafcade or fall of water from the hfce 
di Pie di Lueo. At the further end of this iralley 
beyond Terni and upon the hills were the greateft olive* 
' yards or rather forefls of huge olive-trees that I have 
any where feen in hahf^ and at this time of the year 
we fbtmd the people very buiy in bnifbing down and 
gathering of olives. 

From Terni we had mountainous vmy to a little piaee 
called ^rituray another poft-ftage, and from thence we 
Sfo/efc. defended to Spoletffy the chief town of Umbria thence cal- 
led Ducats Spoletam. The walls of tlib oity are of a 
large extent, and the houfes indiflerently fair, and there 
are to be feen many ruins of ancient buildings in it. 

From Spolet^ we rode through a very pleafant and fruit- 
ful valley of a great extent, iurrounded with nx»intiuns» 
much refembling the ytr^ of an amphkheatn^ pfamliod 
with rows of trees and vines after the manner of Lmbar- 

Morale <ind PhyJiologicdL 3 if 

ify. The hills roiind about yield a plcafant profpeft, be- 
ing fprinkled every where with little towns and houfes 
fct thick upon them. About four miles fhort of FoUgm we 
rode under an indifferent great town^ {landing on around 
biD, called Trroi. Trevi. 

FoBgno IFufgivlum] is a pleafant and handlbme little Fo/S^^w. 
town, not»l for confeftions and fweet-meats. At the 
end of the valley of Sj>oleto beyond Fuligna we obferved 
the Kke woods of olive-trees as in the valley of Temi. 

Leaving FoSgm we afcended a^in in a way cut out 7^^^ 27, 
t)f the fide of a mountain, having on our left hand a huge 
precijnce, and below a vadley between'very high and fteep 
•hilb, into which at the upper end falls down a little river 
calkxl Dale^ Vhich drives feme paper-mills ; a pleafaht 
place to behold. About four or five miles from Foligno we 
got up to the top of the Appenmnej where the mountains 
aH about us were covered with (now. On the top of 
thefe mountains is a litde plain, and upon it a fmall lake 
or pod of water, and a village called Col JioritOy a very 
plea&it place iii fummer-time, as Its name imports. 
When we had pafted over this plain we begari again to 
ffefeend, ancf the next confiderable village we came to 
was Serravalky ex re ncmen habensj it being fituate in 
thejawsofa^narrow valley, fourteen miles diftant from Fo- 
Mgfid, From Snravalle'we rode among the mountains 
hy the fide of a little river, paffing feveral fmall villages, 
i;/z. La MtLcJa 'or Mut'.. and Pulverhiai &c. and lodg- 
ed at VaLmariit, 

Wc rode througli T\riunoy a pretty little town, having ^o- 
a handfome praiza,' nine miles diftant from Faldman a. ToIcMtlna. 
This was the hirth-'phct oi Francifcu^ Phitelpfms 2i\c:irii- 
ed man, and a great critic in the Gret'i tongue. He 
it was that invented the word Jlapts for a ftirrop, which 
before had no name in Latin, From Tokntino we had 
ten miles to Macerata^ a large, well biiilt, and populous Maarata. 
town, having a handfome piazza. It is the capital city 
of Marca Anconitana^ where the cai'dinal-legate or go- 
vernor of the province ufually refides. ^From Macerata j^g^^^^f^ 
wc rode to Loretto paffing through Recanatiy in Latin Ri- i^oretpy. 
cimtwny a very pretty town, fituate. on the ridge of. a 
hill, and but three niilealhort of Leretto, It arofe from tlw 
ruins of Helvic Riami.^ diil/v/ed b/'the G^tbu Here 

A ^^e 

310 OBSERVATIONS Topograpbicat, 

we took notice of a table with a bnifs flatue of thd 
yirgin Mary In baj/i nUevo upon it, and an infcriptjony 
giving thanks to her that (he was pleafed to fix her boufi: 
in the territory of this city. 

Loretto Hands likewife upon a hill, a pret^ finall 
jplace, confiding only of one little ftreet within the 
walls, and a burgo or fuburb without likewife of one 
ftreet, as big as. the city within. The church and 
college of the canons ftands at ope end of the ftreet 
Before the church is a little oiaz^ havins a doiftcr 
or portico on one fide where u)e c^ons k)qguig^ aic 
In the midft of this piazza Is a bandfome fountain, 
and before the church door a bra(s ftatue of Sixtus V, 
in a fitting pofture, with an infcriptlon fignifying chat 
he had advanced Lcrett$ to the dignity of a dty^. giving 
it a biOiop. The doors of the cburcn are of biaft caft 
and graven with fever^il hiflorles. The church is binlt 
like our cathedrals in form of a crols, having a c^p&la in 
the middle, dirc^y imder which ft^<ls the &«f# Cffii^ 
or holy houfe (as thev call it j indofed itx a cafe of white 
Parian marble,, cunoufly eogpven with ieveral figures 
in b. r. reprefenting feveral hiftorics, b^ the beft iculp- 
tors then living. The houfe itfelf is fumciently deiciibed 
in the hiftory of it written by TurfiBinus* The walk 
(which are now only remaining, the roof being lemoved) 
are made of a kind of red ftone (aa they would have ui 
l)elieve) not onlv of the colour but alfp of the figure of 
bricks, indeed to like bricks that I can hardly perfiiade 
myfelf they were ^y other. This kind of ftone, cbey 
fay, at this prefent is found about Nazaritb Mod no 
where elfe, which if true is one of the heft arguiAents 
they have to prove that this houfe came from thence* 
That the reader may fee what weak proo& and Utde 
evidence they have of the miraculous tiaoiportatioa of 
this houfe from Judca hither, I fliall here infert the 
whole relation of it made by themfelvc^, which is trao£* 
kted into thirteen languages, and hung up in tables here 
in the church : and in Englijb runs thus^ 

Ave Domna An^elorum* 

The mtraadous Origin and Tranfigtm ^ ih$ Cfmnh (( 
mr Lady ^Loroto* 


MoraJy and PbyfiologtcaU - 321 

The church of Lm'tttQ was a chamber of the B. Vir- 
gin nigh Jerufalem^ in which (be was born and bred, and 
laluted by the angel, and therein conceived and 
brought up her Son Jifus to the age of twelve years. 
This chamber after the afcenfion of our Saviour was 
by the apoftles confeciated into a church in honour of 
the R Lady t and St Luke made a pi6hire to her, like* 
wife exunt therein to be feen at this very day. le 
was frequented with grfat devotion by the people of the 
country where it ftood whilft they were C^tholicks. 
But when leaving the faith of Chriji they followed the 
ieA of Mahomet^ the angels took it and carried it into 
Sclaveniaj and |daced it by a town called Flumen^ where 
not being had in due reverence, they again tranfported 
^it over the fea to a wood in the territory of Recanati^ 
bebnging to a noble woman called Loretia^ from whence 
it took the name of our Lady of Loretto ; and thence 
again they carried it, by reafon of the many robberies 
committed) to a mountain of two brothers in the (aid 
territory: and from thence finally, in refpedl of their 
dilagreement about the gifts and offerings, to the common 
high^way not far diftant, where it now remains without 
foundations, famous for many figns, graces, and mira« 
cks ; whereat the inhabitants of Recanati^ who ofteft 
came to fee it, much wondering, environed it with a 
firong and thick wall, yet could no man tell whence it 
came originally, till in the year 1296. the B. V. ap- 
peared in fleep to a holy devout man ^ to whom (he rc-» 
vealcd it, and he divulged it to others of authority in this 
province, who, determining forthwith to try the truth of 
the viilon, refolved to chufe fixteen men of credit, who 
to that efFed (hould go all together to the city of Naza^ 
retby as they did, carrying with them the meafures of 
thb church, and comparing therewith the foundatious 
remnant, they found them wholly agreeable -, and in a 
wall there by engraven, that it ftood there, and had 
kft the place. Which done they, prefcntly returning 
back, publifhed the premiiles to be true: and from 
that time forward it has been certainly known, that this 
church was the chamber of the Virgin Alary : to which 
Chriilians began then, and have ever fince had great de- 

Y votion. 

322 Observations Top^rapbicalj 

votlon, for that in it AxXy flie hath done and doth 
many and many miracks. 

One Freri Paul di Syhe^ ah eremite of great fanAity, 
who lived in a cottage nigh untD this church, whither 
daily he went to mattins, faid that for ten years ^Moe, 
on the eighth of Sipiemherj two hours before day he &w 
a light dcfcend fiom heaven upon it, which he £ud was 
the B. V. who there {hewed herlUf on the feaft of her 
nativity. In confirmation of all which, two vutnoos 
men of the city of Recanati divers times declared unto 
the prefedl of Temman and governor of the foremea- 
tioned church as fdloweth. The one caBed PmI Rt- 
nalducci avouched, that his grauidfiither fiiw when the 
angels brought it over the fea, placed it in the fi>r6- 
mentioned wood, and-had often viiked it there; theotber^ 
called Francis Prior ^ in like ibrt affirmed, that hb grand- 
Cither's grandfather, bong 1 20 years oM, had aUb much 
frequented it in the fame place^ and for further proof that 
it had been there, he reported that his gnuidfiithei's 
grandfitther had a houfe nigh unto it, wherein he dwek; 
and that in his time it was carried by the angds from 
thence to the mountain of the two brothers, where they 
placed it as aboveiaid. 

By order of the right t Rahrt Cm iingU n 

reverend monfignor priefl of die foaxtf 

Vincent Cajfal of Bo- of Jifitt^ in the year 

lognia^ governor of 1634. have faithfoBy 

this holy place, under tranflated the pre- 

proteAion of the mifles out of the £tf- 

moft reverend car- tin original lian^ng 

dinal Moroni. in the frid church. 

To the honour of the ever-glorious Viipm 

The treafury of this church is very rich, full of jeweb, 
precious flones, gold and filver veileis, and tabula vo- 
/;W, embroidered altar-clothes, copes, vefts, C^r. of 
great value, beddes other ornaments and curiofities, which 
have been prefented by feveral Princes and great perfons. 
The moft confiderable particulars thofe that are curious 
may find fet down in Lajj^f% Vycgi of Itafyy as alfo of 


' Moral, and PbyfbiogicaL 32 j 

^ vefleb and plate in the houie itielf. The earttien 
|iots in the apothecary's ihop, moft part of them painted 
bf the hand of RMphad dt UrtiftOj and the gneat wine- 
cflDar, are things Chattife to be (hewn to travellers. 

We travelled from Laretto to Ancma^ fifteen miles of 3<^* 
ibttl way. This is a confiderable city, well peo{4cd and ^wia. 
froi|iiented by merchaiitS) by reaibn of the commodiouf- 
nefs of the harbour, which was fbrmerly the very beft 
in ail tbe pilph, but is now run much to decay; The 
chief leiMarkabks we took notice of were [i.] The re^ 
■ninders of the ftones fecuring the anti^nt port, where 
4ands that Smioub triumphal arch of white Parian marble, 
kfj Older of the ienate eroded to Trajan \ compofed of hugi 
flonesy and thus inicribcd : 

hnp. Citfari. Dhi. Nef^a. R Nervag. Trajam. 
Optimo Jug. Germanic. Daci. Co, Pont, Max. 7?i 
Pot. XIX. Imp. IX. Cof. VL PP.trovidtntiJftmo, 
Primcipi. Smatus. P. ^ R. ^od. acceffim 
balia.Jjoe. etiam^ addifOi ex. pecunia. fua. portu. 
Mioremh navigantihis r^ddiderit* 

On the right fide is inlcribed, Plotina. Aug. Conjug. Aug. 
and OA the kft fide Diva Marciana, Sororii 

On the top of this arch fbrmei4y fbod a &tatua e- 
^ite/his of Trajany which is now taken down and f^ 
oiwr the gate of the merchants-hall or exchange, which 
was [2.] the fecond remarkable. [3.] The theatre for 
CXNiiedies. [4.] The Domo or church of St. CyriacuT* 
[5.] The citadel. [6.] The ihell-fifli called Pholades in 
L^iSM, becade they live in holes within a foft kind of 
flone, or hard clay, which being expofed to the air^ 
in procefs of time, becomes a perfed ftone for hardnef?. 
"Hie kalians call thefe ftones Ba& di Sajij and the iifli 
BmMart or Dattyli de fnaYe. They find the ftones (as 
tiKy told us) out at fea in greit plenty, and, taking 
tbeni upj bring them into the harbour where they 
keep them. We bad a difli of them drefs'd, which 
were no unpleafant meat) inferior for tafte to no fhelU 
fih except an oyfter. 

Ya W(f 

324 O B s B R V A T I o N 8 Topograpbicul 

3 1 • We travelled along the fea-coaft twenty miles to £f- 
SirJgagiiafjigaglla^ antiently Sena Gallica^ a handfome littk city, 
well walled about and fortified. Here is a fmall har- 
bo^ir for boats and barges. Ffom SinigagUa we ftiU 
followed the fca-(hore to Fano^ fifteen miles difiant ; 
Fano. ^y ^^ ^^y puffing over two long bridges. Pano^ an- 
tiently Fanum Fortufue, is a much larger city than I 
had imagined, well walled and fortified. There is an 
old triumphal arch ere<5ted to Auguftus^ which, becaule 
it had b^n (bmewhat broken and defkced in the wan 
with Malatefla^ they have in the wall by fet a modd 
of it as it was when intire, whereon is inicribed, Effi- 
giti arcui ah Augufto ereSii^ fojieaque ix parte diruti biU§ 
Pit IL contra Fanenfes^ Anno MC^CCCLXIIL 



Here we iaw the antient temple of Fortwu^ now 
the Auguftine friars church : and the brafi fiatue of 
Fortune which was adored, taken out thence, now ftand> 
ing in the palace. In this city is a fenate of feveotjr 
gentlemen, changed every third or fourth year, who 
out of their own number eled, every two months, two 
priors and a gonfalonier, but the governor or monfignor, 
placed here by the Pope, is the Dminusfac tsfum. Ma^ 
late/a, tyrant of Rimini (as they call him) feized alfb 
upon this place, but was driven out by Pope Pius 11, 
ailifled by the Duke of Uriinj Carignano of Ancoma^ 
and one Caffaro. Thefe two gentlemen had each of 
them a ladder for his arms, the one red, and the other 
white. The city out of gratitude took thefe two lad- 
ders for their arms, leaving their former which was a 
g^tc or arch with this motto under it. In bac porta fiat 


Morale and Phyfiological. 325 

hie Led finis. This city is by fome efteemcd one of 
the beft fituated in Italy, 

We ftill held along the fliore till we came to Pefaro^Feh, i. 
anciently Pifaurwn^ feven miles. This is a very elegant '664. 
and pleafant city, having a handfome piazza, encom-^C/^* 
pafled with fair buildings ; therein ftand many ancient 
ftones with infcription$. We pafled through a long well 
built ftreet, and had a profpe£^ of the cupola of the Doma. 
The haven is almoft choaked up. It is walled about and 
jbrtified with baftions and a caftle. We faw this town 
only in tranfitu^ but it merited a little demurr. From 
hence we cxoSkA the country to a village called Catolica 
ten miles. We left Gradara on our left hand but came 
not in fight of it. From Catolica we rode along the 
fea^hoie for the moft part till we came within two or 
three miles of Rimini^ and then left the fhore and toolc 
the Via Ftaminia, From Catolica to Rimini they reckon 
fifteen miles, yet may^Rifnini eaiily be feen from thence. 
Rhmm is a pretty proper city, having flreight ftreets llkc^'^'^- 
Pifaro and Fano^ yet are the buildings but low. Within 
the walls of this town we pafled under a high flone-^irch . 
erefied to Tiiirius (Schottus faith Auguftus) Cafar^ but 
the infcription was fbmewhat defaced. In the piaxsta 
we viewed the ftene on which y, Cafar is faid to have 
flood when he made a (jpeecb to his foldiers, animating 
them to accompany him to Rome and invade the city's 
liberty. On it are thefe modern infcriptions, 

C. Cafar Di6i, Ruhlcone fuperato civili belL commiUt. 

fuos hie in fir Ar. adlocut. 
Suggejlum hunc vetujlate collapfum Cojf* Ariminenftwn 

Novembrisl^Dccembr.yityV. Rejlit, 

In another ^Mssza we faw a brafs flatue of Pavlui V. 
Being cameval time we found the gentlemen here tilting. * 
They fan not at one another but at a puppet or man of 
ifaaw, Bamhceio they call it. 

We made a digreffion to St. Marino^ a little town 2. 
ifauiding on the top of a very high hiU, (bme ten miles or S«-^<V* 
ffloie dtibnt from Rimini. This place hath maintained 
it61f in the condition of a free fbte or commonwealth, > 
as the inhabitants boaft, for above icoo years, but it*s well 
if half fo long. The territory of this* republick i» but 

Y 3 one 

3-6 OBSERVAtic^Ns Topographical^ 

one mountain about three miles in length, and fbtne nine- 
or ten miles round. In this fmall territory they have font 
cafielli or vilbges, vi%. SarravaUe^ FietOfw^ M^nte Giardih^^ 
and Fiormtim : eight oorn-mills upon the little rivev 
Canffua^ which bounds this territory towayrds the noitb, 
and two powder-mills : the number of ftxibia^ about 400a 
or 5000, of (bldiers or fighting men 1500. Theams 
of this repuUick^-aie three towers upon a mountain, and 
under it this motto, Libertas perpiiaa. The Btargh& of 
St. Martin flands at the foot of the hill upon which the 
town is built, and is like fome of our Nortb^lVales towns; 
In this B9rgh9 weekly on Wedmfiafi is hsld a map]we» 
where are bought and fold a great number qF fwine, eipe-r 
cially in carneval time, three, four, or five thoufind on ai 
a market-day. The reafim of this great conoouife to bujr 
and fell here is becaufe they pay fo little toll, tits, about fix 
pence for a drove, be they more or lefi. Yiota the Bc^gb^ 
up to the town are two afcents, the one more cafy and 
winding about to the fitrtbermoft gate, by wbieh coachc» 
may make a (hift lx> get up, the other fteep to the nearer 
gate, . On one fide the tovm i« wailed about^ 00 the 
other fide it needs it not, for it fliands oA the brow ef a 
precipitious rock of a very great height, whereon thef 
have placed thr^e towers in a row. On the fide wbem 
the wall goes the hill is very fteep and alaoft impefi- 
ble to climb but by the made ways. There ia no hill noH* 
it that can any way offend it, and thoTe that are next fitf 
lower than that whereon the town is built. The ftreets 
of the town are narrow, and the houfes but mdan^ 
Here live about fixty Jews. Two cloiflers they have 
within the walk, one of. difcalcesate Framifcans or 
Succohmtiy the other of nuns of the order of Santa Clara ^ 
wicfaoot the walls in the B&rgU is a monaflery of Captf 
dnesy and about a mile from the town a btr i:onvent of tte 
Servit^, They have twenty five final] pieiea or drakes 
and two culverines. This place is a hifliop'a fie^ and tlie 
bifiiop of it is bi{bop alfo of St. Le9f MonU Fdtre^ and 
La Penna. This republtck is fitrrounded by the tern* 
tory of the Pope i they ftamp no laoiiey 1 thqr have 
neither friendfliip nor enmity with any of the States or 
Princes of Italjf ; and in the feveral wan of Jtafy they 
hav« eajoyed p^e. On occafion thrj kni unhaffiriors 

Moral, and Pbyjiological 327 

Id the neighbouring Princes and States. At Rme they 
have their Rpoteflor, who at prefent is cardinal Carh Bar- 
herini^ to whom they ibmetimes fend prefcnts, viz. 
100 litdc cheefes or a butt of mufcatella. They acknow- 
ledge no fuperior tinder God, but have abfolute power in 
aril and criminal caufes. If a peribn baniffaed from other 
(daces retires hither, they ibmetimes give him prote£^ion, 
but it 18 done by the m^r vote of tlie council. If one 
man kiU another, though in his own defence) he is 
fen t en ce d by the commiflary or judgp to pay 100 Scudi^ 
but he petidoning the council, they ufually bring it down 
to twenty five. If one murthers another and flies, he is 
haniflied for ever and all his goods confifcate. This re* 
IMiUick maintains a phyfician and a furgeon at the publick 
charge. The mafcattlh's of this place are much efteemed, 
ind the gentry hereabout in fummer-time come ordinarily 
ftkher to drink them, and enjoy tht frefco, Covrs they 
liavt none, bat flieep and goats good ftore ; of who4 
milk they make little cheefes that eat well. From the 
Inn we had a profped of Monte Leoruy a ftrong ibrtreis 
formerly belonging to this republick, but taken from them 
by the duke of Urbtn. They have four great fairs, every 
year, die chiefeft of all is on St. Bartholonuw's day, 
at which time there is a general mufter of all their forces. 
At thefe fairs there is great abundance of young cattle 
fold. Many veals driven as far as Fhrmce, Thefe fairs 
and markets difguft the neighbouring Princes, as being a 
great diminution of their tolls. 

The government of St. A^lartno is by a council of 
forty five, which they caB Corpo di Prencipe. Of thefe 
fifteen are gentlemen (for there are about twenty ^milies 
of ge ntl e m en in ths ftate) fifteen artifans or tradefmen, 
and fifteen fiurmers or countrymen. They continue for 
dieir fives, and when one dies another is chofen by the 
two tfatrd parts of the vote% when a gendeman a gentle- 
man, and fo of the refh Thefe counfellorsr chufe out of 
then* own nmnber firbm fix months to fix months two 
gafitanei fwUdi have the like power as confuls, or mayor, 
with us) after this manner. When the old captains go 
tat of office they nominate twelve ; the names of thefe 
aTC written in fix fctolls of paper, viz. two names in a 
fax>Il, Tfac(e fcioDr are put into a hat or box, and a boy 
* Y 4 P«ta 

328 Observations Topograpbicaly 

puts in his hand and draws out three. Tbefe three the 
elder captain takes and carries to the church of the (acra- 
nient, and 7/ Deum being fung, a prieft puts the three 
fcrolls into a hat, and a young child puts in his hand and 
draws out one, and they whofe names are therein written 
arc cafntan^i for the next fix months. * Thcfc capitami 
cannot be elected again for two years following. JBo- 
fides, the great council ele<5l out of tbemieivcs by mafor 
vote a lefTcr council of twelve, vix* four out of each 
order. And to this council civil and criminal cau&s and 
quarrels of right and wrong are referred. This commoa- 
weakh hath a commlilary or judge, who muft be a do(9or 
of law, and always a foreigner. He is cl e flc d by the 
council and continues eighteen months. His ftipend is 
ten crowns the month. His ibntence is confirmed, or 
may be repealed or mitigated by the counciL The 
chancellor is elected in like manner. He is a notary and 
his allowance is fixty fcudi or crowns per amuan. Tbef 
have alfo a captain of the militia^ who continues in of- 
fice as long as the council plcafes. But enough and mare 
than needs will moft readers think of this petty commim- 
wealth; concerning which I fliould not have been fo 
large, but that no body that I know of before me hath 
made any particular defcription of its ftateand government, 
as accounting it not worth their while to enquire into 
it, or their pains to fet it down. 
3, We travelled from Rimini to Ravinna. We paffid 

the famous bridge over the river Rindno^ beg|un by j6t» 
gttflus and finifbed by Tibmus. The people iay that the 
ftones are joined together without any cement. Indeed 
the fides or walls of it are of vaft ftones, each as high 
as the border and of breadth proportionable, immediately 
contiguous without any morter or cement between that 
I could difcern. There is upon it an infoription in large 
letters fignifying when and by whom it was built. At 
fifteen miles diftancc from Rimini we pafled through a 
Cefinatko. little town called CcJlmatUo ; then Crn/ia sdxHit five miks 
Cervia,^ further, a place environed with fens, It is a bifliop's (ec^ 
and therefore hath the title of a city, yet is It but a mean 
and pitiful town. AU the way between Cervia and Ra^ 
Vinna till we came within two or three miles of the town, 
we bad a wood of pine* trees oa our right hand called 


Moraly and PbyfiologicaL 329 

PigTuda^ bearing fruit enough (zs^ottus iaith to ferve all 

Ravenna ftands between two rivers [BeAJis and Man- Ravenna. 
Une\ one running on pne fide, and the other on the 
other. It is a large town but ragged and not well built, 
the houses are all very low. It hath five gates, an old 
cafUe uf brick ^ three very fair convents, one called the 
Clajfey belonging to the Monachi Claffenfes^ the ci^rch 
whereof is dedicated to St. Romualdo, A fecond called 
the PortQ^ becaufe it is dedicated to St. Maria Portuenfis^ 
It belongs to the Canenici regulares Lateranenjts, A third 
of BenedUiine monks .dedicated to St. yitale. The 
church of this convent is a double odlagon, the one con- 
centrical to and included in the other, built as they told 
us by Juflinian. The monks fhewed us here two marble 
pilblrs, for which they faid the Venetidns ofiered them 
their weight in filver ; but we have feen the like elfe- 
where, viz, in the library at ZurichT^ and at Verona in 
our Lady's chapel in the garden of Seignior Hcratia Giu/ii. 
Their generation at firft was of a mafs or heap of fmall 
flints and pebbles united into one body by a cement pe« 
trified as hard as themfelves and capable of politure. 
Probably this cement was feparated by degrees from a fluid 
wherein chefe ilones lay. To thefe monks bekngs the 
Ratenday a little round church dedicated to the Virgin 
Morjy about x 4th of a mile without the walls : the intire 
roof whereof is of one fingle flone, notwithflanding that 
the diameter of the church is fourteen of my ordinary 
paces, which are near fo many yards. In the -midft of 
this ftone is a round hole to let in the light. Upon the 
top of it formerly flood a porphyry monument of Theodo^ 
ricus^ a Geihic king, who is fuppofed to have built ir« 
This monument is now taken down and fet in the wall of 
the convent of the Suceolantiy by the way-fide with this in- 
fcription, Vas hoc Porphyriacum oL Theodorici Gottor, imp. 
cineres in Ratunda apice reeondens^ hue Peiro Donato Cafio 
ffamiin. prafuU favente tranjlatum ad perenmm memoriam 
Sapientes lUip. PP. C. MDLXIIL 

The monaftery of the Succolanti is one of the faireft 
we have fcen belonging to that order, and the church 
dedicated to St, ApoUinaris deferves notice taking, ai 
well for the douUe row of marbk pillars brought from 


330 Obsertations Topographical^ 

Con/fantinffpk by ^heodmeusy as for the ancient figures 
of Mofaic work in the walk. In the Dotno we noted 
the figures of the archbifliops (>f Ravetma in Mofiiic 
work. Eleven of them had a dove ftanding upon 
their heads, which they fay were chofen by a dove 
alighting and fitting upon their heads, the legend 
whereof may be feen more at hrge in Schattt^. 
Near the Francifctim doifler is the monument of 
Dante the famous poet, which is an arch ereffeed to 
his memary by Bemardus BtmhuTy the Ventkm Pod^tm 
in Ravenna 'y under which is his effigies, and two ia« 
fcriptions in Latin verfe, 


Extgua tumuU Dantes hie forte jacehasy 

Squallenti nulli cognite pene Jita ; 
At nunc marmoreo fuhnirus conderis arcu^ 

Omnibus &f cultu fplendidiore nites, 
Nimirum Bemhus mujis incenfus Etrufcis 

Hu tibi pifm inprims ha cobtere detSt. 


ytira mmarchtit^ fuperot^ Phlegetonta brcufqut 
Lfijhando cecini voluenmt fata qtmtfque : 
Sed quia pars ceffit meliormts hofpita cajhis^ 
AiiSforemque ftnwt petiit feKmr ejtrif^ 
Hie clauder Dantes patriis extcrris ab ms^ 
^uem genuit parvi Florentia mater amoris, 

Thefe veffes are laid to have been made by Danti 
himfelf, fed Mufis parum faventibusy and if he had 
not compofed better in hahan he had not deferved the 
leputation of fo great a poet, Thfs city may \oA 
of its antiquity and what it hath been, not what it is, 
and vet the cardinal legate, goverhor of HomandUla^ 
tifually refides here. It is very iB ferved witb filh, 
notvrithftanding it is fo near the fea : there is fcaixre a 
good inn in town, it lying out of the way of travdler^ 
and ftrangers, and being no thorough-fere. What was 
true of old is true flill here 5 it's harder to get good 
water than good wine, Sit cifiema ndbi mam viwa 
pufb Ravenmr^ the water bping sdl brK^tdni: neither 

M0raly and Phyjml^ical. 33 1 

ytt 1I9BS the -wine vie met withal any of the beft. I 
waiider this city ihould not be more populous and rich : 
the country, on the north fide all along to Faeitza^ 
ffeouBg tx> be £it and fertile land, and being planted 
after the manner of Lambardy. It lies indeed very^ 
low, yet I believe now a-days is never overflown. 

We obferved, in this journey from SLoph to Vtnkty a 
gnnt differefice between the temperature of the air on 
tkift fide, and on the other iide the Affimmu mountains^ 
oa the other fide it being very tejqperate and warm, 
but on this fide as cold and raw as it is at any time in 
winter with us, or indeed can well be in open weather $ 
and that this cold did not proceed from a general change 
of weather fince our coming on tl)is fide, we are wdT 
afliired ; for we heard of no fuch change, and we fioond 
ihow lying here in the low grounds in many places, 
which on the other iide was all melted and gone, even 
upon the hills, before our coming over. The reafon of 
this i» obWous, becaafe this ridge of hills being higher 
than the lower r^ion of the air, or place where the 7un<» 
beams are lefleded, hinders the commixture of the warm 
ibiitherly and weftern air with the cold northerly and 
eaftern, but efpecially flopping on one hand the ibuth and 
weft windsy which dUe would drive the temperate air and 
tepid vapours into thefe parts ; and^ on the other hand, 
the coM noftliern and eaflern blafls, which elie would 
teaiper and much abate the warmth of thofe beyond 
the mflontains* Hence I do not think incredible, nor 
muck wonder at what is related by ibme travellers of 
a jBOuntain in the Eafi^Indies^ on the oile fide where* 
of it is fummer, when on the other it is winter. 

We left Raffemut^ and rode along the banks of the Fd. j^' 
liver AftatTMir till we came within four or five miles of 
AwnoM. The country on each fide this river was much 
like to Lmbardf. The river ran wry fwiftly, not* 
withftanding to the eye the country feemM to be an 
txaSt levcL From Rmmsm to Faenxa we had twenty 
loqg miles, 

Fmitma is a pretty little city, incompofi'd with a ftrongF^isxa. 
brkk wall, at prefent neg!e(3ed and out of repair ; fa« 
mous for earthen ware made here, efteem'd the beft in 
Jtalj^. Before we entcr'd the town we pafb'd a little 


332 Obse rvations Topographical^ 

fuburb, and then the bridge, in the midft of which flandb 
a tower. Upon St. Thomases day yearly all the gentlemea 
of Faenza meet and choofe magiftrates for all the- year, 
v't%, eight ytntiani^ or fenators, and a chief, who is caUed 
prior, for every month j fo that for every year there art 
twelve feveral fenates. 
^"f^- From Faenza we travelFd on to Imola ten miles. The 

way was very ftreight ; I fuppofc part of thf f^ Mrm-' 
lia. About the mid-way between Faenza and Imola we 
paflcd through a little wall'd town called Caflel Bebg- 
fufe. Half a mile (hort of Imdla we ferried over the river 

Imola^ anciently Farum Comeliiy is a lefler town than 
Faenza^ hath a fair (quare piazza, with a cIoiAer or 
^ Portico on one fide it. 
JWig»«. ^^ travell'd to Bobgna upon the f^a jEmXa. 

In this fide of Italy they have a cuftom to boil their 
wines to nuke them keep the better. The boil'd wine, 
which they call Vin Cotia^ feem'd to us much ftronger 
than the wine unboil'd, which they call Vin Crtak. 
?• We took the Florentine procaccio's boat to Vemce. 

Faffing through atne Softegni^ we came to Mai Alberp^ 
where we (hifted our boat, going down from a higher 
to a lower channel, which brought us to Ferrara^ which 
tbey reckon to be forty-five miles diftant from B^kgmi. 
^ From Ferrara we were towed by a horfe up a ftmght 

*^'"'*' artificial channel to a place called Ponte^ where we 
changed our boat again, comii^ into the rivvr Pa. In 
the Po we rowed down ftream about twentv^feven miles 
to Corbola ; where we. (hifted our boat the fourth time ; • 
not for any neceffity of the place, as before, but becaufc 
we tJien came into the Venetian territory, and fb mtift 
take a Venetian boat. We went but two or three miles far- 
ther down the Po^ and then flruck into a channel on our 
loft hand, paffing ailuicc to call'd Loreo^ andy 
proceeding on about fifteen miles further, we pais'd near 
C/jtoza. ^^ Chloza^ a large town built among theLagune^ and Pele- 
Jlrina^ a village (landing upon the Argine or LOo^ we en- 
tered into the Lagune at the haven oi Alalamoec0y and 
Jbon after arrived at Vefilce^ Feb, 9. of which city we 
liave already written as much as fuffices for our purpofc. 


M^raly and PhyfwlogicaL 333 

We began our journey from Venice to Geneva by the March 
"Way of Rhcetia and SwitzerlancL Faffing by boat to '3» 
Meftre feven mite, and from Mejlre to Trevifo by coach ^ 
twelve miles. At Trevijb we took horfes and a vitturine7>-iv//&. 
for Tr4nt : in which journey we fpent two days and an 
half, it being almoft eighty miles riding. The firft day 
we paflcd through C Franco twelve miles, and then o- Cajl^i 
vcr a fak champaign country to Bajfanoj z very handfome/r«jrr0. 
and pleafant walled town upon the river Brenta^ ^^^^ Ba/Tofw, 
which there is a good bridge of wood. This town drives 
a gr^ trade of weaving filks. 

As foon as we were paft Bajfano we enter'd among 
the mountains, going up beflde the river Brenta four- 
teen miks, and loidged at Pont Sigifmund, The fecond 
day we rode ftill up befide the river, and about two miles 
from Pmtte we pailed through a gate where we paid Datii 
to the archduke of Infpruc\ At this pafs is hewn out 
of the rock a box or little caftle called Cauoloy a great r ^ 
height above the ix)ad, to which there is no avenue at all, 
but both the foldiers that kept it and all their provifions 
jDuft be drawn up by rope and pulley ,onIy there is a foun- 
tain of frefli water in it. Notwithfhnding that this for- 
trefi belongs Xp the arch duke, yet the Venetian territory 
extends four or five miles further to a place called 
Sixteen miles riding brought us to a pretty little town 
called Borgo^ and thirteen miles more to Perzine a rich Pfrnim. 
and populous burgh, five miles fhort of Trent, Near this 
town is a good valley, but at our being there the fnow 
was not melted. Between Bajfano and Ponte the coun- 
try on the left hand the river Brenta as we went up be- 
k34^s to the Sette Commune^ and on the right-hand to 
Bajfano. Upon the river were feveral faw-mills, and a 
great quantity of^ timber floated down the ftream to Pa- 
dua. As ibon as we got among the mountains we every 
where found fioves in the houfes inftead of chimnies. 
The plants we obfcrved in this journey were Erica Pan- 
nmca 4. Cluf, now in flower upon the fides of the moun- 
tains and the rocks plentifully : Fumaria hulbofa ; Leucci- 
um bulbofum vulgar e C. B. (^ Leuc. buibojum minus tii' 
phyllon J^ B. 

i I 

3^4 Observations Taft^rapbicaf, 

i6. We got early to Trait^ a pretty little city^, letted apoit 

TrcMt^ the river jftbifis at the foot of the mountaiiiR, v^cfa do 
incompafi it almoft round, &ve the valley wfaeiv tk 
river runs. The inhabitants fpeak akog^er b^Jiami md 
ihcViiutian money pailes curcent among tlieniy notwtck^ 
jbnding their pidoit Prince is archduke of bjpnuk. fie- 
fide the north door of the Domo we found the 
Aent q{ Adatthidus having on it theft ii 


Herharum vires nee reSftm edidit altera 
Nee mage te clarus hacjuper artefuiu 

Si mens ut corpus depingi poJTety mag$ 
Una Dio/coridis Matthtoftqueforet. 

Under his e%ies this^ 

D. O. At. 

Petro Andrea Matthtoh Senenji UT Ceefarum 
Ferdinandi^ Maximiliani Gf Ruddf/n Cenfiliari^^ 

Et Arelnatro^ 

Et Hieronpia Cmitijfa ex antiqua tS iOuftri 
CaJleUanorum feu Comitum Varm familiay 
Ferdinandus Matthiolus Cafari Ferdinands Juf- 

tria Archiduciy tsT Joatmi Georgia Saxonia Elec^ 
tori a confiliis JsT cubiculis medicus i 
JpofoUca (simper tali auaeritatibus Sacri Fda^ 

tii Later anen. Aulaque C a/area comes, 
Et armata militia eques auratus, 
^ Una ckm Maximiliano fratre 
jtnniverfariis precibus in/litutis 
Parentibus bene merentijfmds PP. Ann. MDCXHL 

Vixit ille an. LXXVIL 
Ann. Cyifli MDLXXVIL obiit TriimU 

Vtxit iUa an. XXXII. 
Obiit ibidem An. Dom. MDLXIX. 

Below this diftichy 

Saxa quidem ahfumit tempuSy fed tempore nunqum 
Inttrstura tm eft ghria MatthioleA 


Moraty and Phyjiological. 33^ 

On the front of the choir is this following inlcrip- 
lion concerning the council held in this city. 

Sactofimdum poftremum Oecumentcura generale Con- 
cilium fuit in hac celeberrima civitate celebratum ; & 
quidem fob Papa Pauh III> anno MDXLV, xiii Dc- 
cembris pro felice inchoatione fuit faAa Proceffio gene- 
ralis per totam Urbem, ab Ecclefia Sandiffims Trini- 
tatis ad banc Ecclefiam Cathedrakm ; qua finite primul 
Gardinalis Praefidens, qui poftea fuit Papa Julius III^ 
[prout etiam alter Card. Prxfidens fuit Papa Mar* 
teUus n nominatus] in hoc loco eminentiore, tunc 
magis amplo, ad cetebrandum Concilium & Seffiones 
6ciendas deputato, ad altare S. & Gloriofiffimi martyris 
Vtplii hujus Ecclefix pationi celebravit miflam de Spn 
ritu S. Ac reliquis cseremontis perafiis fiierunt fub D« 
Paulo III. cdebratae o&o publicse Sefliones cum decre* 
tis, & aliae tres ob vaftam peflem in hac Urbe graf-^ 
lantern Bonoma^ ubi nihil fuit decretum. Anno 
MDXLVII. Pofiea cefiante pefie & bellis fuit re^ 
du^him hoc Confilium, & in hoc eodem loco fuerunt 
Papa fub Julio III celebratse alix publics fex Seffiones 
cum Decretis Annis 155 1» 1552, quibus interfuerunt 
tres Sereniffimi Principes Ecclefiaflici, S. R. I. Ele&ores 
Archiqiifcopi, Moguntitmsy Trevirenfis^ Cdonienjisf 
I Die Sepeemb. 155 1. banc Urbem ingreffi; prout 
cciam SereniiSmus Ele6h>r firandenburgenfis duos orato- 
res hue ablegavit. Demum fub Papa Pio IV. Anno 
1561 & 1563. fuenint celebmtse ultimx novem publicae 
Sc Bbi ie s cum Decretis in Ecclefia S. Maria majoris 
hujus urbis, iftius Ecclefix Reverendiffimo Cap! tub in* 
coiponita, ficuti etiam Ecclefia S. Petri. £t nihilomi- ' 
BUS ad pedes San<%i&mi Crucifixi turn in hoc loco 
exiftentis & nunc alio tranflati pro Decrctorum corro- 
faoradone femper fiierynt publicata omnia di<^i Concilii 
Decnsta. Interfiierunt fub ditfUs furamis Pontiiicibus ce* 
lebiationi Cardinales Legati 13, inter quos Chrijiophorus 
Madrueim ; non Legati 4, inter quos Ludovicus Madru- 
€iui : Oratorcs Principum totius Europse 29 : Patriarcbse 
3 : Archiepifcopi 33 : inter quos Archiepifcopus Roflani- 
cnfis, qui poft» fuit Urbanus VII. nominatus : Epif- 
copi 233 : Abbates iS : Gesfirales ordinum* la . I'hco- 


3^6 Observations Topographical^ 

logiae Do£tores 148 : Procuratores 18 : Qfficiales Conr 
cilii 3 : Cantores 9 : Notarii 4 : Qirfores Papae 2. 

Sacroianfto Spiritui S. omnium Conciliorum dliedori 
iacratiffima Die Pentecofies, Amio i639> dicanmu 

Here are no remarkable churches or other buildingi. 
The biihop is both fpiritual and temporal Prince. Under 
him there is a governor, who yet can do nothing with- 
out the council, which confifts of e^ht peribns, vn. 
the Podejla or mayor of the city ; the Capitaneoy two 
canons of the church, and four gentlemen or citizens. 
All thefe are nominated and appointed by the bifhc^ 
and continue in power during life, modo hciu ft gejpnrint. 
There be 14 canons belonging to the cathedral, all no- 
blemen, and by thefe the hifliop is chofen. The bifhop's 
name then was Sigifmundus earl of Tiroly conmionly caUed 
Archduke of Infpruck. 

Of the natural Abilities^ Temper and In-^ 
clinations. Manners and Cujloms^ Virtues 
and Vices of the Italians, 


H £ Italians are, by the general confeffion of all 

that write of them, ingenious, apprehenfive of 

' Icon, any thing, and quick-witted. ♦ Barclay (who is not 

anim. too favourable to them in the chara^r he gives of them) 

iaith, they have animum rerum onmium capaam ; and 

again, that there is nothing fo difficult ad qmd ItaEci 

acuminis praftantia nm toHatur, 

They are patient and affiduous in any thing they fet 
about or defire to liearn, never giving over till th^ 
mafter it and attain the perfcftion of it. 

They are a ftill quiet people, as being naturally me- 
lancholy ; of a middle temper, between the frftuous 
gravity of the Spaniard^ and unquiet levity of the Rrtiub^ 
agreeing very well widi the Englt/h^ as the Sms are 
obferved to do with the French^ and Spaniards with 
the Irifi). 

They are very faithful and bving to their friends, 
mindful of a courtefy received^ and if it lies in tbeir 


Aforaly and Pb^logicaL '^I'f 

Way or power, for one good turn will do you two. 
Tius I had fxom a very intelligent perfon, who hath 
fived and converfed long enough among them to know 
them thoroughly. A7r^ himfelf confeiieth, that where 
they do truly love omnia difcrimina habent infra tarn 
bumani fofdiris fanStitatem^ Underftand it of the better 
iort ; for (hopkeepers and tradefmen are faUe and frau- 
dulent enough ; and innkeepers, carriers, watermen, and 
porters as in other places horribly exsuSling, if you make 
not an explicit bargain with them before-hand, in(b* 
much that in manv places the ftate hath thought it 
neceilary, by publico Bando and decree, to determine 
how much inn-keepers (hall receive of travellers for ' 
their diimer, and for their fupper and lodging. 

They are not eafily provoked, but will bear long 
with one another \ and more with ftrangers than their 
own country-men. They are alfo very careful to a- 
void all occafionsof quarrel ; not to fay or do any 
thing that may ofiend any perlbn, efpecially not to 
abufi: any one by jefting or drollery; which they do 
not like, nor can eafily bear. 

No people in Europe are more fcrupulous and exa£l 
in ohferving all the pun^fHio^s of civility and good breed- 
ing {bella creanza) they call it) only methinks the 
epithets they beftow upon mean perfons are fomewhat 
extravagant, not to lay ridiculous, as when they ftile a 
mechanick or common tradefman Signor molto magnifico^ 
and the like. 

When they are in company together, they do not only 
give every man his turn of fp^ing, but alfo attend 
ttii he hath done, accounting it a piece of very ill 
breeding to interrupt any man in his difcourfe, as hating 
to be interrupted themfelveSk Contrary to the manner 
of the Frmcb and Dutch^ who make no fcruple of 
interrupting one another, and fometimes talk all to- 
gether, ^careful are they, not to whifper privately 
one to another when in company, or to talk in an 
unknown language, which all the company under- 
ftands not. They do alfo (hew their civility to ftran- 
gers in not (b much as asking them what religion 
they are of, avoiding all unneceffiiry difpiites about 
that fubjefl, which are apt to engender quarrds \ which 


33^ Observations ^opograpbicalj 

thing we could not but take notice of, becaufe in 
franci you (hall fcarce exchange three words with any 
man, before be ask you that queftion. 

It is not eafy for a ftranger to get acquaintance 
and familiarity with the Italians^ they not much de- 
lighting to converfe with ftrangers, as not knowii^ 
their humours and cuftoms. Yet b their converiation 
when gotten pleafant and agreeable, their difcourfe pro- 
fitable and carriage obliging. 

Moft of them, even of the ordinary fort of people, 
will difcourfe intelligently about politick aflairs, and 
the government and intereft of their own country i 
being much addi£ted to, and delighted in politick 
ftudies and difcourfes. 

Moft of them are very covetous of liberty, efpedally 
fuch cities as have been formerly commonwealths, dit- 
courfes or treatifes of that fubjed making deep im- 
preffions on their minds ; fo that in fome places not 
only books but alfo difoOuHes about former revdutions 
are prohibited. Barclay alfo faith, that they are gh- 
riofa libertatis cupidi^ cujus adhuc imaginem vident* Hence 
the Princ» of Itafy build ftore of caftks and citadds 
in their territories, not fo much to defend themfilves 
againft their enemies as to bridle their fubjeSs, and 
fecure themfetves againft tumults and infurreoions. A 
ftrange thing it is, that of all the people of Itafy^ the 
Neapolitans^ who never tafled the fweetneis of liberty, 
nor mended their condition by their commotions, but 
always (as we fay) leafd out rf the frytng-pan into tie 
fire^ ihould be the moft tumultuous and given to rcbd 
againft their Princes. Leti tells us of one of thofo petty 
fubordinate Princes in this kingdom of NapUs^ odled 
^Tiomafo Ferrari^ who governed his fobjefts not like 
vaflals, but with that fweetnefi and gentlenefs, as if 
they had been his own children ; yet fome of thefe 
fellows taking arms come into their Prince's prefence, 
and lay to him. Sir Prince^ we are come to drive yon 
out of your palace^ and hum all your moveables. Why 
(anfwere the Prince; can you find fault with my go- 
vernmont ? Are you (grieved in any thing and it fiaU 
he rednjfed. No (replied they) but hecgufe we underhand 
that many tf our country-men have rewked from their 


Moraty and PbyJoUgicaL 339 

ioTiis^ fve alfo to Jbew^ that we love revolutions^ are refil- 
Vidto rebel againft you* 

The ItaUans are greatly delighted in pidfaires, ftatues, 
and mufick, from the higheft to the lovreft of them^ 
and h intemperately fond of thefe things, that they will 
give any rate for a choice pidhire or ftatue. Though 
aU of them cannot paint, or play on the mufidc, yet 
do they all afFe£t skill and judgment in both : and tnis 
knowledge is enough to denominate a man a virtuofi. 
Many of them are alfo curious in colle^ng ancienC 
coins and medals. 

They are great admirers of their own langus^^ ftnd 
lb wholly given to cultivate, polifli^ and enrich thac^ 
that they do in a great meafure negk£t the Latin^ few 
of them now a-days fpeakii^ or writing well therein % 
but mingling (b many Italian idiotifms with it, that yon 
liave much ado to underftand what they fpeak or write. 
As for the Greeks few or none have any tolerable skill 
in it, the ftudy thereof being generally n^leAed and laid 

They are very temperate in their diet, eating a great 
deal of iallet and but little flefh. Their wine the^ drink 
well diluted with water, and feldoih to any exceb. We 
iaw only one haUan diunk by the fpace of a year and 
half that we fojourned In Italy. Whether it k that in 
bot countries men have not fo good ftomachs as in cold ; 
or whether mcftt,- as b^ing better concofied, nouri(hes 
more theie ; of that the Italians are out of principle, 
temper, or cuftom more fober and temperate than oth^rf 
natioiis. Their herbs feemed to me more (avory and 
better concoAed than ours. Their water alio was noc 
£> crude. But for flefli ours, in my Judgment, much ex* 
eels theirs, being much more fuccufent and &pid. YeC 
in Rrnm have I eaten beef not inferior to ours : but 
I fuppofe it might be of German oxen ; of which (z& we 
were inform'd) there are many driven thither : and for 
fucking veal the Romans fas we have already noted j think 
theirs preferable to any in the world. 

The Italiansy efpecially thofe of inferior quality, arc^ 
in all things very fparing and frugal : whether it be be- 
caufe they are fo educMd and accuftom'd, or becaufd" 
tbe g^bels and taxes which they pay to their governors 

Z 2 are 

340 Observations Topographical 

are fo great, that they cannot aflbrd to fpend much on 
themfelves ; or becaufe, naturally loving their eafe, tbey 
had rather live nearly than take much pains. 

The nobility and great peribns choofe rather to ipend 
their revenues in butiding fair palaces, and adorning 
them with pictures and ftatues ; in making ftatdy and 
fpacious orchards, gardens, and vralks ; in keeping coadi* 
es and horfes, and a great retinue of fervants and flaffi- 
ers, than in keeping great houfes and plentiful tables; 
giving board-wages to their fervants and attendants, which 
in my opinion is the better way of fpending eflates, 
thefe things finding poor people employment, b that the. 
money comes to be diftributed among them according 
to their induftry ; whereas the other way maintains in 
idlenefs fuch peribns for the moft part as leaft deferve 
relief: thofe that are modeft and deferving chooTing ra- 
ther (if poffibly they can) to maintain themfelves and 
their families by the labour of thdr hands, than hang 
about great houfes for a meal's meat. Befides that great 
houie-keeping is very often, not to fay always, the occa* 
fion of great dilbrder and intemperance. Were I there- 
fore God's fteward for a great eftate (for fuch all rich 
men are or ought to be j I fliould think it more charitv 
to employ poor people, and give them money for their 
work, than to diibibute my eflate among them fredy, 
and fufFer them to live in idlenefs ; I mean fuch as are 
able to labour. 

The inferior gentry aflfeft to appear in publick with 
as much fplendor as they can, and will deny themf^ves 
many fatisfadlions at home, diat th^ may be able to 
keep a coach, and therein make tne tour a la mode 
about the ftreets of their city every evening. 

The Italians when they call, fpeak to, or of one a- 
nother, ufe only the chriftian name, as Signor Giacmm^ 
Signer Giovanni J &c. unlefs it be for diftindion's fake ; 
fo that you may converfe among th«n, perchance, feme 
months before you hear any man's furname mention'd. 

The Italian gentry live for the moft part in the cities^ 
whence it is that the cities are fo fplendid and well built, 
fo populous and rich, and the country fo poor and thinly 
inhabited. Yet are the noblemen's palaces rather great 
and ftately, than commodious for habitation. In many 



Morale and Pbyjiological. 341 

cities the paper windows (which are for the moft part 
tatter'd and broken) di^race the buildings, being unfuitr 
able to their magnificence. 

The houfes are generally built of ftone, thick-waird 
and high -roof 'd, which makes them warm in winter, 
and cool in fummer : but they contrive them rather for 
cooUiels than warmth, and therefore they make the win- 
dows large to give them air enough. 

Of the gentry in Italy^ efpecially in Venice^ if there 
be many brothers of one houfe, only one ufually marries, 
and that the eldeft, if he pleafes : if he be not difpofed, 
then any other, as they can agree among themfelves* 
The reft do what they can to greaten him that is marriedj^ 
to uphold the family. The brothers that marry not keep 
concubines or whores ; which though it be a fm, yet 
their confeilbrs can eafily abfolve them of it. 

In moft of the cities and towns of Itafy there are A- 
cademes or Ibcieties of Virtuojty who hiave at fet times 
their meetings and exercifes, which are for the moft 
part prolufions of wit and Rhetoricy or difcourfes about 
moral fubjefis, curious queftions and problems, or para-* 
doxes, fometimes extemporany, fometimes premeditated. 
Thefe have their head whom they call Prince, and. a 
certain number of academifts, who are chofen by ballot-. 
ing, but they ieUom refufe any that offer themfelves 
to eledion. Many of thefe academies aiTume to them- 
felves conceited or fanciful names, and take a fuitable 
imprefe or coat of arms ; as for example the Academifts 
of Bergamo call themfelves Eccttatij and their imprefs is 
the piAure of the morning. In Mantua the academifh 
called Acceft have taken for their emblem a looking-glafs 
reflecting the fun-beams ; thofe called Timidi a hare. h% 
fox the other cities of Italjy in Rami there are three Aca-^ 
demesy the Humoriftij the Lyncet^ and the Fantqfiici : in 
Padua three, the Ricoviratiy Infiammatiy and Incognjti : in 
Bologna three. Ardently Indomitt^ and one innominate : in 
VenUe two, Difcordanti and GuJJhni: in Naples two, Ar^ 
denti and Intronati : in Luca two, 0/curi and Freddi : in 
fhrence la Crufca : in Siena Intronati : in Genoa Addor^ 
mentati: in Vicenza Olympici: in Parma Innominati : in 
Pavia Affidati: in Milan Nafcojli: in Ferrara Elevati > 
in Rimm Adagiati : in Ce/ena Offu/cati : in Ancona Ca- 

Z 3 Sginofi^ 


342 OBSERVATid^NS Topogrspbical^ 

ligimfi : in Fabriano Dlfunlti : in Ptrugia Infenfati : in 
ViUrbo OJitrwti : in Bre/da Occulti : in Fa^msa Phibpom : 
in Trevifo Per fever anti: in Fermo Raffrontati: in Verona 
Philarmonici : in Macerata CatenaU : in AUJfandria Int- 
mobili: in Urbin Afforditi, 

Moft of the Italians of any fafhion wear black or dark 
coloured cloths, and for the fafhion of them follow the 
French (but not too haftilyj excepting thofc countries 
which are fubjed to the King of Spahy which ufe the Spa^ 
nijb habit. 

As for their vices, they are chiefly taxed for three. 

I. Revenge ; they thinking it an ignoble and unman- 
ly thing to put up or pafs by any injury or affiont. Ma- 
ny times alfo they diflTemble or conceal their difpleafiiro 
and hatred under a pretence of friendfbip, that they nuy 
more eafily revenge themfelves of whom they hate by poi* 
ibning, aflaffinating, or any other way ; for nothii^ will 
latisfy them but the death of thofe who have injured them : 
and there be bravo*s and cut-throats ready to murther 
any man for a fmall piece of money. BeUdes, which is 
worftof all, they are implacable, and by no means to be 
trufted when they lay they pardon. Hence they have a 
proverb among them, AmicitU reconciUate ii menejhre rV- 
catdate nonfierono mat grate. The women alio provoke 
their children to revenge the death of their fathers by 
(tiewing them the we^x>ns wherewith they were mur* 
thered,or cloths dipp'd in their blood, or the like,by which 
means feuds between families are maintained and entail'd 
from generation to generation. Thefe are the qualitiet 
for which we ufually fay, an EngUJbman ItalianaU is a de- 
vil incarnate. , 

2. Luji^ to which the inhabitants of hot countries are 
bv the temper of their bodies inclined. Hence it is that 
all cities and great towns do fo fwarm with courtezans 
and harlots ; and to avoid worie evils, the State is neccC- 
iitated to give them public toleration and prote&ion. As 
for mafculine venery and other works of darknefi, I fliall 
not charge the Italians with them, as not having fuffi- 
atnt ground ib to do ; and becauie (zs Barclay fiuth) Hjbc 
feeler a tenebris danmata & negars faciliu^ a confciis poffiint^ 
^ ok 4emulii fin^u 

Maraly and Pbyjiological 34 j 

3* Jiabufy^ which ftnuigply poflefles this people ; fo 
that for every little fufpicion they will (hut up their 
wives in a chamber, and carry the key with them, not 
fii£S:ringthem to ftir abroad unlefs themfelves accompany 
them. To (alute an lialian^s wife with a kiis is a ilabbing 
matter ; and to call a man comuto or cuckold in good 
eameft is the greateft affront or di%race you can put 
upon him. The married women in Italy by this means 
have but bad lives, being for the moft part confined' to 
their houies except when they go to church, and then they 
have an old woman attending them : the doors of their 
houib (hut up at dinner and fupper \ all vifits and haa» 
liar difcourfes with men denied them ; neither can they 
fyak or fmile without fufpicion : one reafon of this a* 
mong others may be, becaufe the husbands knowing 
themfelves to be fo dKhoneft and £dfe to their wives^ 
they prefume that had they opportunity they would not 
be more true to them. And yet for all this guarding and 
dicumfpeftion are not the Italian dames more uncorrupt 
than the matrons of other nations, but find means to 
deceive their husbands, and be diflioneft in ipigbt of 

To thefe I might add Swearings which is fo ordinary 
unong all forts, the prie(b and monks themfelves foarce 
abftaining from oaths, that I believe they account it 
no fin. 

It is a general cuftom all over Itahf to fleep an hour 
or two af&r dinner in fiunmer-time } fo that, from two 
of the dock till four in the afternoon, you (hall fcarce 
lee anv body ftirring about the (beets of the cities. In* 
deed 1/ one fits ftill it is verv hard to keep his eyes open at 
that time. Either this cu(tt>m did not prevail when the 
febool of Salirm wrote their phyfick precepts, or that 
direAion, Sit brevis aut nuUus tibi hnmut nuriJiamis^ 
caloilated for Et^land^ to whofe King that book 
dedicated. And yet the ItaEan phyficians ftill advife 
people either not to ileep at all after dinner, or if they muft 
flecp, to ftrip of their cloths and go to bed, or only to 
take a nod in their chair ftttii^. 

In many cities of Italy are hoipitab where pilgrima 
and poor travellers are entertained, and have their diet 
and kN%ing jfor three days (if they- have reafon t» (by 

Z4 fe 

344 Observations Topographicaf^ 

{o long) gratiiy befides a piece of money when they 
go away. 

There are alfb hoTpitals to receire expofcd children, if I 
may term them ; that is, any without exception that 
Ihail be brought and put in at a grate on purpofe^ 
whither upon ringing a bell an officer comes prefendy 
and receives the child, and asking the party that brought 
it, whether it hath been baptized ? carries it to a nurfe 
to give it fuck ; and there it is maintained till it be grown 
up. The place where it is put in is fo ftrait as to admit 
only children new born or very young. This I look upon 
as a good inftitution in great cities, taking away from 
women the temptation of murthering their new bom 
children, or deftroying their conceptions in the womb, 
to hide their (hame. I know what may be objedsd 
againft it, vix. that it emboldens them to play the 
wantons, having fo fair a way of concealing it : Sed ex 
malts minimum. 

In Rome, Venia^ and fome other cities of Itafy they 
have a way of exercifing charity little ufed among us.- 
Several confraternities of well-difpoied peribns raife funis 
of money by a free contribution among themfelves, 
which they beftow yearly in portions for the marrying 
of poor maids, which elle might want husbands, and be 
tempted to dilhoneft pradices to maintain themfelves. 
This I look upon as well-plac*d alms and worthy die 
imitation ; it being very convenient and in a manner 
neceilary, that new-married people (hould have ibme* 
what to furni(h their boufes and begin the world with } 
and no lefs fitting, that young perfons (hould be encoun^ed 
to marry, as well for multiplying of people, wherein 
the ftrength of the' commonwealth chiefly conlifh, as 
for the preventing thoie evils to which young and iingle 
perfons arc ftrongly tempted and inclined. 

It is a troublefome thing to travel with fire-arms in 
Italy ^ you being forced in moft cities to leave them at the 
gate with the guard, who give you a tally or token ; and 
^yhen you leave the city you bring your tally and receive 
your arms. This is done to prevent afiaults and murthers, 
which are fo frequent in many cities of Italy. For this 
the Great Duke of Tufcany is much to be commended, 
there being no fuch murthers and outrages committed in 


Morale and PbyJioIogjcaL 345 

any of the cities under his dominion as in other places : 
fo diligent is he in fearching out, and ievere in puni(hing 
iravifsj cut-throats, aflailins, and fuch kind of malefadors. 
As much might be (aid for the Pope in the citv of 
Ramej but in other cities in his territories there is kill- 
ing enough. 

When you depart from any city you muft be fure to 
to take a UU of health out of the office that is kept every 
where for that purpofe : without which you can hardly 
get to be admitted into another city, efpecially if it be 
in the territory of another Prince or State, If any one 
comes from an infeded or fufpeded place, he is forced to 
keep his quarantain (as they call it) that is, be fliut up 
in the lazaretto or peft-houfe forty days before he be 
permitted to come into the city. So fcrupuloufly care- 
ful are they to prevent contagion. 

In Rome and other cities of Italy we have often ob* 
ierved many labourers that wanted work, ftanding in the 
market places to be hired ; whither people that want help 
ufually go and bargain with them. Which cuftom il- 
luftrates that parable of our Saviour recorded in the begin- 
ning of the xxth chapter of St, Matthew^ gofpel, wherein 
the houfliolder is faid to go out about the third hour ^ and fee 
khers ftan£ng in the market-place^ ver. 3, and in wr. 6. 
he is faid to find others about the eleventh houvj and to fay 
to them, why Jlandye here all the day idle ; and ver, 7* 
they anfwer, becaufe no man hath hired us. 

In Italy and other hot countries (b ibon as they have 
cut down their corn they threffa and winnow it ufually, 
or at leaft a great part of it, on a floor made in the open 
air, before they bring it into the houfe. Hence in the 
feripture we read of threfliing floors as open places with- 
out roof or cover. Such I fuppofe was that where Boaz 
winnowed barley, Ruth iii. 3. Neither is it any wonder 
that he (bouM lie there all night : for at Aleppo and even 
in Malta in fummer-time they fet their beds upon the 
took of their houfes, and fleep fiib Dio^ in the open air. 

One cuftom we have in Englandy which (as far as I 
Qould obfervej is no where u(ed beyond the feas, and that 
is for children to be2: their parents and godfathers bleflin^ 
upon the knee. 

One cuftom, which prevail? generally in foreign coun- 

346 Observations Topographical^ 

tries is but little ufed in Englandj that is, to lalute thofe 
that fneeze by vailing the bonnet, and piaying God to 
. blefs, affift, or defend theniy &r. 

There is a kind of fport or game much ufed this day by 
the Italians y called Gioco di ;mrtf» which feems to have been 
ufed by the ancients and called nucare dibits. It is fer 
the moft part between two, who put out juft at the &mc 
time each of them as many fingers as they pkafe, and 
alio name each of them what number he thinks fit i 
and if either of them happens to be the number of the 
fingers which both of them together threw out, then 
he that names that number wins one. 

Several Sorts of Meats^ Fruits^ Salle tsjkc. 
ufed in Italy, and other Ohfervations about 

I.TN Lembardy and other parts of Itafyj Tarttrfale (as 
X they call them) i. e. T'ubera Terra^ a kind of 
fubterraneous muflieroom, which our herbarifls Ef^U/b 
Trubs^ or after the French name Tri^s^ are accounted 
a choice difli, held by naturalifls to be incentive of lufL 
The beft of all are gotten in Sicify^ and thence fent over 
into MaltOy wlicre they are (old dear. The way to get 
them is to turn fwine into a field where they grow, who 
find them by the fmell, and root them up out of the 
ground, and fet one to follow the fwinc^ and gather 
them up. 

2. Snaik boiled and ferved up with oil and pepper put 
into their ihells are alfo accounted a good dim : I am 
fure they are ibid dear at Venia and elfewhere, e^- 
cially the great whitifh or afh-coloured ihell^ihails, which 
we had not then feen in England^ but have fince fiMind 
plentifiillv upon the downs near DarJUng in &arj^ 
whither (as we were informed by the honourable CbarUt 
Harvard J Efq;} they were brought from beyond leas 

tAr, Martin Lifter hath found them on the banks of 
that hollow lane, leading from Puckeridgi to ^are. 
Thefc fn^ils before winter flop up the mouth or apcrtnrB 


Morale and Pbyjiological 347 

of their (hells with a thick hard white pafte like a gcxxi 
lute or pkdfter, and are kept all winter in barrels or 
other veflels, and foki by the poulterers. The iirft 
place where we met them to be (bid in the market 
was Vienna in Auftriay where they imitate the Italians 
as well in their diet as in the manner of their buildings. 

3. Fr9g5 are another Italian viand which we in 
England eat npt. Thefe they ufually fry and ferve up 
with oil. At Vmce they eat only the loins and hind- 
legs, as alfo at Fhrtncty and that upon iifli-days. la 
fomt places of lAmhariy they eat their whole bodies, 
and bdides their frogs are of a larger fize than ordinary. 
Their fleih (hews white iind lovely as they lie in the mar- 
kets skinn'd, and ready prepared to be fried. Howbeit 
even there in Itahf^^ Kxrchtr in his book ie Pefte condemns 
them as an ambiguous and dangerous meat, and I think 
defervedly ; wherefore we do well, having plenty of better 
food, wholly to abftain from them. 

4. Land Tortoifes are accounted with them a better 
meat than fea-tortoifes, and are commonly to be fold in 
the markets. They are eaten by thofe orders of friars 
whofe rule obliges them them to abftain from flefh, as 
Cartlntfiansj Carmelitesj &c. 

5. They eat aUb manv forts oi Sbell-fi/hy which we 
either have not or meddle not with, as purples, peri- 
winkles of feveral forts, PatiUa or limpets, fea-urchins, 
which laft are to be found every day in the markets at 
Naples, They alfo eat the fea-tortoifes, of which the 
bfood put into the ftomach and boiled is the beft part. 

6. rajle made into ftrings like pack-thread or thongs 
of white-leather (which if greater they call Macaroni^ if 
lefler Venmcelli) they cut in pieces and put in their pots 
as we do oat-meal to make their nuneftra or broth of, 
much efieemed by the conmion-people. Thefe boiled 
aad oiled with a little cheefe fcraped upon them they 
cat as we do buttered wheat or rice. The making 
of thefe is a trade and myftery ; and in every great 
town you (hall foe feveral (hops of them. 

7* They fcrape or grate Cheefe upon all their difhes 
even of flefli ; accounting that it gives the meat a good 
relifh $ which to thofe that ace unaccuftomed makes it 
Ta^ber naufcons or losithfoiac, 

9, Chefnuts 

348 Observations Topographical^ 

8. Chefnuts roafted and the kerneb ferved up with 
juice of lemon and fugar are much efteemed, and by (bme 
called the Piftachio^s of Jtafy, At Bononia they grind 
them and make little cakes of the flower of them, which 
though eaten by the poor are no defireable dainty to a 
delicate palate. Roafted chefnuts are a great part of the 
diet of the poor pealants in Italy ; as we have eUewherc 

9. They cat all manner of fmall birds as well as the 
Germnns^ viz. wrensy Jians^ titmicey butcher-iirdsf &c. 
and feveral great ones which we touch not in Efigland^ 
as magpifSy jayesy wood-peckers^ jack-daws^ &c. nay we 
have frequently feen kites and hawks lying on the 
poulterers ftalls ; as we have already noted in our de- 
fcription of Rome. 

10. They ule feveral herbs for SaBetSj which arc 
not yet, or have been but lately ufed in England : v, g. 
Sellerij which is nothing elfe hut fweet fmallage, the 
young ihoots whereof, with a little of the head of the 
root cut off, they eat raw with oyl and pepper: in 
like manner they eat fennel ; artichoke aUb they eat 
raw with the fame fauce ; [the fame part of it that 
is eaten boil'd.] In Sicily at the higheft village upon that 
jide mount JEtna that we afcended, they gave us to 
cat for a fallet the ftalks of a tall prickly thiftle, bear* 
ing a yellow flower, I fuppofe it was the Carduus 
Chryfanthetnus Dod. which the ranknefi of the foil had 
caufed to mount up to that ftature. Befides, in moft 
of their fallets they mingle rocket [Rachetta they call 
it) which to me gives them an odious tafte. Curfd 
Endive blanch'd is much ufed beyond (eas ; and for a 
raw (allet feemed to excel lettuce itielf ; befides it hath 
this advantage, that it may be kept aU winter. 

11. Many fruits they eat, which we either have not, 
or eat not in England^ v. g. Jujubes^ fold by the 
huckfters while they are yet green : Uazarole, the fruit 
of the Mefpilus Aronioy of a pleafant acid tafte : both 
fruit and tree exactly like the common hawthorn, but 
higger. Services ox Sorbes tht true, as big as little pears; 
thofe that grow with us are the fruit of the Sorbus tar- 
minalis: Green figs both white and blue in great plenty ; 
a moft deligate fruit when fully ripe, comparable for 


Morale and Pb^ologicat. 349 

the tafle to the heft marmalade, and which may be eaten 
fiedy without danger of furfeiting: The husks or cods 
of Carobsj called in Latin Sillqua dulcis^ m Greek 
»f£^/A, the wordufed Luke xv, 16, and therefore by 
fome fuppofed to be the husks the prodigal is faid to have 
delired to fill his belly with. Indeed we thought them 
fitter meat for fwine than men j for though they had a 
iwcet tafte, yet afterwards they troubled our ftomachs 
and purged us : but they have not upon all men the 
like eSed ; for the Italians and Spaniards eat them or- 
dinarily without any fuch trouble : Love-apples : Mad- 
apples both raw and pickled : Water-melons j which they 
life to eat to cool and refrefh them, and ibme phy- 
ficians allow fick perfons to eat them in fevers. The/ 
are almofl as big as pompions, have a green rind and a 
leddifih pulp with blackifh feed when ripe. The Italians 
caH tfaefe Cucumerij whereas cucumbers they call Citrulli^ 
Several (brts of gourds, as Cucurbita lagenaria^ and Cu-- 
mrUta Jlexutffa Jive anguina ; which eats very well boil'd 
in pottage : Cucumis anguinusj which is more efleemed 
mnd indeed better tailed than the cucumber. The com- 
mon people both in Italy and Sicily eat green chich^ 
peafe raw, as our people do common peafe. 

12. In their dyferts and iecond courfes they com^- 
monly ferve up pine-kernels, and in time of year green 
almonds : alfo a kind of fweet-meat or confeSion made 
up of muftard and fugar, which they call Italian mu- 

13. To cool and refrefh their wines, they ufe ge- 
nerally fhow, where it may eafily be had, elfe ice, 
which they keep in confervatories all fummer. With- 
out (how they that are ufed to do it do not willingly 
drink, no not in winter. 

14. In the kingdoms of Naples and Sicily they make 
a fort of cheefe which they call Cafco di cavallo, i. c. 
horTe-cheefe, for what reafon I could not learn. Thefe 
cheefes they make up in feveral forms ; (bme in the 
hBuon of a blown bladder, fome in the fafhion of a 
cylinder, and fbme^ in other figures. They are neither 
fiiC nor flrong, yet well tafled and acceptable to fuch 
as have eaten of them a while. The pulp or body of 
tfaci^ lies to flakes, and hath as it were a grain one 


350 Observations Topographical^ 

way like wood. They told us that they -were made 
of buflks milk, but we believed them not, becaufe we 
obferved not many buffles in thofe countries, where 
there is more of this cheefe made than of other 


15. In Itahf and other hot countries, their meat » 
not only naturally mote lean and dry than ours, but 
they roaft it alio till it be ready to &11 from the 
bones, and there be little juice left in it Befides, when 
they . roaft their meat; thev draw coles under the fpit^ 
and let the fat drop on tnem, the mdar whereof per« 
fumes the meat, but not to our guft who are not ufed 
to it, and what they \ok in dripping they fave in 
f<iwel. Their roafting difiers not much fix>m our broil- 
ing or carbonading. I fpeak thb of ordinary inns and 
mean peoples houfes, in great houfes and inns it is 

The Italians count not their hours as we do, fiom 
twelve to twelve, beginning at mid-day and mid- 
night; but from one to four and twenty, beginning 
their count at fun-fet, which is a much more troubled 
htat way ; the fetting of the fun being a moveabk 
point or term, and thev being therefore neceffitatod to 
alter and new-fet their clocks every day : whereas mid- 
day and mid-night being fix'd points, die docks need no 
fetting a-new. As for Itafy in g^ieral, though the ihr- 
Ilans imagine it to be the heft country in the world, 
and have a proverb among them that Itafy is the gar- 
dm of the world : yet fetting alide Lomkardyy Can^ama 
felix^ and fome few other places, the reft is moun- 
tainous and barren enough: the earth ib parched by 
the fun-beams that it b»ra no graG, and (as Barclay 
faith) feldom yieMeth grain enough for three years fuccef^ 
fively to fupply the neceffities and uies of its inhabitants, 
whatever they may boaft of the Itala glAa. The rea- 
fon why the Italians are fo conceited of their own coun- 
try is, becaufe they feldom travel alMXXul, and fo fee not 
the beauty and fertility of others. 

I might have taken notice of the vaft and incredible 
number of religious houies there are in Itafy. I have 
fometimes thot^t they might in all of both fexes a- 
mount to eight or ten thoufand. Of tbefe the gentle- 

Morale and Pbyjiohgical. 3 ji 

men make advantage. For fuch of their daughtiers as 
either they cannot get husbands for, or are not able 
to give portions to, (uitabfe to their birth and quality, 
they can in one of thefe houfes for a fmall matter honour- 
ably difpofe of and fettle for their lives. The inftitution 
of filch houfes as thefe, whither young women of quality, 
who for want of fufficient fortunes or perfonal endow- 
ments cannot eafily provide themfelves fuitahle matches, 
might retire and find honourable provifion, might per- 
chance be tolerable, yea commendable, were they purged 
from all fuperftition, the women not admitted too 
young, and under no vow of perpetual chaftity, only 
to leave the houfe in cafe they married. But becaufe of 
the danger of introducing monkery, I think it more 
iafe for a Cbriftian ftate not to permit any fuch founda- 

Buffles are a common beaft in Itahf^ and they make 
ufe of them to draw their wains as we do of oxen : only 
becaufe they are fomewhat fierce and unmly, they are 
forced to lead them by an iron-ring put in their nofes, 
as our bear- wards do their bears. 

1. The Cicada before mentioned. 

2. The fifing glauMJuerms^ which are there every where 
Co be feen in fummer time. Thefe flying or winged 
glow-worms are nothing elfe but the males of the com- 
nion creeping or unwinged glow-worm. Fabius Columna 
relates, that Carolus Vintimiglia of PaUrmo in Sicify^ ha* 
vii^ out of curiofity kept many unwinged glow-worms 
in a ^a&f did put in among them a flving one, which 
piefently in his fight did couple with tnem one by one 
after the manner of filk-worms, and that the next day 
the unwinged ones- or females b^an to lay their eggs. 
That the njales are alfo flying infe^ in England^ though 
they do but rarely or not at all (hine with us, we are 
aifiired by an eye-witnefi ; who few them in conjundion 
with the common ihining unwinged glow-worms. Here 
by the way it may not be amifs to impart to the reader 
a difeovery made by a certain gentleman and communis 
cated to me by Francis Jeffhp £fq ; which is, that thofe 
reputed meteora call'd in Latin Ignis faiuiy and known 
in England by the conceited names of "Jack with a Lan-^ 
thvn^ and IViU wih ff^ffj arc nothing elfe but fwarms 


3^2 Observations Topograpbtcat^ 

of thcfc flving glow-worms. Which if true, wc may 
give an ea(y account of thofe ftrange Phttnomena of tbefe 
iuppofed fires, viz. their fudden motion from place to 
l^lace and leading travellers that follow them into bogs 
and precipices, 

3. Scorpions J which in half fting not^ or at lead their 
ftings are not venenofe, as the learned Francifcus Ridi 
affirms ; though by experience he found the ffinging of 
the African (corpions to be mortal or at leaft very noxious. 

4. *Tarantula\ b called becaufe found about Tarentttm. 
( though we have feen of them at Rome) which are no- 
thing elfe but a large ibrt of Ipiders ; the biting whereof 
is earned venomous, and thought to put people into 
phrenetick fits, enforcing them to dance to certain tunes 
of the mufick, by which means they are cured, long 
and violent exerciie caufing a great evacuation by fweat* 
Thefe fits they fay do aUb yearly return at the iame 
leafbn the patient was bitten. But Dr. T&max C^meBus 
of Cofenza before mentioned, a learned phyfidan and 
virtuoib in Naples^ diligently enquiring into this generally 
received and heretofore unqueftioned ftory, that he might 
latisfy himfelf and others whether it were really true in 

5. Cimicij as the Italians call them, as the Fnncb 
Punaife. We Engli/h them chinches, or wall-lice^ which 

are very noifome and troublefbme by their bitings in the 
night-time, raifing a great heat and redneis in the skin. 
They harbour in the ftraw of the bolfters and mattrefles, 
and in the wood of the bedfteads ; and therefore in (bme 
Nofocomia^ or hofpitals for fick perlbns, as for example, 
at Genoa the bedfteads are all of iron. This mkSty if it 
be cru(h*d or bruis'd, emits a moft horrid and loath* 
fome fcent, fo that thofe that are bitten by them are 
often in a doubt whether it be better to endure the tzou-^ 
ble of their bitings, or kill them, and fuficr their moft 
odious and abominable ftink. We have of thefe infe£b 
iii fome places of England^ but not many, neither are 
they troublelbme to us. 

We departed from Trent ^ intending for Coira or Chuf 
in the Grifons country, called in Latin Curia Rhettomm* 
We rode up the valley where the river Atbejis runs, call'd 
Val Venofla^ e\cry five miles paffing through a laige vil-» 


. . Morale and PbjifiologicaL 353 

lag9, and one handfome little town called Surgd^ and 
lodged at a fmall place call'd Brunfole. 

We rode through Bolzafiy a confiderable town, and, 19. 
ibr bi^ne(s, comparable to Trent i and ten miles fur- Bolzmt, 
ther Maran^ a large town, and lodg'd at a village called Maran. 

We pafly through Latourtty Slach^ Schlanders^ Mabz^ 20: 
idl villagesr'and towns of note; and lad of all CUum^ a 
pretty great walled town, and then ftruck up on the left 
hand among the mountains to a village called Tavtrs^ 
where we lodged. 

We rode on through the fnow to Monajieroy where 21; 
the Grifans country begins, and St. Maria^ a fmall ttr^ 
ra, and ftopp'd at Gherfy a village at the foot of the 
high mountains. In this country the people iife a pe- 
culiar language of their own, which they call Romanjcb^ 
that is. Lingua Romana, It feems to be neater Spani/b 
than haliany though diftinA from both, fiefides their 
own language th^ generally (peak both ItaEan and 
Dutch : fo that after we had loft Italian in the vallies, 
we wonder'd to nnd it here again among the hills. Their 
wines they bring all out of the FalteiSne^ from Tirana^ 
about two days journey diftant. The country at this time 
was all over coverM with fnow, (b that they are fain 
to keep their cattle within doors for fix months : yet 
the people faid that hereabouts the fiiow did not lie all 
fummer, no not on the tops of the higheft mountains. 
Here we obferved that, to draw their fleds over the fnow, 
inftead of oxen they made ufe of bulb, one bull drawing 
a little fled. About Tavers we obfcrv'd them fowing 
of duft upon the (how, which they told us was to make 
the fnow melt iboner : I fuppofe it was rather for ma- 

They uie ftoves in all places, and good reafon they 
liave, the country being fo cold. A great number of 
Chamois or Gemps [Rupicapra] are taken all over thefe 
countries upon the high hills, as, though the people had 
not told us, we muft needs have gather'd from the mul- 
titude of horns we faw ftuck up in the houies where we 
lodged. Bears there are, and wolves andong the high 
mountains, but not many. The men generally wear 
rufi and long bufliy beards. All the people (as far afs 

A a we 

2$^ Observations Topographical 

we had experience, or could judge of them in the fliort 
\ Hay we nude among them} wc found Co be hooeft, 

hearty, and civil, and the common Ibrt very mannerly. 
Their hpufes arc built of Dnnc, and covcr'd with fluo- 
gles of wood, the walk thick, and the window* vcjy 
fmall to l«nce arainft the cold. Tbey have no ftroi^ 
Iwlds or fortified places amciig them ; , nor wiD Hxy 
toermit any to be crcfted ; having fo much confidence 
in their own valour, that they think they need no other 
defence : indeed their country ia fuch as one w(m^ thuk 
none of their neighbouring Princes fiioujd covet, uakft 
for the fecurityof his own territories. 
it- • Wc paffed the mountain of Bufalora iBfeven or eight 
hours. In the top of the mountain, in the mid-waj 
between Cberf and ZemetZy is an inn called Rtrnt. 
From Zermts. we rode in the valley of the hig^ £»- 
goSmtiMavi^ZtKtTe^ agxaiterraf and two odcr viBi- 
gcs, and lodg**! at a. litt& phce called PtnU, 


U«r4i^ an4 ^kx^fogicaU 355 

O F T H E 


^&£ N^^Ti^ iiyi^ into threp leagues, an^ 

Aootains feverstl viibg^^J^ot all a^n ^q^^ number, bu|t 
ibou: nioce, (bnie flower; TIk ^^^g"^ ^r jiJ^ (^ficording to 
SbaUr) hath niaet^ii Cammnfs. The X<fi7 ^^//a r^ 4^ 
i>M had) tweolty ofie Commiw^s which are fonietiiXiGS 
CQOtiaded into eleypn. QUum^ Tapers^ ^d I\4ak% hs^ye 
htxij revolted frQm this Jc^^u^, v\d put themfd^res qn- 
dcr thd'aochditki; of hfp;rUd^. Th^ AVri Drimtf h^v^ 
aeiiy «s th^ name iaiport?* £^h Commune h^tji its an* 
mal cUef magiftE|te> W^om in (pme places they call Ma- 
^ah^ and a osrtain wriibi^r ^i afleflTor^ or jiic^ges, whic|i 
in dmr iaogugge arp ciJled. Trtmdfr. E^ph /i?rr^i or vjl- 
bgie chuib its jwdgoi hy majority of yotcs, [Sometimqg 
tkc pcofdf chufe Qnly SI f:eff:^ia{)y||il^cr of delegates, whjcb 
dcfegues are to makp cj^oicx^ 0f thp judges.'] All the {»eo- 
frfe, us wdl rich as popf, ^ ^ve)l fervants as maftep, j^ay; 
dyHr iUitagi^ fi> kn^n 9» thpy cpipe to the age of fixl^a 
mn« l^tioie of thfiir^^ipa is 5/. J^ttbias's day. 
Xbr Ccmmme of Eng^dma alfa hs^th ten great vill^c^ 
(icnv they call thpm) &m^cn jwdges called Tfiiceder^ o^p 
MaiftraUy one chaacelloi: pr 'npl;»ry. The MaeJlraU^ 
the cbanoeilor, and fb^ Irumdfr are always of Zm^/s:* 
The other /^rr^ have (cMne ope, fome two, according to 
tbeir bignds. [In o^r po^njaikunities the fcveral urrc 
liaye the Maffirak ai>d othver officers by turns.] T)^(o 
magjyBmtcs are change e^^ two years,, but confirmed 
mcrv yttr, a^id may be pMt out by th^ people if they 
picw. The Mfi^rqU {p^ 'm ibme places landi^it 

A aa man) 

2 56 Observations topographical^ 

man) is the chief, and aflembles the Truader together, 
makes proceiles, and In fum hath the executive power. 
When they have occafion to meet to decide any bu- 
lineis, or judge in any criminal caufe, he that is caft or 
condemned, if he hath goods, bears the chaiges, if he 
hath none, then the Cwnmme bears the charges ; fi> that 
every Commune is a common-wealth by itfelf, and its 
government purely democratical. Every two years they 
have two diets 'or general councik: the firftdiec (when 
the officers which they fend to their ieveral Prafe£hihg 
are ele(5ted} is at Afichaelmas^ the iecond (when they 
take an account of their ofiicers) is on St, John Bap- 
ti/ts*s day. To thefe diets each Comrnuw taids its dele- 
gates, MfJ/i they call them, or commiffioners, ibme one 
and fomc two. ' Thefe delegates muftad according to the 
inftrudions given them by their feveral communities. 
Each league hath its head or chief. The burgoma^er of 
Coir a is always head of the leagye Jella cafa di Du. 
In the Lega Grifa there are four communities that by 
ancient cuftom have the head (who is here caOed Land" 
treichter) by turns. In the Died Dritture fix commu- 
nities have the choice of the chief, who is called Laniam^ 
man, Thofe fix Communes fend each its ddegates to Ta- 
vasy and the delegates by the mayor vote chufe the new 
Landamman. Thefe (bmetimes with fome affiftanti meet 
as a lefler council, but have no abfolute or decifive Sen- 
tence. There lies an appeal from the general diet to 
the communities, and what the major part of thofe con- 
cludes or agrees upon is valid. The Grifms pay no Ibrt 
of datii, gabels, or taxes. In Italy the county of CUa" 
vena and the ValtelKne are fubjed to the Grifms. To 
the county of Chiavena they ient formerly two pddef- 
ta's or bailiffs, one to Plursy which town w» mifetably 
deftroyed by the falling of a mountain upon it, and one 
to Chiavonay who is called Commijfario. 

t^tSLX Pbtrs are made pots and veflek of done turned 
after the manner of wood, which will endure the 
fire. The Valtelline according to S/m/^tt is divided into fix 
PntfeSfuree^ whither the Griknt fend Podtftd^ Or go- 
vernors. Thofe are Bormto^ which fome malbe a 
county by it felf, Tiranoy Tellioy Sondrioj Morbegno^ and 
Traima. They named to us two more, viz. Psute 


Moral J and Phyjiological. 357 

and Chhtr. Thefe Podejiah arc changed every two 
years, the principal or head of them v& the praefcft of 
Sondrioy who is not called Podejla^ but Govematore as 
we were told, as Simler faith Capitanco, In the chu- 
fing of praefefb the order both of the leagues and of 
the communities is obferved. So that for example, if 
the Lega Grifa chufes the governor of Sondrio for this 
two years, the Liga delta cafa di Dio (hall have the 
choice of him the next two, and the Diecl Dritture 
the following. The like order is obfetved in the fe- 
veral communities of each league. TYk people of Val- 
ulBwy the county of Bormioj and the county of Chi- 
avena pay no taxes or gabels more than for the main- 
tenance of their governors or Podefta*s, 

We left PmtCj and pafled over another high moun- Mar, zi^. 
tain called in a very bad feafon, for that 

it fnowed exceeding faft all the while we were abroad, 
which in many places fo filled up the track, that we 
could fee no way at all, only we could prefently find 
when we were out, for then our horfes were almoft 
up to the belly in fnow : befides a brisk gale of moft 
bitter cutting wind blew juft In our faces, which did 
b afieA my eyes, that I could not open them with- 
out great pain for three days, nor eafiiy endure to 
look upon fnow for a great while after. The reafon 
why my eyes were more affliAed than others, I con- 
ceive was, becaufe I was not careful to wipe the fnow 
off my face, but fufftrcd it to freeze to the hair of 
my eyebrows and cytYvis : the cold whereof, being con- 
tiguous to them, ftupified, and would in time have quite 
mortified my eyes. And here by the way we may 
take notice, that the people living in this mountainous 
coU country look more fwarthy and dusky, at leaft 
their faces and parts expofed to the air, and have not 
ib good complexions as thoie that live below in a milder 
and more temperate region. It is an ohfervation 
of Bodin in his Method of Hiftory^ that the inhabitants 
of the temperate zone, as you go further and further 
from the tropic, are ftill whiter and whiter, till you 
come to a certain degree of latitude, and then they 
grow dusky and dark-coloui'd again ; witnels the^/^;r- 
landert^ Laplanders^ &r« extrenuty of coM pardiing 

A a 3 and* 

35^ Observations Tapograpbical^ 

and tanning the skin as well as excels of heat. And 
we found this true by our own experience j for our 
faces were fo hack'd and burnM (if I may take leave 
fo to ufe that word) by the cold m our paflage over 
thcfe mountains that for fome time after we look'd 
like fo many gypfies. This night we lodg'd in a terrm 
called Bergun, 
25. We went to Cwm, the capital city of the Grifim^ 

Coira or a pretty little town ftanding on a fmall river that 
Cifur. falls into the Rhtne^ about half a mile below, environed 
almoft with mountains, fave txniy on that fide the river 
Rhine runs j where there is a pleaiant valley, having 
very good m&idow and pafture grounds. The in* 
habitants of Coira are ail Proteftants^ excepting the 
biihop (who coins money that is current here) and 
twenty four canons. The bifliop hath nothing at all 
to do in the government of the town. The form of 
government is much like that of Zurich and Bafil^ vrk. 
the citizens are divided into five tribes or companies^ 
each of which chutes fourteen fenators, which make 
up the great council of feventy. Thefe are called 
Ratjhenn^ and are chofen by the people anew every 
year on St, Martin's day ; anew I fay, for the lame 
are ufually chofen ^in fo long as they live. Out of 
tliis great council are chofen yearly ot each tribe five 
into the leiTer council, to which are added the five ma- 
ilers of the companies for the laft year, who make up 
the number of thirty. Half thcfe are called fenatoxs, 
and govern the commonwealth. The chief officers who 
prcfide in the fcnatc are the two burgomaflers, who ruk 
alternately, one one year, the other the next. The 
coimcil of thirty with the regent burgomafter, who is 
called Stattvoght^ judge in criminal caufcs. Beddes there 
is a bench of juiigcs maJe up of the five mafiers of the 
companies, and ten out of the council of thirty, where- 
in the prsetor of the city called Stattricbter piefides, 
.which determines civil controverfies and a^lions of dd)t. 
But from them there lies an appeal to the council of 
Plants In the mountainous paftures about this town, we 

obfenred obierved growing plentifully Crocus vernus Jbre alhtk^ 
^out ^ p^ c^rulcoy ti fo, €x albo 6f caruUo varugato i 

Moral and 'Ph^Jioh^tQaL 359 

Hipattca nobilis ubique ; Leucoium bulhofum Tab, & Or- 
nithogalum fore hiteo. Befides Coira the Grifons have 
two little towns which they call cities, Mayfield and 
Eyiandts, Fpr their religion the Grifons are divided ; 
fome communities being Romanifisj fome ProUftants ; 
but moft ProteftantSy of whom they told us there were 
in all the country about 17000 fighting men. 

We travelled from Cmra to. Walenjiat^ fituate be-Mtfr. 29, 
fide a (mail lake, thence called fVaUnftattir-Sea : pafiing 1665. 
by the way through Mayfield^ RagatSj and Sargans^^^^^fi^^^ 
Both Sargans and WaUnJlat are Foghtia^s or PrafeSlura 
belonging to the feven cantons. 

We ferried over the lake to Wefen^ and from Wefen 30. 
rode to Glaris^ one of the thirteen cantons of Switzer- Claris, 
land. Here we faw the horns of the Ibex (which thcy'^^«Steia» 
call SteinbucL) They are fomewhat like to goat's horns, j?^^ ^^ 
but larger. They told us, that there were none of thefe 
beafb found hereabouts, but that in Wallijland^ and in the 
archbifhoprick of Saltzburgh in Germany^ there were of 
them. But of the Ri:pricapra or Gimpfes^ and Mures q^^^^-^ 
Alpird majoresy called Marmotto^Sy they have good fibre, or Gemps, 
Of birds they have in plenty MeruUe torquaia, which Marmot- 
they call Ranger- jfrnztl \ Merula aquaticaj which they/&'s. 
call ff^ajpr-amzel i UrogalluSj or cock of the woody Logo- 
pus^ a milk white bird ibmewhat bigger than a Par- 
tridgey feathered down to the very toes and ^laws, of the 
heath-cock kind \ but more\ of thefe in the Grifons 
country, where they brought them us to * fell. The 
people of this canton of Gtarisy as alfo Appertzely are 
mixed, two third parts ProteflantSy and one third Ronmn- 
CatboUcks. They both make ufe of the fame church 
for their fcveral fervices : firft the pricft comes and does 
mafsjMhen the minifter, and preaches. 

The governments of the feveral cantons of Switzerland 
may be reduced to three forms or heads. The firft b of 
thofe cantons which have no cities, whofe chief officer is 
is called Landamman j and in thefe the fupreme power is 
in all the people, by whofe oounfel all bufineflcs of mo- 
ment are decided. Of this fort are Uriy SuitSy Under ^ 
watdeny Zugy Glarisy and Appenzel The fecond, of 
thofe which have cities that were cither built *by, or 
fomctimc fubjcdl to Princes, whofe chief officer is 

A a 4 called 

360 Observations Topographical^ 

called Scidtitus cr feout : this form b moft ariftocratical 
of all others ; and of this fort are Bentj Luam^ Friburg^ 
u.nd Sokthurn. The third, of thofe which have cities divided 
into feveral tribes or companies, by whofe fuffrages the 
magiftrates are yearly chofen i of thb order are Zuriclh 
Bajtl^ and Schaffhaujfi. 


Is divided (according to SimUr) into fifteen part% but 
9s we were told there into twelve pariflies, of which 
fome have five counfellors, fome fix ; fome nx>re, fome 
]efs, according to their bigneis. Thefe make up th^ 
ienate or council, which confifls of fixty, whervof two 
parts are of the Reformed religion, and one of the R(h 
nujh^ befides the Landamman and other chief officers, 
who have the privilege of fitting in council when their 
term is expired. The chief and fopreme power is m the 
whole people. Upon the laft Sunday in April yearly 
there is a general convention of all the males above 
fixteen years of age, together with the magiftrates at a 
place called Schaandan. This general meeting or con<- 
vention is called Landtskmein : and by thefe by majority 
of fuffrages the magiftrates and officers are chofen \ and 
firft the Landamman^ who continues in office fometimes 
two, fometimes three years. Into thb offic;^ they may 
choofe out of all the people whom they pleafo without 
any r^rd of place. 2. The StatthaJter, who b the 
LandammarCs lieutenant. Thefe offices in this canton 
^re thus divided between the Protejiants and Papifts. 
Three years the Landamman b a Proteftant^ and the 
Statthalter a Papiji \ then the two following the Z47/X- 
danman is a PapiJi^ and the Statthalter a Pnteftant. 
3. The Seckelmajfer or treafurer. 4, Pannerbeer or 
ftandard-bearer. 5. Landtjhauptman or chief captain, 
and under him in time of war a lieutenant 6. Landtf- 
fondricht or enfign. Thefe three laft continue for life. 
7. Three LandtfchrUben^ t. e. fecretaries or chancellors, 
who are prefent in council, but have no fofFrages. 8. 
Landtweible or apparitor ; he gathers the votes in the 
general convention, fummons the council by proclama- 
tion in the church, l^c. The Landtfimein chutes al^ 
th^ Landtvogts ox prefe^, aqd either confirms or abro- 

Morale and PbyJiologtcaL 361 

gates publick edi6b and conftitutions. The fixty 6na<- 
tors ufually continue in office during life mode bene fe 
gejferint^ yet are they yearly chofen a-new lOr confirmed 
at the general convention, not by the whole conven- 
tion, but each one by that part or pariih to which he 
belongs, and by which he was chofen ; who aUb when 
any one dies chufe another into his place. The Lan- 
damman when his office is expired is called old Landam-' 
man, and may ftill fit in council, which is a favour allowed 
him in regard of his former dignity. The aforemen- 
tioned officers do alio fit in council. The Landam- 
man puts men in prifbn by his authority, propounds 
bufineis to the council, appoints the days of the coun- 
cifs meeting, and to that end appoints the officer to 
give them notice in the church. In this canton, to avoid 
the ambition and inordinate expences of candidates for 
offices, who were wont to court and fcaft tlie people, 
they have lately introduced lottery in the choice of officers 
and govemora. All the candidates are firft put to the 
vote, and thofe eight (if there be fo many for any one 
placej who have moft fuiFrages are fet m the middle. 
Then the Landtfchrieb or fecretary takes eight balls, one 
of which is gilt, and wraps them up in fingle papers^ 
and puts them into a hat which he holds under his arm, 
whilft a little chiM puts in his hand and takes out the 
balls one by one, and gives them to the eight. 
He who happens to have the gilt ball b the officer. 
BdTides tbefe councils there are alio two confiftories of 
judges ; one confifting of nine, chofen by the Landt-- 
Jhtuin out of the council or Ratjhuren, to whom the 
Landamman is added preiident, who determine all 
caufcs of injuries, and all bufinefe of inheritances, 
and where money is gained with hazard of life : 
the other confifting of five who determine aftions of 
debt. Thefe confiftories (bkh SimUr) fit only in Aiey 
and September. Private quarrels by confent of the parties 
are ufijally referred to a counfdfer of the parifii. To 
the general diet at Baden the Refermid fend the Lan^ 
damman when he is a ProteftoKt, and the Rfiman Ca-^ 
tbolicks the Statthalter^ and fi> vice verfa. 

The territory of Glaris is about eight hours feng, that 
b^ allowing thm Engli/b miks to an hour, twenty four 



364 Observations Topographical^ 

the landtshnehj when all the males above lixteen years of 
age meet and eled by major vote the landamman and 
other officers and latulvogts. To this meeting all the 
people that can conveniently are obliged to come ; and 
every one to fwear fidelity to their countr}% to maintain 
their liberties, ^c. The officers are the fame as at Claris. 
This canton and every one of the reft fend two Afffi 
to the general diet at Badetiy of which the landamman b 
ufually one. This canton hath alfo the like two little 
councils or confiftories as Claris. 
%, We rode about three miles to a place called Bnoun^ 

befide the lake of Lucem^ and there embark'd for Altorf, 
fpending in our paflage upon the water about three hours, 
and then we had but a mile to the town. From Schwytx 
to jfltorf there b no travelling by land (as they told us) 
tmlels we would go fome fcores of miles about. Altorf 
hath no piazza, yet b it a larger town than Schtvytz^ 
and hath a pretty church and a monaftery of Capucims, 
Here we heard at large related to us the ftory of If^Uiam 
fellj and the landtvogtj which he that is defirous to know 
may confult SimUr. On the top of a pillar over one of 
their fountains in the ftreet is fet the ftatue of this Tell^ 
with Jib crofs-bow on hb (boulder, and leading his ion 
by the hand. At fome diftance ftands a tower on which 
are pabted the feveral pafG^es of the ftory. 

The government b almoft all the fame with that of 
Schyivtz. The number of fenators, and manner of their 
cledion the fame. The officers and magjftrates the fame, 
only they mentioned a Suk-beerj who hath the charge of 
the ammunition, whom they told us not of in other 
cantons, and fix fierfprachts, 1. g. prodore or coun&IIors, 
but not of the council. The fenators, being to judge in 
criminal caufes, take to them another man, fo that then 
the council is doubled. They have alfo a leifer coun- 
cil of fifteen, called the Landtram^ which decides civil 
caufes. Thefe are taken out of the great council, and 
go round in a rota. They meet the firft Monday every 
month. A third council sdfo they have called the Po* 
dtradty which fits weekly atout a£Kons of debt where 
the fum exceeds not fixty livm. The fenators ("as they 
told us) have no falary or albwance at all. When one of 
the council is chofen landtvogt he b put out of the 
#OMncih Vri b the firft canton that fet itfelf at liberty. 

Morale and PbyJiologicaL 365 

Wc returned to the lake of Lucem^ and taking hoaX^^frii 4* 
we went by water within one hour of Stantz^ the prin-^»^ 
cipal vilbge of UnderwaU^ where we lodged. As we*^'^- 
£uled upon this lake, we happened to fee a great fall 
of fnow from the tops of feme mountains hanging 
over the lakei which made a rattling and report not 
unlike thunder, as Monfieur dis Cams in his meteom 
notes. At Stantz they have a very fair church, and 
two convents, one of Capucine friars, and one of nuns. 
Here and at Altoff^ Swftz^ and Lucem^ &c. we obferv'd 
in the church*yards croffo bt upon the graves^ fome 
of wood, firnie of iron, and on fome of them hanging a 
little copper kettle Mrith holy water in it. Some women 
we law coming with a bimch of herbs in their hands^ 
which they dipp'd in the kettle, and fprinkled the wa* 
ter therewith upon the graves. Thefe, I fuppofe, were 
widows or mothers wIk> IprinUed the water upon the 
gnves of their dead husbands or chiUren. 

This canton is divided into two parts, Oberwatd^ or 
the upper, whole capital village b Statmer^ and the lower^ 
or UnJitwaUy the head whereof is Stantz. In the lower 
are fixty fenators, chofen by eleven Communis ; fome 
whereof have more, and fome fewer, according to their 
bigne& The oflken are the fame, and chofen in like 
manner as in Scbwpz and Uri ; only the Landamman 
and Statihalter continue in office but one year. 

The LatidtwiiM or apparitor, and feven judges, chofen 
one out of a Cnmmmiy joAg^ in civil caules. From thefe 
there is an appeal to another tribunal of eleven, confUl* 
ing of the Landammanj and one defied out of each Cmi- 
muruj fave that the Lamlamman is of. Thefe eleven are 
chofen out of the council^ the feven indifferently. In 
capital caufes the council of fixty judges, and befides any 
one of the xountry may be piefent, and give his fufFrage^ 
If he pleafes, though ordinarily none do but the fenators, 
who are all thereto by oath'obligiBd. The fenators and 
officers of this canton have all fehries. Hei^and in Uri 
all the males of all conditions that aretfourteen yeanold 
and upward have their fuffrages at the Landtshmitid. O- 
tirwaU hatfa^ likewife a council, Landamman^ and other 
officers by thcmfelves, indeed nothing coounon with Ut' 


%6i OBS£mvATlc>i9L Top6grapbical^ 

JfnoaU. Thejr noniaare larnkv^gis and aabaffidon b^ 
tunig. Tbey mi^ be eftoem'd two ouiCobs, wcm it 
BOt for that th^ ha^ but ^;vo M^ates at the diet at 
Badettj as the otbeE caBtofia have. 

Ttiefe ducecaaiDai, i/r/, SufjffMj and l/wkruw^ coi^ 
fA chiefly, not to % whgiiy» of pafture goouad : m 
oom-fields or vin0faida bece. Ttieir ^ia/o it imfxittod 
from liafy, their conn froaa femonl parts. Tbey boat 
that by thia mcan^ their gr^iiod b not To fahpeft to the 
caTiiakics of leeathsr, or inJMrvBs of bad ftaToaB, ataittar 
pkrared liekb or lanejaacds, and jiuokb to the owatfs a 
■aofe oartaia profit. It's ¥Dril i( one reafen, irhy they 
■maintain aB their gsoiind pailum, be not becaufe tksj 
are ttnwitting to taike paina in husbandry. Wine n 
dtar here. At JIUrf SMid dUati they have it frooi Lr- 
y game. At Su^t:^ they have both VakJIim uAjAiam^ 

wine. Tise peopk are vwy honeft and good-natiii'd» 
keep their houfts neat and ckanly, and wttfaal very po- 
lite and in good repair. The men aie given muck to 
drinking. -The meat fiandt befeie them thr^e or four 
Ixmrs, and they now and then. eat a bit^ but the main 
hufineft is drinking. . 
jffril 5. We traitdfd to Utetrn^ oraffing over a pirt ef the 
Luctm. fcdDe. This is « very neat city, and phafiuitly fitiots 
upon the lake : divided into parts by a river which mas 
out of the lake ; ovier which there a«e three bridges, oos 
for carts and hcarfes, the other tpohandfome loot-hridgei 
cover'd over with a roof or psmfaPMie, one ncaraqoaitar 
of amile kxig. Befides, there is a. finiith bridge, which 
leads towards the efattnoh, coircr'd like this Ja^» and 
longer than it. The gaeat chnieb flands without the 
city wall ; a very handi>nir, X^ and UghAome ftniAuie. 
Over the weAera door ^ the greatcft oigao (hat ever I 
faw : aimait might very wpU ci)Mp into the hollow ef 
the gseatar pipes of it. 

The account of. the government that was given « 
here was aaaefa difieceiit fiom Swikr'^ Tbtj toii is 
that Ae great ooundlcoofified of 136, wtheaeas be writa 
that it coafiAsof no more than 100 : hit thcfc aasy he 
laooacird $ for that, I foppofir, he eadudea the kfler 
coimciiy wUeK they iaohaiad* 


Morale and Phyjiological. 367 

They continue in ofl^cc during life ; and when one 
dies, the reft of the council choofe another into his place 
out of the citizens whom they thinjc fit. Slmhr faith, 
that the IdTer council of the laft half year choofe the 
new fenators. This council ftath two prcfidents whom 
Aey call Scuultiy who prefide altemis atmis^ and conti- 
nue in office during life. Simkr faith they are cholem 
yearly by the fuffrages of both the councils. The msjOr 
ner of clioodhg officers and fenators b this. Behind a 
curtain, according to the number of comp^itors, are 
plaoed two,* three, or more boxes. Every ienator Lath 
given him a little medal or piece of money for that 
purpole i and (b the fenators go one by one behind the 
curtain, and put the medal into what box they pleafe, 
and he that hath moft of thefe pieces is underuood to 
be chofeo. 

Out rfthe great council is cbofen a lefler of the mod: 
ancient and wi(e, who alio continue during life, and judg^ 
in civil cauies, and take cai'e of the ordinary concerns 
of the city j and for that purpofe they fit daily. They 
are divided into two equal parts, eighteen 'for the (iim- 
mer, and eighteen for the winter. If one of the win* 
ter dics^ thoie of the fummer eloAone into his place 
cut of the hundred, and vice verf^. The great council 
of 136 Judge in criminal caufes. Thoie of the lefler 
council nave five Batz [about 10 d. or i s, Engli/h'] and 
tbofe of the great council two Batz per £em^ for every 
day they fit in council. All the people of the territory 
of^^ this city are fubje<5ls, and divided into nineteen or 
twenty Prafeefura : the. nurhber of fighting men about 
18000. The fubje^ in time of peace pay no more 
tribute than five BatZy or a hen the man per amumi^ to 
the landivdgt. 

From Lucem we travelled to Zugh called in Latin Tu-j^^^/ 5^ 
giunif about fifteen miles. This city is by onehalf lefs^^^* 
than Lucern ; it ftands by the fide of a little lake. The The go- 
government of this canton is popular like thole of Vri^ venunent 
StuytZj and UnderwaL^<n, Befides the city there are three of the can- 
Communes which have an intereft in the government^ ton of Zir^. 
viz. Eyrjy Menfingutn<i and Baar. They have a coun- 
cil of forty ^as they told us there} but according to &im» 
Ur isli forty fives nine out of each commune and Sghteen 


368 Observations Topogrnphicat^ 

out of the city. The three Commwta have the Lait* 
damman fix years and the dty three. So that when the 
Landamman is of a Commune he Continues in office but 
two yearsy when of the city three years. When one of 
the council dies another is choten into his place by ma- 
jor vote of all the males above eighteen years of a^ 
of the city, or that community to which ne that died 
belonged. The magiftrates are the fame and ele«fled in 
like manner as in Uri and Swytz^ &c. All the Prafec- 
tura (which are in number eight} belong to the city 
only. The city together with its lubje& can arin 4000 
Ibldiers ; the three communities not 2000. Yet are 
tlicy obl^ed by ancient convention to bear two third 
parts of the charge, in cafe there be any war. In cn'mi- 
nal caufes they have twelve judges taken out of the coun- 
cil, three of the city and three of each community. In 
civil the fenators judge in their feveral communities. To 
the general Dut at Baden the city fends one, and the 
three communities another. The nomination of the 
common Landtvegts tlie city hath once, and the commu- 
nities twice. When the Landamman is of the commu- 
nities, he is obliged during his office to refide in the 

The lake of Zi^h hath great variety of fifh, more 
than any other lake of Switzerlandj if the peq>le there 
may be believed. They named to us eels^ carps^ perches^ 
troutSy falmmsy which is very flrange, there being 
no way for them to get thither but up the Rhinty and 
£> they mufl have a courfe of above 500 miles; and 
befides there being at JVaJfcrfal a huge cataract of the 
whole river, which one would think it were impofC* 
ble to pals. Efch called by the Italians Tenuky and iq 
Englilh Graylingy Trifea or Trafmey in EngUJh Eelpouty 
pikes (of which we faw one taken that weighed thirty 
pound) wnjf-fifli or AlberUt^ called at Gemva Farra. 
This fifh IS taken in the lake of Bala in Merioneth/hire 
in tValeSy and there called Guiniad from the whitenefs 
of it : and in Hulls-water near Pereth in Csanberland and 
there called Schelley : Hajflery which I take to be the 
Charre of IVinandermere in Wejlmorcland^ and the Torgoch 
of North-wales : Balla ; Njfiy called by naturalifb NafiiSy 
hreamsy erevtfes^ and a great wsixiy forts more to the 



Morale and Pbyjiologicat. 36^ 

jQumber of at lead fifty. In many of the (hady laiies 
we pafled through about Stantz, Zugj and elfewhere we 
obierved growing plentifully AMatum Cordi or Denta- 
ria aphylks. . . 

We travelled from Zug to Zurich^ which is five good ^P^^l ?• 
hours riding. But of that city we have already writ- ^^^*^^* 

From Zurich we rode to MelUngm a free town not J3» 
bj from Badin^ four good leagues; and then through z^ '/^^' 
little walled town belonging to the Bermfi called Lens-^ ^^^^' 
iurgf and lodged at Arauw a confiderable town upon 
the river Aar^ fubjedl alfo to the Btmefe^ four ihort 

Wc travelled a ftreight rode paffing no confiderable H- 
town till we arrived at Solotum^ nine leagues diflant from ^ohturm 
Arauw. This, though it be the head of a canton, is no 
large town, nor very confiderable for its ftrength. 

We diverted out of the common rode to Geneva to 
fee BerUy fix hours diftant from Seloturn, This is a 
handfeme city, built all of (lone, though the houfes be 
not tall. It hath one fair long ftreet with narrow por- 
tico's or cloifters on each fide. It lies ftretched out in 
length upon a hill which I may call a Penin/ula^ it is 
£> almoft begirt about with the river On 

that fide where it is not compafled with the river it is 
firongly fortified with good baftions and outworks. The 
founder of this city as alfo of Friburg in Switzerlandy and 
Frlburg in Br/Jgoia^ was Berchtoldus duke of Zerin ; as 
appears by the infcription iipoi^ their monies. To hini 
they have ere^ed a monument in the great church. 
Tius church is one of the handfomeft ftone-fabricks in 
all Switzerland^ 

The territory of this city is more than one third 
part of the country of the SwUzes^ and is divided into 
fixty Pra/e^ura or bailiages, befiJes four which are 
common to them with Friburg* For this reafon there 
muft needs be many rich men in the city, though they 
have but little trade. The Landtvogts or bailif& conti- 
nue in office fix years, during which time they enrich 
themfelves well ; yet do not their fubje£b complain, 
but acknowledge themfelves well ufed by their goVer- 
aon% Here Uiey keep, five or fix b^ati in a, pit; 

S b Theft 

374 Observations Topographical, 

Thcfe bears I obferved to climb the fir-trees growii^ 
in the pit, and delighting to (It on the tops of them 
like birds on a perch. The arms of the town is alfe a 
bear, which they took I fuppofe alluding to their name 
Bern : and they firft coined the money called Batzis 
from the figure of a bear (lamped upon it : which after* 
ward all the cantons imitated, calling it aUb by the £une 

From Bern we rode to Friburg a hand(bme town and 

the head of a canton, built upon a hill almoft begirt 

with a river after the manner of Bemj and by the 

fame (bunder, on all (Ides environed with hills, fiive 

where it is contiguous to the land. Their territoxy is 

furrounded with and indofed in the territory of Bem» 

• iS. From Frihurg we travelled through MatUtm to Lau-- 

Lau/afma.jjgji^^ a great tovni and an univerfity, and from Lau- 

Merges, farma^ April 19. through Marges a large town, RcBe 

and Nion confiderable towns by the lake of Gerui)a*% 

fide, and Verf<y a little town on the lake near Geneva^ 

belonging to the French^ and came to our lodging at 

Geneva J where we refted and (bjoumed near three 


The governments of Sohtum^ Bem^ and FHburg are 
much like that of Lucem. In Sobtum the number of 
the lefler council is thirty five, and of the greater one 
hundred and fifteen. When one of the thirty five dies, 
the thirty four remaining chule one into his place out 
of the one hundred and fifteen. When one of the one 
hundred and fifteen dies, or is advanced, the xeft chuie 
one into his place out of the number of the dtizens. 
In Bern the greater council confifb of two hundred, and 
the lefler (as we were told there) of forty two, though 
Simler makes them but twenty fix. Thde councils are 
choien by twenty elcdbrs, and the Scuhhefsy viz. the 
lour Signiferi of the city, and fixteen whom they pick 
out of the whole body of the citizens, and join with 
themfelves. In Friburg the lefler council is of tvronty 
four, and the greater of two hundred. When one of the 
lefTer council dies they chufe one into his place out of the 
greater : and when one of the greater dies, or is removed, 
the leflfer (as I underflood themj chule one into his 
place out of the number of the citizens. All thefe 

' ^ cities 

Moraly and 'Phyfiotogicat 37J; 

titles have two Scuhett or confuls who rule altemU an^ 
ms. He that defires a more full and particular account 
of the government of thefe cities may confult SimUr de 
ReptA. Hehetlorum. Each of the cantons have fome 
iaint or other to be their patron and proteflor, whoie 
image the Pcpjft) cantons fet on the reverie of their mo* 
nies, V. g. St. OfwaU a king of England^ proteAor of 
Zt^. In their church they have his relicks, and have fet 
up his image on horfeback. The Protiftant cantons 
are ZMrich^ Birftj Bafdj Schafhauffij part of Glarisj 
and part of AfpenxML That which moil frequently 
breeds difierences and quarrels among the Switzers is the 
biifinefi of the common vogties or bailiwicks. For moil 
•f thefe [I mean the Dutch ones] being of the Rgfornud 
fdigion are oppieiled and and injured by the Popifi 
Lamltvogtfy the PrHtftant cantons not knowing how 
cither to help and relieve them or retaliate. For, 
the P9p{fi> cantons being more in number than the Pro^ 
ti^antSjthcy iend Landtvogts to thefe places twice to the 
Pf^Hfiantt once. This one of the miniilers of Zurich 
toU me was fundi fui cakmitas^ and occaiioned the tv^ 
Jate breaches among them. 

The Switzers on each fide are very ftiiF in their re- 
ligico ; the Papj^ not permitting or tolerating one Pro- 
^ftant^ nor the Prtteflants one Papift in their proper territo- 
ries. Tho* the cantons adhering to the church of Rome are 
more in number, yet the Reformed are much the greater, 
befides that their land iis better, very like ours in England^ 
The Romamfts are accounted the better foldiers, and 
good reaibn they . have, being more exercifed in war, 
wrving the Spanijh and French Kings, as being of the 
lame religion. Belides, the Zurichersy who antiently had 
the reputation for valour, are now much given to mer- 
chandife and to accumulate riches, and fo taken oiF from 
martial ftudies and exerciies. The Bernefe though they 
have &r the greateft and beft territory of all ( ib that it's 
fiid they can arm as many men as the dutchy of Milan y 
fend into the field 100000 foldiers and yet leave enough 
at home to till the land ) yet have they no r^KiUtion iox 
foldiefs ; they loft their credit quite in the late skirmifh 
with the JLuc€rnrfe<^ who account them rather Savoyards 
Ihan StuitTurs. All the cantons of Switzerland Qo\n mone/ 

B b a except 

3 72^ Observations Topographical^ 

'except Jppenzel^ Underwaldj and Claris j of which Glarh 
formerly hath coined though now it doth not. AH the 
Stuiizers in general are very honeft peopk, kind and 
civil to ftrangers. One may travel their country 
fecurely with a bag of gold in his hand. When we 
came to our inns they would be troubled, if we diftnifted 
them ib fiir as to take our portmanteaus into our lodging- 
chambers and not leave them in the common dining rooms. 
They keep their houfes very clean and polite like our 
houfewives in England, For plants, going from Zurich 
to MeUingenvrt obferved common Gdofeberry in the hedges 
and by the way-fides very plentifully, and in fome places 
Barberries^ Sigillum Solemmis and Herha Paris are the 
moft common plants that grow in this oountry in the 
woods and hedges every where : Anneymusfiere Cobaeec on 
the mountains near Zurich. From Arauw to Sobtum 
HeUeboraJier maximus on the hills fides, as alio Chrifiapho' 
rianoy not to mention Fumaria Bulbefa every where grow- 
ing in the Ihady lanes. 
Geneva. Geneva is pkaGintly feated at the lower end of the 
Lacus Lemanusj now called Genffer-zee or the lake of 
Geneva^ upon a hill fide refpeding the lake ; fo that from 
the lake you have a fair profpeA of the whole town. 
It is divided by the river RAadamts or Rhofne into two 
parts, which are joined together by two wooden bridges^ 
one of which hath on each fide a row of houfes after 
the manner of London-bridge^ only they are low. The 
two principal and indeed only confiderable ftreets in the 
town are the low ftreet [Rue bos'] which luns akmg by 
the river and lake's fide; and the high ftreet or great ftreet 
[Rue Grand] which runs up the hill. The dty is indif- 
ferently ftrong, and they have lately been at great expences 
to fortifie it a la moderna with ramparts and baftions 
of earth. Though it be fmall yet is it very populous, 
being fuppofed to contain 30000 fouls. St. Peter's church, 
formerly the cathedral, is handlbme and well built, and 
in it is a (lately monument for the duke of Rohan, The 
citizens are very bufy and induftrious, fubfifting chiefly 
by trading : the whole territory of this republick being not 
ib great as ibme one nobleman's eflate in England for ex- 
tent of land. All provifions of vifbals are very plenti- 


Moral J and PbjifioIogicaL 373 

fill and cheap at Geneva^ cfpccially milk-meats, the neigh- 
bouring mountains feeding abundance of cattle. 

The tops of Jurcy Salevej and other high mountains 
of Savoyy Daulphtny, and the jfipSj where they are bare 
of wood, put forth very good grafs fo foon as the fnow is 
melted off them, which ufiolly is about or before themiddle 
of Afay. And then the country people drive up their cattle 
to pafture, and feed them there for three months time. 
Upon thefe hill tops they have here and there low (heds 
or dairy houfes, which ferve the men to live in, and to 
make their butter and cheefe in, fo long as they keep 
their beafts above. The men I fay, for they only 
afcend up thither and do all the dairy work, leaving 
tfaeir wives to keep houfe below ; it being too toilfome 
for them to clamber up fuch high and fteep hills. By 
reafon of thefe cotes it is very convenient fimpltng 
upon the mountains, for, if a nun be hungry or thirfty, 
he may foon find relief at one of them. We always 
faand the people very kind and willing to give us fuch 
as they had, viz. brown bread, milk, whey, butter, 
curds, &r. for which we could fcarce faften any money 
upon them. 

For the temper of the air. In refpeft of heat and 
cold, Gemya I think is very like England^ there being 
no great excels of either extreme. The city is well go- 
verned, vice difcountenanced, and the people either re- 
ally better or at Icaft more reftrained than in other 
places : though they do take a liberty to (hoot and 
ufe other fports and cxercifes upon the Lord's day, yet 
moft of their minifters difallow it, and pre^ich a- 
gainft it. 

Our long ftay here at Geneva^ and that in the pro.pjants 
per feafon for fimpling, gave us Icifure to fearch for,obrcrvcd 
and advantage of finding many fpecies of plants in theabout 
neighbouring fields and mountains, of which I fliallG^»^'»a, 
here prefeqt the reader with a catalogue : fuch as are 
native of England are in the Roman letter, 

In CoUe la Baftie dim i^ Syhh clwojts ad Rhodanl 

B b 3 Cohttea' 

3/0 Observ at I o k s Topographical^ 

ColuUa fcorpioides : Meliilbphyllon Fuchiio flore albo 
atquc etiam vario : LiUum flore nutante ferruglneo majus 
J. B. Monophyllon Ger. Orobus Parmomcus i QuT. Ht* 
paticum trifolium Lob. Frangula ; Chamadrys falfa maxi" 
ma J &c. J. B. Bellis Jyhatica J. B. Trifolium purpuratm 
majus folio i^ fpica longiore J. B. Orobus Jylvatiau wia 
foliis C. B. Tithymalus cypariffias J. B. Tithymalus mm 
fieri s flore rubro J, B. Horminum hueum five Cobis Jc/visi 
Aquilegia vulgaris. 

Jnmonte Salcve di^a una circiter leucd a Geneva di/fante. 

Cotoneajler Gtfneri J. B. Diofpyros J. B. Be/lis ca* 

fulea Mmfpeliaca Ger. Scabiofa lo five repens QuC 

Jlfine mufcofa quibufdam J. B* Ad rivulos prope Saleve. 

jfgeratum purpureum Dqlechampii J. B. ad radices montis. 

Sanicula Alpina guttata^ in fummitate prope fontes* 

Pes cati flo. albo & fuaverubente ibid. &f copiofiffime. 

Gentiana major Ger. In pafcuis prope fummitatem 

montis abunde. Gentianula qua Hippion J. B. ibid. Ca^ 

calia quibufdem J. B. in fylvods fuprema montis parte. 

Polygonatum angu/lifoUumy ibid. Polygonatum floribus ex 

fingularibus pediculis J. B. In rupibus & faxofis ad la* 

tera montis. . Draba alba flliquofa repens^ juxta fontes 

prope montis fummitatem. Hefperis flfheftrii latifoUa 

flore albo parvo Park. Ribes Alpinus dulcis J . B. In fyl- 

vofis fummo montis cacumine. Anagyris five Labwr^ 

num^ In fylvofis ad latera montis. Ferrum etpdmim 

GallicumflUquis in fummitate C. B. Periclymenum reHum 

fru£}u rubro Ger. Doronicum vulgare J. B. Dentaria hep^ 

tapbyllos C. B, In fylvofis ad latera montis. Barha 

capri^ J. B. ibid. Lilium convallium, ibid. Chriftopho- 

rina, ibid. LiUwn floribus reflcxii montanum C. B. Aria 

Theophrafti ; Meliflbphyllum Fuchfii 5 Polygonatum 

vulgare ; Polemonium petrxum Gefn, Colutea fcorpioides ; 

Thlafpi oleraceum Tab. Fraxinus bubula ; AlchimiUa 

vulgaris, in pafcuis in fuprema montis parte abunde. Py- 

rola vulgaris ; Pyrola foL mucronato fcrrato C. B. utra* 

que in fylvofis. ^filix ramola minor J^ B. Libamtix 

iTjeophrafli minor Park. In faxofis ad latera montis. Siler 

montanum Officinarum J, B. Carum : LaSluca fflvatica 

purpurea J. B. Cyclaminus folio angulofo J. B. Rtix Saxa^ 

ti/is non ramofa minima 3 caryopbyUus gramineo folio nini-' 


Morale and Phyjiohgical. ^ 371 

naui AcimitUM fycoSfonum luteum C. B. Vicia maxima 
dionetarum J. B. in fylvis in afccnfu montis. Sedum Al- 
piman Urfutum luteum G. B. £ iaxorum rimis emer- 
git. Peucedani &cie pufiUa planta Lob, £. rupium 
fiiliiris. Sedum ftrratum J. B. TJva urfi\ Colus Jovisi 
Gramim LuzuUe affimjlori albo J. B. In fylvoiis & du- 
metis prope imam montis partem. Thlafpi Alpinum 
minus capitulo rotundo C. B. In rupibus humidioribus. 
Rubia caruUa elatior J. B. inter fegetes. Phalanglum 
pukbrius nm ramofum J. B. Androfsemum Campocla- 
renie CoL Heliantbemum Alpinum folio Pilofilla minoris 
Fucbfii J. B. HeOiborine ex albido fuhlutea J. B. In fyl- 
vofis ad radices montis. AJtragalm Monjpeliano candi^ 
dior (sf Onobrychis quorundam J. B. In faxpfis. HeUebo* 
rine fiore alboj In fylvis fuprema montis parte, Aftran^ 
iia mgray In pratis montoiis. Cicutaria latifolia Int^ 
fiua J. R ibid. PerUapbyttoides ere£fum J. B. rrope ar« . 
cem andquam jam dirutam. Chamsenerium vulgare: 
Pikfella majorii five Pubnonaria lutea laclniata /pedes 
minor J. B. Hieracium parvum birt0n caule aphyllo crif- 
pum ubi ficcatum J. B. ad radices montis. Orchis fir a^ 
Uumatica minor J. B. Pfeudo^ajphodelus quibufiiam, J. B. 
In paludofis ad radices montis. Orchis parva autum- 
nalis lutea J. B. ibidem. Diofpyros J. B. In fyl- 
vofis ad latera montis. Tbymelaa quadam incana. Ad 
pedalem & iefquipedalem altitudinem aflurgit, & in plures' 
nunos dividitur hie frutex. Lignum ejus fupra modum 
Ih^lile, Cortex cinereus; Folia Mezerei Germanica fed 
minora, acuminata, utrinque hirfuta, glauca. Flores in 
fiimmitatibus ramulorum 4 aut 5, alut eciam plures fimut 
conferd, pediculis nullis, nuUo calice, e tubo longi- 
uiculo in 4 foliola alba acuminata expanduntur, Stami* 
nuh crocea intuscondnentes. Floribus fuccedunt baccae 
Id^uicubB quae nondum maturuerant Floret initio 
Mail ; in fylvolis ad latera montis. Dentaria Pentapbyl- 
hs ; Damafonium purpureum dilutum five Helleborine 
4 QuC J. B. In fylvofis ad latera monds. Calceolus 
Mariae tbid. Carduus Cirfiim di£ius folio laciniato ni-^ 
grha J. B. Pentapbylbm reShm J. B. e rupium fifiuris, 
C^mpamJa repens fiort minore caruleo J. B. Digitalis 
flare minore fubluteoj angujiiore folio J. B. Alfine tnaxima 
Uift. Liugd, Vakriana A^na J. B. Hanc PaUvini Va,-> 

B b 4 , leri- 


37^ Observations topographic al^ 

lerianam Tr::chelii folio denominant, apd £ine appet- 

latione : Sunt enim ci folia Trachclii majoris. Radix 

Talde aromatica eft & odorata. Valeriana Alpbta altera 

filiis integrisy inodora : Radices longae, repcntcs, fibris 

donatae fubinde gcrmina protrudunt. Folia Valerianae mi- 

noris fylv. ex rotundo oblonga pediculis lon^ infident, 

non laciniata, ne ilia quidem quae in caule confiftunt, 

ad margines obiter nonnunquam dentata, violae foliis 

quodammodo fimilia. Radix nee faporem nee odorem 

(quern quidem ego fentire potui) aromaticum habuit 

Oiulis pedalis, rotundus> ftriatus, concavus, dulplici ple- 

runque foliorum pari, quae fine pediculis illos ampledun- 

tur, praediti. Flores albi. Valerians fylveftns fimillimi, 

uti funt & femina. Scabiofa maxima dumdorum foE9 nan 

laciniato J. B. Herba Doria^ prope Carthufianorum coe- 

nobium. Ranunculus magnus valdi hirfutusjbre luteo J. B. 

ibid. Sedum an potius Draba minima filiquo£i flore albo. 

Radice nititur fimplici, fibrosa, alba : Folia juxta terram 

plura Senecionis aut Bellidis majoris fed minora & pro 

magnitudine breviora, per oras rarioribus incifuris dentata, 

extremitatibus fubrotundis, atrovirentia, rarioribus pilis iis 

tamen rigidiufculis afpera. E medio foliorum emei^gunt 

caules rotundi, rubentes, rarioribus pilis hirfuti, foliis nudi 

prxterquam ad florum pediculos. Flores in fummitati- 

bus caulium fingulorum 5 vel etiam 6 & nonnunquam 

plures, aibi, quadrifolii, e calice longiufculo, herbaceo, 

quadrifolio exeunt. In fummitate montis fub inittum 

Maii florcre incipit. 

In monte Jura circa vertices Thuiri {ff la Dohz 
HeUtborus albus in pafcuis montofis copiofiffime. Tujfi^ 
lago yllpina minor folio rotundo J. B. in fummis vcrticibus. 
8oldanella jflpina quibufdam J. B. ibid. Scabiofa m&ntana 
maxima Park. In verticc Thuiri Ranunculus alius fimpHci 
fkre J. B. In fylvofis prope fummitates montis. Ranun- 
culus montanus albus hirfutus J. B, ibid. Thali£frum majus 
folliculis angulofts^ caule lavi, J. B. ibid. Oxalis maxima 
Jylvatica J, B. Oxalis folio rotundiore repens J. B, ibid. 
Lonchitis altera cum folio dtnticulato^ five Lonc/Ms aktra 
Matthioli J. B. In ipfo montis vertice in rupibus. 
. Sedum majus vulgare ibid, Sedum trida^ylites Alpinum, 
ibid, Chamadrys Jlpinaflon Fragariaalb^ J. B. Auricula 

B t^ 4 murU 

Moraly and PbyJiokgicaL ^77 

murh pukhroJbri<,fiU9 tenuiffhm J. B. Accedithaec planta 
ad Saxifragam noftram paluftrem Anglicam. Anthhora 
jkrebitto j/cmiii J»B. In fummis montis jugis. Umria 
purpunaparva J. B. Dentaria quinquefoUa J. B. in fylvofis 
ad latera montis. Cerattoides altera five feptifoUa J. B. 
ilnd. Cacalia qmhufdam J. B. ibid. PentapMlum five poiius 
Hiptaphfllum argentiumflonmufcofo J. B. Carum ; Phylkn 
tbilfgonon DaUchampii \ SigsHum- Sobmonis angufiifotium, 
Bcbium Alpinum luteum C. B. Libanoth T'heophrajli minor 
Park. Aftrantia nigra ; Sanicula Jlpina guttata ; Helian- 
ibemum Alpinum folio PilofeUa minoris Fuchfii J. B. Crocus 
vemus latifolius fiore purpurea rmnore J. B. Helianthemum 
temnfoUum glahrum luteo fiore J. B. ad radices montis. Pes 
cati ; Ribes Mpinus dulcis J. B. LaSluca fylvatica pur- 
purea J. B. Valeriana Alpina ; Cyanus major ; Pofygonatum 
fioribus ex fingularibus peSculis J. B. Digitalis lutea magna 
fiore J.B. Ad radices montis. Thora folio Cyclamm J.B. i.e. 
Pbthora Valdenfium ; in fummitate montis copioie. Diof 
pfros J. B. In fylvofis ad latera montis. Plantago angufii^ 
fiRa Alpina' J, d, Nerium Alpinum quibufdam^ aliis Ledum 
glahrum J. B. Chamamefpilus J. B. Acini pulchra fpecies 
J. B. Veronica faxatilis J. B. Chamadryi vulgart falfa 
aliquatenus affinis Alpina^ an Clinopodium Alpinum Pona ? 
J. B. Gentiana Alpina magno fiore J. B. in altiffimo vertice 
Ithuiri. Biftorto minima J. d. an Biltorta Alpina media 
C. Bf Orchis palmatafrnre viridi C. B. In pafcuis mon- 
tofis. Orcheis rotunda Dalechampii J. B. Lunaria Botry- 
tu J. B. Ranunculus flore globofo, quibufdam IVollius 
flosy. B, Pikfella five Pulmonaria lutea augufiiore folio 
J. J^ £ rupium fifluris exoritur. Nafiurtiolum Alpinum 
iemdffinii divifum J. B. Afier purpureus nwntanus J. B. 
Viola nusrtia lutea J. B. Sideritis Valerandi Dourez brevi 
jpiea J. B. Geranium phao five puilo, fiore Clufii J. B. 
Daueus Creticus femine birfuta J. B. Apium montanum 
nigrum J. B. Ad radices montis. Circa verticem La 
Delaz diStasn. 

Sonchus caruUus latifolius J. B. TuJJilago Alpina folio 
hngoj. B. Rapunculi genus folio ferrato roiundiore J. B. 
Ordnspabnata minor odoratiffima purpurea five nigra J. B. 
In paicuis montofis. Pentaphfllum Alpinum fplendens aureo 
fitre J, B. GnapbaUum Alpinum pukhrpn^ In fummo 
0K)oti$ cacumine. Afarum^ In Tylvis non longe ab Ab- 


382 Observations Topographical^ 

batia de Beaumont. Helleborine flore atto-rubente* Chth- 
ma-iafme Alpina J» B. in Append, in altiffimo vertice 
la Dolax. Hieracium Alpinum fio, lingulari magoo cauli 
cubitali infidente, ibid, 

Itintm in monte Thuiri. 
PibfeUa minor e fiarty hirfutior & elatior n§n npms J, B. 
Jftragalus quidam mmtanus vel On^rycbis a&s J. B* 
Cary9phylli Jyhjiftris futdam fpeciiSy flore puipuieo odo- 
lato, foliis glaucis. Caryopiyllus /lore temaffime differ 
C. B. SaJidaga Saracenica\ SiUr mentamani PulfaiiUa 
mUa J. B. Lunaria major fdiqua hngiore J. B. Hieraciwn 
latifpUum montanum Genevenfe folio Conyxite majoris Mrnif^ 
feffidana J. B. Ad latent montis Caryophfius moniamu 
ienmfoUus Lini flore. Radix ei lignofa, vivax : CauUculi 
ex eadem radice plurimi ut in caryofriiyllis, lignofi, cor- 
tice cinereo te£ti, [vetuftiores ini;elligo] geniculb ciebris 
intercepti. Ad fingula g^nicula ramulorum homodncirum 
folia ex adverfo bina Tunicae minimas vel Spergulae pur- 
pureae, angufb, graminea. Cauliculi in ramulos di^^ 
inferius fere glabri, fuperne hirfuti, in fummitatibus fuis 
llores geflant amplos in pediculis longis hirfutis^ albo^ 
pentapetalos, ftriatos, Lini floribus finiiles; foliis quqipe 
Gompofitos fubrotundis, & minime bifidis cujufmodi ibknt 
cile Alfines & Lychnidum, non tamen oiduoos ut in 
Lino, ftamina continentes plurima herbacea feu luteola. 
Vafculum feminale longiufculum, crafliim. Floxetdica 
finem Junii & Julii initio. Pfeudojlachys Akina C. B. 
Ranunculus tenuifotius mmtanus luteus J. B. Bellis jSjpina 
major rigido folio C. B. Salix pumila latifolia fotio udrin* 
que glabro, fuperne autem fplendente. Ramos per ter* 
ram fpargit minimi digiti craffitudine^ annolbs cortke 
glauco, juniores virente praeditos^ in plurimos furcuks di- 
vifos, adeo ut terram oooperiant. Folia in lamulis ere- 
bra alternatim podta, pediculis brevibus iiilta^ parva, ex 
rotunditate acuminata, utrinque glabra, fuperne iatuxo 
virore fplendentia, nervola, unciam plenunque lariiis 
lefcunciam longa. Julos profertcxeberrimos, breviufculos 
e pluribus vafculis feminalibus in acutum apicem ex lati* 
ori hafe paulatim iaftigiatis compofitos. In altiffimis jugb 
montis Jurae. Veronica Saxatilit parva caulibus mtdis. 
{^dem modo repit tf, in varios dividitur cael^ites quo Co- 


Moraly and PbyfiologioaL 383 

tyledon Matthioli, aut Sedum ferratum. Folia ei Vera-. 
nicx parva, fubrotunda, hirfuta; ad margines ferrata. 
Caulea eodem modo exurgunt quo in Phyllo Dalccham- 
pii thelygono, duoruxn triumve digitorum altitudine, ro- 
tundi, foliis deiHtuti. Flores in fummo 5, 6 aut etiam 
plures Chamxdryos (puriz aut Veronicae, caeruici, qua- 
drifolii. Vafcula femmalia magna Thlafpeos aut Veroni* 
cae vulgaris repentis. Seium minimum moittaman ncn acr* 
Jtoripurpurafcenti parvo^ Radix ei alba, tenuis, nee ultra 
annum (ut mihi vifum eftj vivax, pluribus fibris capillar 
ta. Caulis nunc fimplex, nunc plures, femipalmares, 
ere£ti, rotundi, rubentes, foliis veftiti creberrimis, cir« 
cumcirca nuUo ordine pofitis, craffis, teretibus fere, api- 
cibus obtufis, rubentibus. Flores in fummis caulibus ve- 
lut in umbellas digefti, exigui, pentapetali, vix fe pan- 
dentes. Florum petala acuta, purpuraicentia, linea per 
medium faturatioris purpuras decurrente. Vafcula femi* 
nalia quinquepartita, ftellata. 

In fratisy pajcuisj Jatis, colUhusj dumitisy aggeribus^ 
ah/eisj murisj viis publicise & alibi circa urbem. 

lUaJpi oleracium Tab. Campanula Perjicifolia^ in dur 
metis. Cbamadrjs foliis ladniatisy Mezcreon Germant" 
cum ; Cbrijiophoriana ; Eryngium campeftre ; SigiUum 
Solomonis } Lilium convallium ; Chamaepitys ; Uva ur- 
fi\ Rbamnus fecundus Quf. In arenoiis ad Rhodanum. 
Aria Theophrafti ; Berberis ; Thlafpi minus quibufdam, 
allis Alyflbn minus J. J3. paffim. Rapunculus Spicatus 
C* B. in dumetis. Pulmonaria maculofa Lob. ibid. Si-* 
napi Gcmvenfe fyhejlre J. B. In muris ad pontem Aroa 
flu. PentaphfUum parvum hirfutum J. B. Saponaria minor 

JJiituTdam J. B. Tanaatum inodorum Cluf. Typha minor 
. S. in faliceto non longe 4 ponte Arva flu. Trifolium^ 
pratenfe album a Fuchfw difi^umfiui mas J. B. Tythy^ 
malus cyparijjias J. B. In agris ficcioribus ad aggeres u- 
bique. Tithymalus jdatyphyllos Fuchfii J. B. PfylUum 
majus ercSfumj in arenofls prope fluvium Arva. Ly^ 
Jinacbia JUiquofa fpeciofa anguftifbliq J. B. In alveo flu. 
Arv^. Scrophularia Kuta canina diSia^ ibidem & copio(e« 
Cbamadrys vulgaris ^ Abrotanum campeftre, Phyteuma 
JM^ff/^lien/ium, J. B. Ptryclcmenum rc£ium Jru£hi rubro ^ 


380 • Observations topographical^ 

ntgro J. B. In fepibus & dumetis. Betmica coronarta 
Jive Caryophyllus fytueftris vulgattjjbnus J. B. in pratis. 
GaBiiricham fyhefln vulgo^ Jhefyheflris Sclaraa fare 
furpwreo caruleove magno J. B. Orchis galea & alis fere 
cinereis y. B. Orchis myodes ; Orchis fuciflora galea & 
alb herbidis; in aggeribus fylvofis utraque & copiofe. 
AfcUpias flare albo ; Tamarix Gefmantca, flve minor frur 
iicofa J. B. Ad Arve fluvium. Polemomum petr^nan 
Gefneri ; Ad Rhodani rfpas, inque ipfts urbb muris. 
Crifta gain utraq; mas bf fasmina J. B. in pratis. Lotus 
fiiquofa lutea Monfpelienfls J. B. Chamamelum vulgare 
amarum, J. B. inter fegetes, Chamabalanus Ugtam" 
nofaflve Terra glandes ; in vineis & fegct. extra por- 
tam S. Gervafti. Lathyrus flore vario ex coccineo feT at" 
hy inter fcgetes : Rofa rubella flare flmpKci nan JptTioJa 
J, B. in collibus. Gramen cyperuides exiguum feminlhus 
luttatis ; Melampyrum multisflve Triticum vaccinum, J. B, 
inter fegetes. Melampyrum criftatum y, B, Afphode^ 
bu bidboflis Dodonaiy fine Ornlthogalum fpicaium flo. w- 
rente J. B. inter fegetes. Orchis magna latisfoliis^ ga» 
led fufcd vel nigricante J. B. Ad latus fylvofi cujufdam 
Gollis prope montem Saleve, Thlafpi umbellatum arvenfe 
irmantm J, B. In arvis non procul i Thuiri copio^. 
Mium umbeUifsrum pratenfe J. B. Rapijlrum monofpermon^ 
in aggeribus foflarum. Campanula rotundifolia minima 
J. B. in glareofis ad fluv. Arve, Rpfa fylvejiris rubella 
parvo frutice J. B. in collibus ^ dumetis copiofiffime. 
Medica major ereSfior floribus purpurafcentibus J. B. feri- 
tur aliquibus in locis ad pabulum jumentorum. Rubia c- 
refla quadrifolia y, B. Melilotus quinia Tragi J. B. I c. 
Securidaca flo. vario filiquis articujatis: Blattaria flo. aJbo 
&r htteOy ad vias. Chamadrys fpuria angujlifolia J. B. 
in dumetis. Pikfclla minor fldio anguftiore^ mimts pilofo^ 
repens, J. B. fiyacinthus maximus botryodes^ coma carulea 
J. B. . inter fegetes pafSm, Thlafpi minus juxta S. Ger- 
vafiij in muris. Sedum parvum folio circinnatoy flore atba 
J. B. in muris. Heliotropium majus, ad ripas fl. Arve. 
Stachys Fuchfli, ad vias. Cynoghjfum minus J. B. in ru- 
deratis & ad vias. Cardiaca, ibid. Lathyrus filiqua hir* 
futa y. B. inter fegetes circa Champe. Atraeiyhs^ Juxta 
vias prope urbem, Saxifragia Venetorum^ in collibus ad 
Ar^jayn fl. Anonis lutea nonfpinofa^ Dakchampio Natrise 

Moralj and Pbyfiological 381 

J. B. jixta fl. Arvi. Amuria prolifera Ger. Ad vias 
pafSm. Orobus five Ervum multisy inter fegetes non Ion- 
ge ab oppido Jay. Lathyrus angulofo fetnim J. B. Hu* 
jus duae varietates circa Genevam feruntur, alia flore 
albo, a]ia flore dilute caeruleo & ftriato. Ccnyza media 
MofiAeUenfisy ^Mufiam AJleris Attki genus folio glahr§ 
rigiio J. B. Tragorchis minor flore fuliginofo J. B. In 
poicuis quibufdani' trans Rhodamm. Sedum ecUnatum 
vel fleUatttm flore alio J. B. in mufcofis lepium aggeri- 
bifi. AUhtm Jpharocephalum furfmrafcens. Bulbus ei fim* 
plex albus velut parvae cepae. FMa fiftalola» giauca tria 
^uatuorve. CatJis dodrantalis, in cacumine ^ret gef- 
tans in or^culare fere capitulum conglobatos, e mem- 
hranaceo purpuraicente involucro, ftriato, in duas carinas 
dehifoente erumpentes* FIofcuK fingulares brevibus pe* 
diculis nixj, lex foliolis conftant longiuiculis, acumina- 
tis, pallide purpureis, iaturatiore linea purpurea per me* 
dium decurrente, flamina fex brevia cum apiculis pur-- 
puids occultantes. Floret initio Julii : in arenofis ad 
Rhodanum fluv. Gramen ami pamcula moUi rubente J. & 
Befides thefe which we found out J. Bauhine obferved 
ibme few others, which we had not the liap to meet 
withal) viz. CUtrduus pratenfis Tragi j in monte Thuiri 2 
Eryngiwn Alpinum latis/oliisj magno eaphe oblongo caruleo^ 
ibid. Ledum Alpinum. minus hirfutumj ibid. Galega mon-- 
tana Dakchampiij ibid. Lapathum folio acuto Alpinum^ 

From Geneva we travelled to Lyonsj the fecond city 
in France for greatne&, handfome building, trade, riches, 
and multitude of people; if any, fetting afide Paris^ 
mav compare with it for any one of thefe, for alto- 
getner I am fure none can. But becaufe we were 
hurried out of France by the King^s declaration before - 
we had finiihed one third part of our intended travels 
there : and becaufe this relation is already fwelled to a 
greater volume than I at firft intended, I (ball only let 
down the names of the chief places we faw, and plants 
we found in that part of France^ where we fpent our 
time till we returned home to England. In our journey 
horn Geneva to Lyons we took notice only of two plants 
which were ftrangen to us^ v/z. Valeriana rubra angufti^ 


378 Observations Topographical^ 

fdU J. B. about Nantiia a Gonfideiable town in Sat^f 

and Ancbufa boea^ 
in Ibine barren fields we pafled through about a daj's 
journey flx>rt of Lyons. 
Julf 2;. From Lyons we travelled to GnmUtf and thenoe to 
Grenoble, the grand Cbartrufi. By the wajr thither^ but dpecially 
Le grand ^^n the mountains about this doifler, we ibund a great 
Cbartrufi,gg^g^y plants which we had not met with any where be- 
fore, to wit Unaria aliquaUnm Jimlis fiUo BdluSs J. El 
In fome fields about five or fix leagues from Lymu in the 
way to GrtnAU : Catanance DaUcban^i fslU Cyam^ 
fian Cwronopi J. B. On the fides of the mountains a* 
bout half a league above GnrnhU in the way to the 
grand Cbartrufsj Melampyro affims Pariiiaria csmsiea 
quorwidam J. B. ibid, in fylvofis. In the mountains 
about the doifler, Sambucus nuxmola : Circaa mimmm 
CoL HflUboms niger Lob. Trachclium majus Belga* 
rum ; Radix Rhodia, copiofiffime ; Gentiasila AlphiM 
wma magna fion \ PulfauUa alba J. B. SoUdago Sant^ 
anica ; Piriclymiman rt&um fru^ mgro Park. Xybftaan 
AUobr^icam i. e. Pmclymemim re&um fm&9 mbro Ger. 
ChamoTnefpUus Gefiuri ; Imperatma vsJgarisi Smcius 
aentUus latifolius J . B. Neritm Alpimtm quibnUamj aliis 
Ledum glabrum J« B. Auricula urfi ; VUionaUs knga ; 
Trifolium Alpimtm argenteum Park. HeUeborus niger Sa^ 
niadafJio minor. Park. Pedicularis five Crifla gaUi moa- 
tana ; Radix ei fimplex, alba, paucis fibris donata, mi^ 
nitudine ii figura radicis Tragopogi, nifi quod kmgior 
fit, fapore non ingrato nucis AveUanse pauIo amarioie. 
Folia ad radicem pauca [unum aut duo] alata, ex pluribus 
pinnarum conjugationibus Filicts fere in modum oom«> 
pofiu, inferius hirfuta, in acutum definentia, pallide ri- 
ridia. Singular pinnae ad margines ferratse Criflae galU 
vulgaris folia bene imitantur. CauUs ab eadem radioe 
fingularis, dodiantalis aut pedalis, rotundus, firmua, non«- 
nihil hirfutus, intus concavus, in fiunmitate geflans fpi« 
cam palmarem florum denfe ftipatorum, pallide luteonim^ 
Crifla gain fimilium, nifi quod vlx feie aperiant, e calioe 
ventricofo pentagono emeigentium, pediculis nonnullis* 
In calice latet vafculum feminale turbinatum feminibus 
minutis rotundis repletum. Unum habet hsec planta im 
.caule folium infra Spicam : in ipfii Spica ad fingidos flores 
fingula folia« Hor* 

Morale and PbjifiologicaL 379 

Hcnmmmi feu Pfeud^Jlachys quaiam Alptna. Railed 
nititur oblique afh, miutis fibris praedita. FoUa longis 
pediculis hirfuti, infident hirfuta & ip(a, rugofa, urticae 
limilia circa margines ferrata vel dentata denticulis ma- 
joribus. Caides pedales hirfuti, medulla fiirdi, ftriati & 
quodammodo quadrati, plerunque duobus, interdum uno 
duntaxat foliorum pari veftiti : Folia quae in caule iis quae 
ad radicem iimilia, fed minora, & brevioribus pediculis 
(ut in hoc genus plantis folenne eft) fulta. In fum* 
mitate caulium j^/V^ breves compa^bs, Betonicas aemtilae. 
FlifcuB galeati, lutei, e calicibus in 5 moUiores fpinulas 
terminatis exeunt. Julii 17 jam penedefloruerat. 

^^ montano purfwreo Jimtlis J. B. Radix ei latb 
CTz&ij obliqua, intus nonnihil lutea, fapore acriuiculo^ 
fibrb aliquot donata. Folia ad radicem plura, longa, an* 
gufia, figur^ fere Polemonii petraei Gefnerij &turo virore 
Iplendentia, ad latera nonnihil pilofa, neq; dentata neq; 
lerrata. Caules femipedales aut dodrantales, furrefti, fo- 
liis veftiti alternatim podtis, iis qua* ad radicem (imili- 
bus, ramoii, fingulis ramulis florem fuftinentibus Bellidis 
minoris, nifi qiKxl linibus feu corona foliorum radiato- 
rum in margine minoribus brevioribufq; foliolis conftet 
colore purpurafcente praeditis, inter iores aflofeuli qui flin- 
dum floris componunt inter viridem quad & luteum co- 
lorem ambigunt. In afcenfu montium 7^/" 17 floren- 
tcm invent, & B^ttidem Alpinam Ramojamjiore purpuraf- 
unte denominavi. 

Ptarmica folio alato. Radix ci alba, obliqua, recens, 
fibris longis crebris firmata. Caules erigit cubitales, ro- 
tundos, inancs, brevi & vix perceptibili lanugine praeditos, 
fib'is crebris alternatim pofitis veftitos. Folia alata 4 aut 
5 pinnarum conjugationibus conftant ; fingulae pinnae circa 
margines dentatae, & fubinde etlam altius incifa?. Fhres 
in fummitate caulis velut in umbella, albi & Ptarmicse 
vulgaris vel potius Abfinthii albi umbelliferi floribus om- 
nino llmiles. Nullus in hac planta vel odor vel fapor in- 
fignis : initio guftanti fubamara videtur. In fylvis mon- 
tofis yuni$ floret. BeJUs carulea caule nudo C. B. Haec 
^ Globularia vulgari Monfpel. omnixio fpecle diverla 


384 Observations Topograpbicat^ 

Ptntaphyllum argenteum Jlpinum jkn albo. Radkem 
non obfervavi. Folia quinquepartita reliquorum hujus ge- 
neris more, exigua lanugine, molli, argentea uirinq; ca- 
dentia, in extremitatibus duntaxat crenata. CauUs tx 
eadem radice plures, paritcr villofi, Infirmi, foliis dubbus 
tribufve tripartito ut plurimum divifis ^ftiti ; quae appen- 
dicibus duabus caulem apple£luntur, fores in rummitate 
fuflinentes duos vel tres pentapetalos, albos, cum nume* 
rods intus ftaminulis purpureis apicibus omatis. Vice 
fiyli congeries & velut &(ciculus quidam filamentorum. 
Calix (ut in reliquis hujus generis) 10 foliolis hirfutis 
conftat, quinq; nimirum latioribus, quinque anguftiori- 
bus alternatlm pofitis : Eft hoc Pentapb)^ilum foL'is ia- 
fcrnc, & fuperne incanis J. B. 

Mufcus Alpinus fore injigni dituti rubente J. B. Haec 
planta re^lius meo judicio Caryophyllus aut Lychnis in- 

Cerinthe quorundam major^ verficolon fore J. B. Peren- 

nb efle videtur hxc planta ; foliis eft macidofis, floribus 

purpurafcentibus pentagonis ; feminihu reliquis fui gieneris 

minoribus, cum planta ipfa omnium maxima fit. 

jflfim minima Alpinafore albo maiori. 

Hypericum nummularis folio C. B, 

Planta quadam umbittffera Pin^imtta ftmUsy quam 

defcribere nefcio quomodo omifi. 

Orange. F'^m Grenoble we travelled to Orange^ in which jour- 

ney we obferved Echinopus minor J, B. which £rows 

plentifully all over Gallia Narbonmfisi Jacea cum Jpinofis 

capituUs purpurea tenui folia J B. which is as common ^ 

7/jymum vulgar e rigiaius folio cinerso J. B. This aJfo h 

found every where in the ftony grounds in this country i 

Pulegium cervinum by the Rbofne fide at Pont S. EJprit j 

Lavendula major fve vulgaris Park, As common every 

where as Thyme ; Dentellaria RondeUtii \ Acantbium 

Illyricum ; Chondrilla vifcofa caule xyiifu/ofopit CoL £- 

chii fve Anchufee quaedam /pecies fore cameoy An Zr/- 


Av^nott' From Orange we proceeded to Avignon^ wheltabout 

we obferved whole fields fown with Fctnum Burgundia^ 

cum : and befides what we found abotit Orangey Paliurus i 

Cifus Ledon MonfpeUenfum ; Cijlusfaemina folio Salwit i 

Mabis granata i qu« per totam Galliam Narbonenfem 

Moral, and Phyjiblogicdl. %i$ 

ffeqtientiffima e{h Catananfe DaUchampH'fiore qani/oHi 
Cmftepi J. B. per Galliam Narbonenfem paffim. He- 
liantbenoim iaiuifoUum glahrum fiore luteo J. B. Heliafi'^ 
ihenutm Jbn aibo, /Uh anpiflo hirfuto J. B. Faemctdum 
fortuojum J; B. Mtllifbltum oJ&ratum ; MiUefoiium tth- 
mmtifum luteufn J. B. quod non adeo vulgare circa Mond 
pelium ; Sictcbas eitrina tenUifoUa Narbonenjis J. B. Cap* 
parts ; Ikx coccifera ; Genifia HijPantca ; Botrys ; C«- 
cwnis qfimnusi Afpalathus 1. Jvtt/Hjpelienjis J. B. and 
ihany others which grow alio about Moritpdliei^. 

Ckxv next fiage was Nijmesj where, befides ihofe men- Nifmiti 
tioned about Avignon^ moft of which are alio fodnd 
here^ wt noted Thlajpi Ufcutatum afperum hieracifoUum & 
majus C. B. PJyttium femper vlrensj Camphorata Monf- 
peUenJum^ TrifoUttm hiiumirufum ; Ruta fylveftirisj P/- 
ganium Narborunfium ; Ttthymalus firratus ; Lotus arbor % 
CmvokmUis fpicefoliusj Plumbago Plinit^ Scabiofa montand 
calidarum rtgiomtm Lob. Tlthymalus Characas Amygda^ 
bides^ Pftpaver corniculatum luteum ; Clematis five 
Hanamda repens C; B. Phyteuma Monjpelienfum ; oide^ 
ritis vertscilHs Jpino/is ; Atkekengi ; Clematis daphnoides 
maJ9r% Lepidium vulgare ; Chondrilla vifcofa caule KfUk- 
fjJ^ififj Col. Et quod nuiquam alibi naflenus inve- 
neriniy jBn^anum faemina foliis Eriat iive Unguentarid 

From Nifines we travelled to Montpetlierj wherfe ^^Monkek 
abode all the autumn and part of the winter, during //^, 
which time, though the ieafon of the year for fimpling 
ins pttft, we obferved the following plants. 

AbfintUum Seriphium Narbonenfe Park, ad mait. Acarna 
Jlore purpurd-ruhente patuk G. B. in aggeribus. Acarna 
major caule f^of9 C. B. in arvis non procul a ASfa*calle : 
Juxta vias eundo a Monjpelio ad Pedenatiufh. Alfine ob* 
kngofoUo ferrato^ flore caruleo J. B. in fnuris. Althad 
firvtrfcens folh rotundiore incano C. B. In fcdpulis nori 
longe i fpccM Frmtignana. Alypum mantis Cetiy oct. Lob. 
In Promontorio Ceti ; vidimus etiam in montibus prop^ 
opptdufh S. Chamas in Oalloprovincia. Anchufa angujli^ 
f%Ua C. B. in coOtbusjuxta Cajleheuftx, aux Garigues; 
Anehufis MmjpHiaca C. B. in colle arendfo nan longe 
i Caftibuuf Verflis GrammonttUfH lucuni; . Androface ' 
Mattfa« in fiindo fbghi Volcarum Eftat^ diAo copiofifTt- 

6 C IRC; 

386 O B SE Rv AT I o K S topographical^ 

me. Arijlolochia Piftohchia diffa ; in arvis qnHwiHaiit 

aux Gariguis copio(e. Jhoms pufiUafnUicans CberUri J. B. 

in coUibus fiocioribus. AphyUantn MmtfpeliiMfikus J. B. 

in coUibus propc Cajielneuf aliifq \ oppido vicinis. A^ 

riftolochia Saracenica Gen in vineis, fbffis & aggeribus 

frequens. yfjfulatbus 2 MmfpgEinfis J« B. in cxdlibiB pe- 

trofis abunde. Aftir c^nysboidis tdttaius hstms. hmU 

£yft« Ad viarum aggeres variis in locis. Bdlis candta 

Mmfpeliaca, Bufieurum folia rigUi C. B. In fylva Gram' 

moHtia & fylva pnape Silmuf* Bt^kttntm 4aiguft^^£un\ 

in locis iaxofis non longe a BautwiU Cabha fimflia 

flore% in agris frequens. Cardma Imlbtfms Mm^limfii^ 

fim Acan^Ms Jylm/bris quilmfiam foliis kcimatu J. B. In 

pratis circa Mon^lium paffim. Carduus cbrjpnthamu 

Hijfanicus Quf. Via inter S. Lupian tc Ptdmatium^ & 

alibi prope urbem. Carduus kmciolatus firodir J* B^ 

]?xope montem Lt^. Carduus fol/litu^ ubique iierei 

Cbamebca tricocco&( Chanutfitys fio9 ha msjthata Mm^ 

filitnfium J. B. in coUibus iaxofis. ChcndriUa bgira J. & 

in aggeribus q^fius urbis, Cifius mas ^fi/i^ eUn^ oMda 

J. B. Cijlus Ledm , MiMfpJiinfium J. B. Ci/hfsfit- 

nuna Ger. Omnes hs fpccies in coUibus & fjlvis fire- 

quentes. Clematis fioi Flammula rspern C. BL in ^yoGa 

coUibus & arvis arenofis. Couvolvubis fyk^aSMs f^k* 

Conyza maritima c^eruUa an yacabaa puedam? Qrca 

Permd. Coris cmidaa maritima C B. in arenofis ad 

mate praeiertim. Cyamts pulcbr$ femuu Centaurii mqaris 

J. B. i. e. Cnipina Belg^nim Lak in Golbbus props flu« 

Ladum juxta Cajltlmrf. Cyparus pamadd Jp^Ja ^idBpi, 

J. B. in pratis ptojpe Baut$mium & Cqftrum ummm. 

Dorycmum Manjpelienle J. B. in aggeribus iepium fi»- 

quens. Echinopus minor jf. R i. c. Carduus caeruleua 

fehaerocephalus minor C, B, in coUibus U ad vias paBim. 

Mrica arborefans Mmfpiliet^s^ flare pwrpurafcfntM^ ra* 

mulls tirnis y B. in luoo Grammastso. Erica arhwrdcms 

floribus luteoUs vel berbaceis minissus J. B. ibid. Earula 

Lob. Faemculum tartstofum^ paffim. Geranium filia Ahh^a 

C. B. juxta munidones arci% non pipcul a nivis 

reconditorio. Geranium cicuiafoBo, aem. br^Jfimd C. B. 

Ad agrorum margines ii in a^ribus* Ging idi u m stm^ 

belld bngdy in prato quodam juxta viam quae FroutigManam 

ducit copioie, Gm^alium ad Sic^badfm dtrinam acc^ 


Morale and PhyfiologieaL 387 

denSy juxta fluv. Ladum, Gramen minimtim Dalechampii 
J. & in viiieis,, vere primo floret. Gramen parvum pul-^ 
cbrwn panicnla conipreja nigritant^ J. B. in aquofis. 
Hufypaois^ Mon^eJJulana five Dens lemr Monfpeffulams 
J. B. in aggeribus terrenis paflio). 

HeBantbfmum tenmfolium glahrum fiore hdea J. fi. iii 
collibus krujioribus paffim. HeUanwmum fori alba fctio 
angt/h Inrfiito J. B. in coIlIbus Cajiro nova vicinis u m^- 
libi. Hirbn Doria Lo(>« Ad Ladum amnem copiofcf. 
Hmiiana glakrdy in prato ()uodam juxta lucum Gram- 
nunt, idracmmparuttm iirtum tame aplnllo J. B* in a- 
lenofis ooilibus prope SiUam noyam & suioi pa]9ini. //<k 
iofteum Plantapni fimU J« K in aggp/e guodaOi iator 
uibem h I^diaa amnem. Hypericum tQmcnt:/um J. BL 
in bumidioribus circa Sebieuf ic albi. £ex cocci/eroy in 
coUibiB fiucoiis* jfi7ora cum fiinojii caplttdis purpurea ti- 
nmfolia J. B. ps^m. Jacea mom^tna capite magna Stra^ 
biii J. A in collibus juxta Cajlelntufy Sdnenfy iac, Jacea 
hoea cajdte jpiruf^ C« & &ti$ frequens ui pafcuis 2c colli- 
bus* Ka& majus pmm cocbleato Ger« In litoribus ma- 
rb & hi&s paluflribu^ Lathyrus major Narbonenfu an^ 
guftifilites J. B. in collihus quos Garigues yocant. Leucci- 
$an $nartUmtm anguAtfiiumy in lingua ilia inter ftagnuia 
Vokarum ^ifff^ dii^um & mare. Linum murinum lu^ 
iewn Ad. in pratU circa Seilam novamy Cajirum novum^ 
ad mare* Linaria luiea parva annua J. B. in 
montts^Lupi. LBtus Jiliqmfa latea Monjpsiir 
gnfis J. B. in coUibus & paicuis. Marrublum nigrwn kth- 
gfaHum L c. Herba.vnUi Monfpelien(uim, in aggeribus & 
ad viias. Moly mofcbatUm capiUaceo folio C. B. prope fyl* 

vam non longe a ielnetf\ & In collibus quos Garigues 


Orohus receptus berbaridrum Lob. in agrls pafliih. Pew* 
tidanum vulgare propi fylvam Grammontium. Phyllon ar* 
rbemgonen & thlf^9§ah'], B, in aggjeribus foi&rum & 
praecipue ^fecus fluvi^s^ Phyteumoy paffim; Polemonium five 
TrifoKum fruttcans Get, in fepibus vtilgatilT. Prunella an- 
guftifolia J, B. Pulegiunf cervinum angujlifolium J; B; 
in locis ubi per hyemem aqus ftagn&rant. Polygons qua-* 
dam fpecies ereSiOy an Arenaria J. B. Ad agrorum mdr- 
gines. Rhus foUo Ubni C. B. in collibus prope Cafiel^ 
neif copiofe. Hbiii fnffrtifilta Mon^peliai^d. Ad (efkBi pr«^ 

6 t a cipbe 

388 Ob sfe'ttVAtio tis Tcpcgrdpbicat^ 

cipue vero ad ripas La£ amnb. RuUa maritima^ hi 
lingua ilia inter Eftatig Sc mare* Scanmema Mffn/fdioia 
filiis rotundkribus C B. ad mare prope Pirawcj viBam 
novam^ &c. Scorptoides JUtqua can^di bijpida^ in agge- 
ribus munitionum. Securiaaca genm tripbjlbnj. B. in 
coUibus pfope Caftebuuf. S^iritis Abnjpeffiilana JTB. Frope 
patibulum, aux Gariguis^ &c. SideriUau genus verttdOis 
J^nofis J. B. in agris ooptofe. Sinapi gcbinatwn J, B* 
inter ieg^tes. Smilax ajfera J. B. Ad lepes paffim. Smicha 
hnatus DaUchamfii J. B. Sancbis qffmis Tifracrepolay m 
pafcub. Stcechas Arahkaj in Grammentia fylva oopiofe 
& in fylva prope Stbinf* Stcechas cttrina titm^Uia NaT" 
bonenfis J. B. paffim. Stttcbadi cttritut ojfrss caphttEs par- 
vis raris fjucnmfis^ in pafpos evantfanhbus}. B. in fif* 
furis rupium juxta Caftebiei£ & alibi. Tamarix major 
fiue arborea Narbomnjts J. d. Ad mare copiofe. TelipU' 
um fcorpioides J. B. circa Cqfiebtn^. TUaJfi cfypeatam 
ferpymfalid C. B. Thlafpi fiiOicofitm ffimfwn C. B. ill 
nipibus in fumma parte montis iMpi. fTdoAi vmbeUatnm 
tenmter divifi foUo amarum Narbonenfe J. B. in arris 
prope patibulum & alibi. Tbymum vulgan rigidbts JUk 
cinereo J. B. in aridioribus paffim. Tragos five Vva ma- 
rina minatj ad mare copiofe. Tribubu terr^lris^m agris 
paffim. Tr^oUum argentatumjbribus baas J. B. in colfibm 

J rope Cajtelneuf H alibi in zpo Mfft^Uaco. TrifiSum 
amorrboidale ieu Lotus Libyca DaUcbampS^ ad ripas La£ 
anmis. Trifolium JieUahan purpunum^ circa patibulum h 
alibi. Valeriana rubra angu/Hfolia C. B. in nipibus montb 
Lupi. Verbafcymfive/heMot^UenfeflorebiieobiastteJ.'Bm 
in coUbus iaxofis. Finca pervinca major. Ad tcpcs. 


MoraJy and Ph^ological. 389 

O F 


JIAONTPELLIER is a round town, (landing up- 
^^ on a hill in the midft of a ftony country ; fome- 
what bigger than Gemva but not fo populous. The 
number of inhabitants at prefent being about 25000, of 
which two third pans are Paptfts and one Proujtants. 
The PrateftatUs have two churches (temples they call 
theoi) in town. The ftreets of this city are very nar- 
roWy ihortt and crooked, without any uniformity or beau- 
ty at all, fi) intricate that it's half a year's work to un* 
derftmd them all, and learn the way from place to place; 
The houfes are many of them well built of free-ftone, 
which, were they fet well logger in order, would make 
three or four liandibme ftreets. No large piazza or 
market-place in town. The number of apothecaries in 
this littk city is icarce credible, there being thirty fliops^ 
and yet all find (bmething to do : their cypres pcwder^ 
Jwi€i»bagSj caffhlits^ treacle^ confe£ti9 aUemusy & hya-^ 
cintba laving a name all Prance over. The Queen of 
Ibmgarfz water (as they call it) made here is likewife 
much bought up. It is nothing but conunon fpirit of 
wine in which rofemary flowers have been macerated, 
diftilled from the (aid flowers. The wines hereabout 
are very ftrong and bear water well. Their vineyards 
are of dwarf vines without any (upport, the ftandariisj^ 
when the branches are prun'd oiF, being like the ibuw 
dards of our o&e^gardens• 

Cc $ At 

39© ObsprvAYJons Tvpogrnpbical 

The man- At Montpettier the bcft vcrdct or vcrdcgrcccc (Virlii 
iicrofina-^;^jj jj made. They told us tliat fo good could not be 
^ng vcr- ^2dc clfewherc though tlicy ufcd the fame method and 
■ ' the fame materials, whether it be to be attributed to the 

juft temper of heat, or the nature of the wtne thejr tH^ 
or fome other unknown qualitv. The manner thus^ 

Firft they take grape-ftalks well cleanfed from the 
raiiins and from all filth, and putting in the bottom of 
a pot a quantity of the beft red wine, they fet fticks cro6 
a little above the wine, and upon them lay a quantity 
of grape-ftalks firft alfo drenched in wine, and let them 
aiojie about fifteen days, more or lefs, according to the 
feafon, till they come to make (as they call it^ a ro/e, 
that is, the outfides become to appearance dry, and t\K 
middle only wtt. Tfa^e grape-ftalks being thus pre- 
pared, they put in the bottom of a Urge earthen pot of 
the beft red wine that begins to be fowre, but is not yet 
come to be vinegar, to the quantity of about two or three 
inches depth ; fomewbat above the wine they fet ftick^ 
crois the pot, and having ready many little plates of 
copper, they lay upon the crofs fticks firft a layer of 
die prepared grape-Afilks, then a layer of copper plates, 
and fo alternately SSS till the pot be fulK In the 
iniddle of the pot they ufually leave a hdc all along for 
the vapour of the wikie to aicend ; neither are the cop* 
per plates laid nciar together for the &me reaibn. 

When they have filled up the pot they cover it, and 
fet it in a cellar, and after fome five or fix dap turn 
the copper plates, letting the pot remain in the cellar 
i)iree or four days moje. In eight or ten days, accord- 
ing to the feafon, the Verdet will be come. Then they 
nike put the plates, and, laying them fix or ieven on a 
heap, put them in a trough, and fprinkle the edges of 
them with the fame wine for three or four days : 
next they prefs them with heavy weights for four or 
five days \ and laft of all fcrape off the f^^ with knives^ 
^nd, moulding it with a little wine, dry it and fi:U it. 

The fame plates are again put into pots, and iifed 
as before. So then the V^iet is nothing but the nift 
er fcurf of the copper calein'd by the vapour of th% 
wine, . . • 

' ' ■ Here 

Mdral, and Pbyfiohgical. 

Here alfo we fkw the manner and proceis of blanch- 
ing of bees wax. 

Firft they melt the wax in a great copper cauldron, 
then they have ready a mould or form of wood of the 
figure of a fugar-loaf, or the block of a fteeple-crown'd 
bat) which, taving befmear'd over with flime of fnails, 
they dip into the wax thus melted. This takes up a 
skin or film of wax, as candles upon dipping do. This 
they fmoodi with their bands and dip in water, and when 
it IS cold take it of[ the form, from which, by reabn 
of tbeamNnting the form with the foremention'd muci- 
lage, it will rradily flip in the form of a cone, or long 
cnicible. Thefe cones (fo let me call them) are fet in a 
garden in ranks fmgly one by one, fupported with canes 
or reeds cioffing one another on this iafhion. 



Round about they fet pots with water, wherewith 
they iprinkle the wax often to keep it from melting. 
In iiimmer-tiffle, when the fon lies hot upon it fome fix 
or feren times a day, otheiwiles but three or four times. 
In fourteen or fifteen days the upoeifend of thefe cones will 
grow white, and then they turn them to whiten the other 
end. In a month's time, more or lefs, according to 
the weitber, they will become white aU over. Then 
they melt the wax again in earthen pans like Meta or 
icuttles, and run it fo melted through the neb of a tin 
pot iwDo water, wd as it runs dovm mro the water, a 
man either bMaks • it with his band into grains^ or 
works it into round figures like fpiral wre^ or co* 
rdUfy and thefe they expofe a^in to the weather in 
the garden, and order as before^ till they become purely* 
white ; and then melt into great pieces to fell. The 
muci^ge whowwiththey befmear the forms i» made of 
fmSk taken aliVe, flietls and all, and pounded in a mor;-' 
tar till they become a perfeft pap or t;ifius. The fovni' 
once befinear'd well over with thi^ pap will laft dipping 
many, umcs^ W^c^htten'd is alnioft twi^ as dear as^ 

392 Observations Topograpbicaly 

yeHow wax. Yellow wax is iblutive, and ufed where 
there is an inflammation and the ibre not ripe ; white 
wax on the contrary very aftringent They fiiy Mont- 
feUier is a place proper for the whitening of wax ; and 
that the (ame workmen, coming over into England^ found 
the air of a different temper, and not convenient for 
t))is trade, 
Confeaio ^^ MmtpelUer is made the beft dn^eSkio Alkermes^ 
jiknmes, ^ rcafon there is it (bould, the grain which gives it its 
denomination being in no country of Ewrspe found fo 
plentifully as here. The manner of the prepaiation of 
this grain for the making the confe£Uon you may find 
fet down in the Philofi^ical Tranja^ms, Numb^ 20. 
f(ig, 362. and I (hall therefore here omit. Thefe grains 
have formerly been thought to have been proper to the 
dwarf or flirub Ilex^ called therefore Hex coccifera^ and a 
by-fruit or excrefccncy of the twigs of that plant. But 
my learned and ingenious friend Mr. Martin Lifttr^ who 
h^th been very happy in making diCcoveries in natural hi- 
ftory, hath found the like grains here in England upon the 
twigs of cherry and other trees, and judged them to be the 
work of an infed, and by her ai&xed to the twig^ fornefts 
to breed and harbou r her young ; and indeed to me they ap* 
peared to be fo, eaftly receding and felling off from the wood 
when the young are hatched and gone. As for the grauns 
themielves they are fo like the Kemus grains, that they 
are fcarce to be diftinguiflied and grow to the twigs juft 
in the fame places and manner. But, for a more fiiU 
taftid compleat hiflory of them, I refer the reader to 
Mr. Li/hr'% Letters pubUfli^ in |he PbiUfipbkal Tranf* 
1 V Quui- At Montpettier I ohferved the maitner of making oil 
ner of olive : firft they take olives, whether fi^ ^thered or 
;na]cing oil laid ^ ^hile on a heap it matters not (as thor told me> 
^yc* and bruife or grind them to a pafte, as we «> apples to 
make cyder, with a perpendicular mill-ftone running 
round in a trough. This pafte, or the olives thus hruifedy 
th^y put in round thin baskets made oiSparium Kke frails, 
having a round hole in th^ top y but bpth top and bottom 
dapping tx)gcther, fo that when prefled they looik like a 
thin round Cake, {iaif a foore or more of thefe baskets 
^ed wit^ 9Uy9 fiouce they lay oa « \(fi»f ia the pKe6«, 

Moralj and PbyJioJogicah 393 

ajidy letting down the prefs-beam, fqueeze them at firft 
without any mixture. Then winding up the beam they 
take out the baskets, and into each one put a good quan- 
tity of fcalding water (which they have always ready) 
and (baking the basket mingle it with the pouce, and 
then, piling them one upon another as before, preis them 
down a fegond time. This fecond operation they repeat 
again, and then taking out the pouce put in new, and 
proceed as beibre. The oil, together with the water, runs 
out into veflels fet to receive it. The water, with the 
Amurca^ fmks to the bottom, and the oil fwims above 
it, which they take ofFwich a copper difh like a fleeting 
difh, as good houfewives skim the cream from tfieir 
milk. The water mixed with the red juice of the olive 
becomes red and thick, not at all mingling with the oil^ 
fo that it cannot eafily the leaft drop of it be taken up . 
without perceiving it. It's faid that in Provence they 
fpread their olives on a floor after they are gathered, and 
there Jet them reft thirty days to dry, and for that reafon 
their oil is better than that of Languedoc, Others lay 
them on a Jieap a while to let them fweat, as they call it. 
It is worth tfte noting that though the olives be verv 
bitter ^nd of a fiery ungrateful tafte, yet the oil whicn 
is drawn from them is fweet ; the like is obferved in bit- 
ter almonds, and it is very likely might be in all other 
bitter fruits ; which is a fuflicient proof that the tafte 
of fuch fruits doth not inhere in the oil, at leaft which ia 
made by exprefllon ; and it deferves examination, whether 
the chimical oil may not alio be devefted of the tafte of 
tbe vegetable from which it is extra£led. 

Olives when they come to maturity change colour and 
become black as fome other plums do, but it is very 
late in the year firft. They are then notwithftanding 
of a horrid and ungrateful tafte, firing the throat and 
palate of one that eats them. They afford moft oil 
when full ripe, but beft (as they told us) when gathered 
and preifed green. Sometimes they pickle ripe olives, but 
they will not laft ; therefore thofe which they pickle to 
iend abroad are gathered green. The pickle they ufe is 
nothing <li^ but a brin^. of fait and water. 

Near Perml about a league from Montpellier we faw Th« hoil- 
^ boiling foujf^tain i^ they call it) tbat i% th^ water did ^S ^^' 

heave ^^^ 

394 OssEitvATioNs Topegrapbical^ 

heave up and bubUe as if it boiled* This phaenome* 
non in the water was cauied by a vapour afooiding out 
of the earth through the water ; as was manifefty (or 
that if one did but dig any where near the place, and 
pour water upon the place new digged, one (hould obferve 
in it the like bubbling, the vapour arifing not only in 
that place where the fountain was but all thereabout. 
The like vapour afcending out of the earth, and caufing 
fuch ebullition in water it pafles through, hath been ob- 
served in Mr, HttwUefs ground about a mile from the 
town of tyigan in Lancafijirty which vapour by the ap« 
plication of a lighted candle, paper, or the like, catches 
fire and flames vigoroufly. Whether or no this vapour 
at Piroid would in like manner catch fire and bum I 
cannot iay, it coming not in our minds to make the toL* 

From MtntpiUier we took a journey of pleafure to 
iee the adjacent country, and fim V9t rode to Prmaig^ 
nan, a littfe walled town by the eftang fide, three miles 
diftant, which gives name to the fo fiuxKius mdcate 
wine. The country about this town toward the fea 
Ibuthward lies open to the fun, but toWiard the land 
northward it is encompafled with a ridge of hills m form 
of a bow, touching the lea at each end ; fo that the 
whole is like a theatre : in the Arena, and on the fides 
of the hills, grows the mufcate grape of which this wine 
b made. In this fpace are contained two other little 
* towns, the one called Miraval, the other Vicb. This 

laft gives name to a mineral water, Ipringing near i^ 
much ufed hereabout. It hath an acid vitriolic tafte, 
but nothing fo ftrong as our fpaw^waters, and therefore I 
guels the operation of it is much weaker. 
The man- At Frmtignan and other places we law the manner of 
BCT of dry- jjij^Ijing railins \ma pafeJ] They take the iaiieft 
«g grapes bunches, and with a pair of fciflcrs fmp off all the 6ulty 
^ifil y grapes, and tic two bunches together with a ftring. 
Then they dip them in a boiling ley [lixivinm} into which 
they put a little oil, till they are very plump and read^ to 
crack. Jo. Bauhmus iaith^ that they let them contmue 
fo long in the boiling lixivium, qiuad fiaccefcant ianham 
U ccrrugentur. But we obferved no' fiico thing, for 
they did not continue the bunches half a minute, but 


Morale and PbyJiologicaL ' 395 

pfefeody took them out again and wafhed them in a veflel 
of fair cold water, then they put them upon wooden 
poks /or two or three days in the (hade to dry, and after 
that expo&d them to the fun, taking them in the night- 
time or tiinf weather. Cyprianus Eiicbovius deicribes the 
manner of making raifins in Spain thus : There are (faith 
he^ two ibrta of Uua paffky or raifins : the one of tbofe 
tbofe caO raifins of the fun, of a blue cx>]our, the other 
of the Iha fojf^ Lixa^ which they call frail or basket- 
raifins. In preparing the firfl fort they thus proceed. 
When the bunch th^ defign for that purpofe begins to 
grow ripe, they cut the fbot-fhlk of it half afunder, that 
to the radical juice or moifhue may be at leaft in a 
great meafure detained, and not pafs to the grapes ; and 
fi> they leave it hanging on the vine. Then by the heat 
of the fim the grapes are by degrees dried. When 
they are fuflkiently dry they gather them and put them 
up in veflek. 

The feoond fort they make on diis &(bion. When they 
prone their vines, they bind up the cuttings in faggots and 
referve them till the vintage time. Then they burn them 
and of their afhes make a ley or lixivium^ which they 
boil in great vefleb, and therein immerfe the bunches 
of grapes one by one. Afterwards to dry them they 
fpitad them upon a paved floor clean fwept, made for 
dnt purpofe in the vineyard, that fo they may be the 
more fpeedQy dried by the fun-beams. When they are 
fufficiently conco£ted and dried they put them up in 
frails or baskets. After the £ime manner they prepare 
figs lor to dry, by dipping them in a Itxhium made of 
die allies of the oried branches of the fig-tree cut o(F in 
pruning. But however they fuperflitioufly obferve to 
make their Uxhium for niifins of the afhes of branches 
pruned cff the vine, &r. I doubt not but the afhes of any 
wood itidifierendy taken would ferve as well for that purpofe. 

From Frontignan we rode to BalUruchy to fee the Baths at 
l)Ot IvMn which are ufbd as well inwardly as outwardly. Balkruck. 
At our being there, which was in the beginning of 
Siptmiir^ the water was fcaroe lukewarm ; they told 
19 that in the winter it was very hot. The bath is not 
above two fli^-fliots difhmt bom the efhng, and 
the water hereof uSca very fait and brackifhi whether 


39^ O B s E R V A T I o N s Topographicdl^ 

by reafon of the fea's being k near it, or becauie the water 

comes from fome (alt mine I know not, yet the latter 

feemeth the more probable, becauie, ihoidd it come 

from the fea, the water ftraining through fo much fimd 

would probably lofe its fide by the way, as we hare found 

by experiment in England. 

A foan- ^^ Gabian about a day's journey from MmOpelEer in 

I2in of the way to Biziers is a fountain of Petrolnmu It bum» 

fitrUeum, like oil, is of a ftrong pungent fcent, and a blackifh colour. 

It diftils out of feveral places of the rock all the year long, 

but moft in fummer time. They gather it up with hdlcs 

and put it in a barrel fet on one end, which hath a 4>'ggot 

juft at the bottom ; when they have put in a good quantity 

they open the fpiggot to let out the water, and when the 

oil begins to come prefently ftop it. They pay for the 

£irm of this fountain about fi% crowns fir awman. We 

were told by one monfieur Beayjhofie a chymift in Mvra^ 

peUieTj that Petroleum was the very fame with the oil of 

jet, and not to be diftinguifhed from' it by colour, tafte, 

fmell, confiftency, virtues, or any other accident, as he 

bad by experience found. 

Upon the coaft of the Mediterranean fea in feveral places, 
as at Berre^ near Martegue in Prtr^ence^ at Meffma in Sx- 
eiif^ &c. they make * fait of the fea-M^ter drawn into 
ihallow pools and evaporated by the fun-beams in fummer 
time. Firft, they let the water into a large (hallow 
plain like the cooler in a brew-houfe, and there being 
well heated they run it into feveral ihalbw beds like 
the beds of a garden ; when the fun hath dried up all the 
water they let in more, and fo again three or four times 
till the fait remaining at the bottom of thefe receptacles 
come to be three fingers thick, and then they take it up 
with fhovels, and heap it on little hilb : but the whole 
procefs of this operation being exa^y defcribed in the 
Philofiphical lran/a£lions Numb* 51. page 1025. I fliall 
forbcu: to enlarge any further concerning it* 

Now that I have mentioned Martegue^ I (ball add the 
manner of making f Boiargo, out of Mr. F. ff^Uughbf% 
notes. At Martegue they take abundance of mullets 
[MugUes not mdli as one would be apt to think by the 
EngUfly name] in their Burdigfsy which are places in the 

f Making of fait by evaporating fea water by the ftn-beasit* 
f The freparatign of Botar;p^ 

Mordl^ and Pbyjiological 397 

(halh>W$) indofisd with hedges of reeds. The male mullets 
are called Mettantsy becaufe they (hed the milt [La€ 
fifcimn.'yTht females Botar^ of the rows or fpawn of 
Which 39targ9 u made. They iirft take out the (pawn 
intire, and cover it round with fait for four or five hours: 
then they prefs it a little between two boards or ftones; 
Chen thqr wafh it, and at laft dry it in the fun for thir- 
teen or fourteen days taking it in at nights. 

Dtctmb. 7. 1665. from Mmtpellicr we made an ex- 
curfive voyage into Provence. The principal cities and 
towns that we faw were i. Lunely about four leagues d^f- itau/^ 
tant frwnAfontpeOier, 2» Arles^ a confidembk city once the ^i^« 
head of a kingdom, called anciently Arelate^ fbniding upon 
the river Rhijiu^ which a good way above this city divides 
itfelf into two branches, and makes an ifland called the 
Cantor^. All this iiland is full of Fermicularis frtttek 
growing by the ditch fides all along. Beyond this city in 
the way to Mar/eiUes we pafled over a large plain or level 
all over covered with flones^ called now the Craux or 
let Chanfs pierrewc^ anciently Campi lapideij to 3. St. St. CAa- 
Cbamas^z large burgh fbmdingupon the ridge and on^*^'* 
each fide a narrow hill, which is perforated like Paufily^ 
fm. Upon the rocks' near this town I found Se/eli Mthio^ 
ficmm firutek gtowing in great plenty, as alfo Alypum month 
Citii Cms Mfn/pejffiiUfta ; Ruta Jyhejiris minor; Colutem 
tmeli GemfteifufigofiJ. R We obferved alfo this day, all 
flioi^ as we rode upon the bilk and by the way fides, our 
common fiince or geniflafplmfa. 

A. MarfeiUity an ancient city not great but weU built j^/^//. 
wiui taH ftone-hdafes for the moft part, and very popu-/^j. 
lous. We were told that the number of fouls was about 
I20000. The ilreets are narrow as in mofl of the an- 
dent towns in this oiNinhy,to keepofF the fcorching beams 
of the fan in fummcr time. The haven is the mofl fe- 
cure and commodious that I have feen : the entrance 
imo it ii fb ftiait and narrow ^ac a man may eafily caft a 
flone csofiitjbut the haven within large enough to contain 
500 veflUs or more : of an oval figure. On one fi<ie of 
this haven the town is built which compafles it more 
than half round, having before it a handfome kay well 

?ved. which ferves the citizens for a walk or promenade. 
his Wea is not capable of ihips of above 600 tun. On 


3S^ OBsiRVAti b M$ iC^pograpbicai^ 

the nx:ki near this town I found gcowiiig piciitifuUjr Ae 
fiinie CdiUea I obftrved at St. Cbamas : Vukriana njkra 
Dod. Csrdtms gakSHus J. B* By the fea-fide 7rtf^«- 
^an^Atf .A^!^/#ij/&0n plentifully. i^4riktfn<iyfi^/nvi J.B. 
Titbymalm mpfadtes angttftifiUus ; Cormmfus JldaffUin^s 
Baufet. Lob. 5. Amj^/. 6. 0/J!iM!i[^ two Uttk cmnu. 7. Tinr- 
O//i0j^. Vf no great town, but wdl fortified, and the bcft ha- 
79ukn* ven the King of France hath on the Mtdiurratuam fta, 
having a large bay capable of the greateft vefibia» where 
there is good riding for fhipa* At Toutm tbev maJie 
holes in dieir ftone* walls at three or four foot difiaiiort 
near the ground, and there phntcapeis, the fivkwherr- 
of they prepare and pickle after this filbion* Thcj ga-^ 
ther the buds or blollbms of the flowers before they be 
explicated, and, fpreading them thin, lay then in the 
Ihade to wither for three or four hours, to prcivcnt the 
opening of the flower. Then they put them in a vcffid. 
and pour vinegar upon them, covering the veflel with a 
board, and fo let them ftand for nine days ; at the end 
whereof they take them out alid prds them gmtly^ and 
put them in ittStk vinegar, lettii^ thtfm ftand as kiiig as 
before: this done the third time, th^ put th«m i^in 
barrels with vin^ar. Some mingle fait with their vinegar, 
which is the beft way^ and preferves the capen for three 
years both for cokMir and tafte as good as at the firft. I 
obferved near BeuffH great pkntv of x^vt/r in the hedges; 
near OHoU Jcanwus fativus ; Mlhmafnaifi^em folio rwtiat' 
diore incano C. B. Fumaria wAmr fivi Umafika Jitm&0 
J. B. Acacia trifilia ; Tcucrium vufgarc i ArUantm lati^ 
^{' ^^' folium : Ckryfocom Ger. 8. St. MaMimmi, near Wdiidi m 
f'^''^ the famous gfot of Mary Magdakn^ called St. BaiJmi. 
^^ '9^ >/i*, ancient^ Jqua Scxii^ from the hot bjiths that 
are there. Thisis a very elegant 9fid phatetdty, weU 
built with £iir fione houfes, hayii^ broad ftrccta and 
handiome piaa^sas^ 
Selognc. 10. SclcgHit Sabnia. In the CcrdeBirs dnirch laei 
buried Noftradamus the famous French prophet^ whoil 
verfes the Frenchmen efteem as oracks« In the" church 
wall is placed a Scon^ with this infcriptton t9 his 


MtnrAl^ and Pbyjhtogical;. 39I 

IX M. Clariffl 9£a M. N^radami umus amuum 
Solium jatdkk digm^ cufMs pene divim cahmo itiiu» 
$rhi$ ex a^orwn..ufftMxufiituri tfvenim cmfcriherift' 
ittr. Ftxit^n. 62. m. 6. d. 10. Obiit Salo : MDLXVL 
^fiOim pffisri ne iimndHe. Atma FtnUia Gimeila Sa- 
kmm cm^v^ of£m» V. F. 

li*. jCguofwrtesj 2, fxrull town but of great ftrength 
near the fea in a fenny plae^ ibme fix leagues diftant 
from MontpiUier. 

From ManipeUier we returned to Lyons^ from Lyons 
we travelled with a melleng^r to Paris^ from Parh 
9ffan to Calais and fo crofs the ftrait to Dwerz 
whence we at firft fet out and began our journey. 

A Relation of a Voyage made through a great 
part of Spain, ^jr Framcis Willughby^ JE/js 
containing the chief Obfervables be met with 
there, coUedied out of bis Notes. 

AUGUST 31. 1664.. we left Bagnols in the county 
of RjmJliUon^ being the laft or furtheft town 
belonging to the French^ and at about three fourths of 
a kague^s diftance came to a great ftone ereSed here 
for a boundary between France and Spain \ and paf- 
fing very bad way among deiblate mountains after many 
hours ridii^ we came to Lanfa^ the firft town of the 
King of Spain's country. All along thefe mountains 
g^3ew n>(emary, comiwn forase or gprfie^ gnd >^wa« 
^i/hif^ of two ibrts^ the one with a cacneous^ theotber 
with a blue flower. From Lanjfs we went on the 
fine day as far as Csu de Creux, fi¥€ leagues or twenty 
M^lifif Qules koim Bagnds. Among, tbefe mountains* 
W« mtt with no brooks and fearer any water*. 

SejpUmier i. We intended to have (een the coral* 
fiflvn^ here, but the wunly weather hinder'd u^. The 
iin iDHlb be very c^.md^ fitiootbt^ elfe i4 is^ kafoffihM 


406 Obsexvati&ns TapegrlipbUat, 

fat them to filh for it. It grows downward [as thd 
uriiuton told us) under the b^w rocks, and noc lip- 
wards as treo, I belJcre rather that it grows mAitSenaAf 
cither upwarda or downwards according Id the fitnatioii of 
the iocIls. 

The engine they ulb M get it is a gitat crofi oi wood 
ABCD, that at the middle £ hath a huge weight of lead 
made &ft to i^ and at each end A,B,C,D, a roua' 



net. To the lead at £ is faften^d a Xiiag rope. The/ 
goout in little boats and let dowA thiiODfi; and vrbni 
they have found a rock at the bottom of the fat, he 
fhat manages the rope thnifls it into ti)e hollows, get- 
ting in One or two of the Itgs, and if there be any 
coral it entangles in the nets at the end of the cn»l 
hj which it is' torn of and brought up. The natural 
colour Of the coral, while it is aUte and gfoiring W the 
rocks, is a pale carneous -, but -when the i^f (Which an^ 
fwen to the barJt ia trees) ii fiibbed o£ iti» ni* The 

ooval. that dies 61* tt troken off froth the rocks lofes 
that 'Carneous fcutf'dr bark in die fea and becomes 
ffody though femetiflfie^ it gets a greentfli white rufl. 
Ttey fiiy it 18 fifty years before it comes to its full 
growth: bat that I conicdve is an ungrounded conjeAure. 
They fimieciines bur very rarely ikid branches of three 
or four pQiiitds weight. It rots, dies, grows fight^ worm- 
(eaten, and full of holes like wood. They all affirmed it 
to be hard and not Ibft as it grbWs under water, con- 
tilny to the corient tradition of the antients, Afd/is 
fmt btrbtt Jii wuliL I believe the outward fcurfor bark 
nlay be foft^ it eafUy crumbling off afterwards, which 
might give oonfion to the fable.They told usjthat a piece of 
iQoral f having the cameousfcurf upon it) wetted is juft the 
fittde as when it il firfl taken out of the fea. The befl 
boial mde as it is found Is worth a jpiftdle *the pound, or 
two or three pieces of eight: poUihed atid wrought into 
beads, bracelets, tic. at MarfeiUes it \s fold for thirm 
jbity^ and |fen:ietimed fixty fob (/• /. fb niany peiice) tnd 
dunce. Tiiey find here white coral alfo but very rarely. 

Near Cf. de Creax upon the mountains they find a 
kind of Sekmtis, which may be cut or ftit into very 
diiii plates, like the common Mifctnjy g^is. 

X}paa the ihoie are thrown up cmcSai venerea of (cf- 
veral forts and magnitudes, and other fmdl fhells of af- 
finity t0 diem, which they call PoreeBane. Thefe they 
put in the juice of lemons or citrons, and fet them out 
inaa open bottle all night; The dew mingling with the 
acid juice diflbhret the pdrcellane. This lic^uor they ufe 
Ibra odfmetic; 

They catch fifh about C. de Cretbc as at tfa^s^ by 
hanging a firebrand or other light at the end of the boat^ 
wUch inticcs the fAi 'mto the nets. 

This d^ we pafbd by Rtfas a flronggarriibn, Cafiit- ' 
Im^ mid faera^ and lay at Ftgera. 

Sft* 2* We pafTed Crt/pia^ Bafdbfty ArgetaguiSj St. 
*fm and lay at Caflk-fiuUty five leagues. 

Alt the vkBf wtf obfervcd abundance of pomegranate-trees. 
G. FnJH is a fmall garrifbn. 

J. We paffed by Aubt^ wher^ we faw a bufatoriy d( 

i»cb there are divers in that town. It is a hole or 
ctvC) out of which oootiitually tffiies a cool an*. They 

D d kee^ 

402 O B s £ It VAT I 6 N d 7op6grd^ical^ 

keep bottles of wme, fruity bfe. io a little boufe built o« 
ver the cave. The wine here kept drinks as cool as if 
it were kept in ice or fnovir. They fiiy that it is the ypL^ 
ter running and falling down under the groiuid that makes 
thefe Spiracuiaf which is not unlikely. They are aU on 
the left fide of the river as you go to Fifff and none on 
the right. This day alfo we pafled RMa aadHy at Fidlj 
feven leagues. 

4« We went to the hill where the amethyfts or vio- 
let- flones are found difhint two leagues irom yi^^ tsir' 
led St. Stgmin$nt, On the top of the hiU is an hermi* 
tage and place of devotion, where Sigmhunt a BurgundUm 
King did penance. The ametbyfb are found lower in* 
the fide of tlie hilb. Vifcount Jocfm is lord of the iaii^ 
and whoever opens a mine pays him a piftok and an half 
fir menfem. They find the ftones by fbUowing a vein 
of reddifh or black earth, or a vein in the rock fe colour- * 
cd. They are all hexangular, and pointed like cbrjrflaL 
There Jre of three forts, the befl are the biackeft or deep- 
efl violet. 2. Others are almofl quite white. 3 Some, 
but very rarely, are found tin£lured with yeUow. Tliey 
fometimes flick a g^eat many together to the rock like' 
the Brijiol diamonds, but thofe are never good : the beR 
are found loole in the chinks of the rock, in a £st yel- 
lowifh or reddifli earth. They Icrape out thb earth 
with long narrow knives that enter into -the chinks, and 
then crumble it in pieces with their fingers to fed fbr 
the flones. They are afterwards ground and poliffaed 
upon leaden moulds after the fame manner as chiyftal is. 
Iirfl they ufe the dufl of Smiril or emery, and at laft of 
Tripoli, All along the way to this hlU we &w abun- 
dance of Arbutus and Rhus tmarimitm called Rbaub, 
In this country they ufe not bank ef oak to tan tbdr 
leather, as we do, but t;he leaves and branches oF this 
Ihrub, which they firfl bruife with a perpendicular fione» 
and then mingle with water, and, beating the water 
lukewarm, fteep the skins in it three or four days, 
in thefe mountains are alio found emeralds, gold and o- 
ther forts of minerals and flones, but it ^ith not turn 
to account'tofearchfor them. Topazes are found in a 
lake call'd the lake of SiUes^ not far from St. Colmna 
near Girena^ Tbcy find them upon the fliore of the 
l^ke» At 

Morale dnd PbyfiologkaL 403 

At Vis there is a great market-place, and a churcK^^^ $« 
it a Canvfnt^ (aid to have been built by Charlemagne 
when he had difcomiited the Saracens^ and driven them 
out of Cataimia. This night w^ lodged at Moia^ hav- 
ing travelled only three leagues. 

yVe rode widiin light of Mont/emti broken at the 6^ 
top into rocks ftanding like the teeth of a (aw, from 
whence it took its name. There is a chapel of our 
Lady, a place of great devotion. This night Hre lodged 
at Cafa della pobld^ a fingle inn, five leagues. 

We came to CarJana two leagues. All the way as j; 
wfe rode, the rocks and flones iifrere full of round holes^ 
jaft like thofe in the ftones at AncmWi in which the 
PbJaies harbour ; and there is no queftion but thefe 
holes have been made by (bme animal befbrethe fbnes 
Were harden*d« 

We viewed the mountain of fait, where were three ^^ 
oflken, one to weigh the lalt, another to receive mo- 
oey, sind the third to keep accounts. The revenue of 
this £dt amounts yearly to about 30^000 pieces of eight. 
For eVety quintal, that is 104 pounds, they pay 10 reak 
<if two /ms to z real. The fait is hard and tranfparent 
Itkechryfial, and, when powdered fine, as white as fnow. 
Tliey hew it out with axes and mattocks ; and make 
chaplets, boxes, bfc, of it. They fay there is no end 
frf^ ft, but that It riches to the center of the earth. 
Near the place where they V^rk there are two caves 
withiii the rock of fiilt, to the end of one of which 
thev never durft venture to gd* 

Not fiir from thb there is another mountain of fait, 
where the fak fticks to the rocks, and b moft of it 
tinfiur'd with rod. Of this red fait they make bioad 
pbtes like tiles, which they call Ruggidas ; thefe thc^ 
heat before the fire, but never put them into it, and uie 
them to take away aches, ftrengthen the ftomach, keep 
the feet warm, f^c. Well heated on borii- fides, the^ 
will keep warm for twenty^fbur hours. Amongft this 
red fait there is a kind of SeUmtis ^which ibme caU 
i^g-ghds, and the lialians Geffi^ from the Latini9ord , 
Gy^ilny fignifyfaig chalk, becaute when burnt it is turned 
into a white calx) which naturally roches into paralMipt^ 
pedums of the ^rc of a k>zenge. Of which forts of 

D d a ftonei 

404 O s s E H V XT I o N ^fcpographicat^ 

Aones are found in ieveral places of our nation. About 
thde mountains of (alt grows great pknty of /fr&mr/and 

' Card$fia is a dukedom containing three or four viHsH 
ges befides the town. The IXikethereof is one of the 
this richdl grandees of Spaimj having three dukedom% 
faar nlarquifates, two earldoms, &c. The name of 
his family b RUe, He lives for the moft part at Ma* 
drUi but fends every three yean a governor* The King 
of £|^7i;r hath nothing at all to do with this dtjr : and 
the Duke never impdes any taxes, but hath only all the 
tithes of the com, wine, &c. There isaobuncil of thirty fix 
changed every year, and he that hath bceoof thecoim<« 
cil muft wait three jrears before he can be chofen 9piam 
The laft thing the council does is to choofe a new coun* 
cil for the year following. This new council is divided 
inlJD four ranks, not equally, but as the oU counc3 fliall 
think fit ; and their names are put into four boxes, out 
of every box a chiU takes out one to be conful. He 
that is drawi) out of the firft box is the firft oonfiil, and 
fo in order. Near the town is a caflfe, and in the 
caftle a tower (aid to be built by Charkmaene. Every 
Duke hath an eath given him by the oonfuis, wherein 
is aa article that he muft rcfide in the caftle, whidi b 
never kept. 
Sift, 9. ^c pafied dunoi^ JCsZcA, and hy at a fin^ iwi a 
league and a half fiurther,, four leagues and an half 
difbnt from Cardma. 

10. We paiied through St. Cbbmiiay Rxcafirt^ and lay 

at Sirreall five leagues and an half. 

IB. We pafled by Pfl^i^ a fiunous ancient monafleiy, about 

two leagues diftant from Sirreall. In the church there 
are a great many monuments. They told us, that 
thirteen Queens and (even Kings lay iatsmd there. Then 
we pafled Pravis^ and lay that night at CoubwKvU five 
leagues. All over Catabma they reckon a league two 
hours, and make account that four Catakman leagues 
are equal to fix French. We heard that there were 
amethyfls alfo found about Proves. 

12. We paflfed by JM/ot^ two leagues firom Cmimami, 

where are a gnat awiy lead-mines. The oie is very 
odi, and they mdt it juft as it is taken out of the 


Morale and Pbyfiohgtcal 405 

mine, without beating it to powder. They fell the 
ore for forty Reals of Ardtt the quintal, a guintal being 
121 pounds: Five quintals of ore ufually yield four 
quintals of lead. This town and the mines about ic 
belong to the Duke of CarJma. They told us, that • 
the vein of metal lay always eaft and weft. The beft 
and fincft of this ore* they grind to powder, and thereof 
make varnifh to lead earthen pots and vefTels with, 
li)rinkli^ the powder upon the pots. This] night we 
]ay at ^tvUizy four leagues. 

Wc pafled Venu-falet^ ThtanSj and lodged at Tortoja^ »3' 
fix leagues. All along the way we faw a great ded 
of Pabna bumilis Hypanica non j^inofa^ The fruit 
grew up in bunches out of the ground like the berries 
of Arum^ and was not much bigger. Thofe that were 
ripe were of a rcddifh colour, of an oblong figure, 
and divided into four quarters : thofe that were lefi 
ripe were yeUowifh, Tne skin and pulp very thin, 
and did but juft kxvt to cover the ftone. It hath 
the fmell and tafte of dates. The ftones being broken 
are not at all hollow, but have a hard white kernel 
or pearl within them. We obferved alfo abundance of 
Gartffiu (as they called it^ i. e. CartAa five Siliqua 
Atlasj the cods whereof they give their mules inftead 
of provender. The Spanijb foldiers at the fiege of 
Barcilkna had nothing but thefe Siliqudf and water 
CO live upon. All over Cetabma the people are gene- 
rally poor. They ufe neither glafs nor paper in their 
windows, but only (huts of wood, 

Ti^rttjfa is a very poor and defolate town. There 
is a bndgp of boats over the river Iberus^ now called 
Bhr§^ in fight of which we rode all along from Ttvtfa 
hither. At Tortofa they were wont to ms^kc mu 
iellers, mortars, bowk, beads, (sV. of a kind of marble 
of a mingled colour, red and yellow, found near tho 
town, which they call Jafper^ and of another greeoifti 
marble fpotted with black, brought from Genoa. 

We went to the jalper mine about two miles from i^t. 
the town, with one of the chief workmen. We law 
there vaft pillars hewn out and wrought for a church 
in Palermo. He told us, that all the veins of marble^i 
js^fper, if^^ went from caft to wefts that they iawed 

O d 2 tbefo 

40^ OBSBRVATieNS TopogTOphical 

thcfe flones to make tables, &r. with only water and 
/ Oind ; that, when there was not enough red in the 
ftonc, they made little boles and fet in red ftones ; 
that the cenient, they ufed for all ftones in mo&ick 
vorks, was made of one half maftich, and ckiie half 
Greek pitch ; that ip building they joined the ftones 
together with prdin^ry liqie, but on the outfide tfaey 
filled up the chinks with a cement made of the powder 
pf the jafper, mingled with fulphur and Mangrai to 
make it more white, they put in more fulphur, to make 
it more red, they put in more Matigra. Thejafper 
was hew'd out with chizzels and hammers, juft as 
fione in our ftone-pits. It /is afterwa^ polifbed with 
armoril, f . e. the powder they ufe to polifh armour 
with, and to give it a luftre, fo that one may fee his 
face in it with the powder of the cinders of the heft 


This day we fet out towards VaUnce^ pafling the 
Ebr^ by the bridge of boats, and lodged at Gqkra^ a 
finail village two leagues diilant from Tortofq. 
fepL 16. We pafl^ by Tregera^ whereabouts fe^med to be 
the ruins of an old Ratnan way; MattheaUy Salfandail^ 
and lay at Lefcouvtfs^ feven leagues. NearZ^uvaiwe 
found ftore of Oleander^ with a red flower. 
17- We pafled Cahams^ Pffbletta^ Burioly Vitta reab^ 

jtrmulesj feven leagues. Thi^ journey we iaw a great 
many rivers ouit^ dried up, and for above a month 
together had Icarce any rain : that little that was al- 
ways came juft from the fea. 
ifS. We pafled Chinees^ Jlmenaroy Mouhe4ere^ (an Sa- 

guntus ?} Majfa-magrily AWalade^ and arriv'd at Faience^ 
feven leagues. Neat Valence the country is y^ po- 
pulous an^ well cultivated. Abundance of mulbeny- 
trees are planted in rows all the fields over. As wc 
<^ pafled through the market-place at Valence^ all the 
. ^ -V c^ple houted at us, and threw parings of melons, 
^-^"^ hfc. on our cloaks. It fef ms |hey w^ not ufed to fee 
grangers and travellers there. This was the firft 
place in Sfain where wc were fearche^. In thi^ 
city is an univerfity. I heard a profeflbr read logick. 
The fcholars are uifliciently infolent and very di/pu- 
tacious. One of them ask'd me, ^id eft Ens i«i- 


Moral, and Pbyjhlogkah 407 

tm-fuUf and whether I wasof Thomas Afidnas*^ opinion? 
Another, ^uH tft Genus ? None of them underftood 
any thbg of the new pbilofophy, or had fo much as 
beard erf* it ; none of the new books to be found in 
any of tbek bookfellen (hops; in a word, the unlverfi- 
ty of Valmci is juft where our uniVeriities' were 100 
years ago. 

In the kingdom of VaUnce the King of Spain is not 
abUute ; but to impofe taxes, raife foldier^, ^c. he 
he muft have the confent of the three eihtes, i.e. 
u The dergy. 2. The nobih'ty. 3. The cities and 
villages : and, if one of thefe refufe to confent, nothing 
can be done. Thefe three eftates have fix deputies, 
two for each, who are cliang^ every third year. Of 
tbe two for the cities, one is for the city of VaUntia^ 
and the other- for ail the reft. Each city chufuig a 
iyndic, one is taken by lot to be a deputy. The fix 
deputies have the care and government of the militia. 
Upon any urgent occafion the deputies muft afTemble 
the three eft;^. # . e. the chief of the clergy, the no^ 
faility, and the fyndics of the cities. 

The city pf Valence is governed by fix jurats or con- 
fi4{. They are taken by lot out of fix urns or burfes, 
two out of each : in the firft urn are the names of all 
the better fort of nobility that have the title of Dons : 
in the fecond urn the names of all the lower rank of no^ 
bility, that have not the title of Dms: in the third, the 
names of all rich ^ttzens that are not gentlemen ; they 
muft have at kaft 400 crowns vearly. rent befides what 
their wives bring. Befides thete, there is a rationel and 
two fyndia changed every third year ; fix advocates for 
their Uves, and forty plebeians changed yearly. The 
city being divided into fifteen trades or companies, each 
company chufes two, which make thirty; the other 
ten are chofen, two bv the lationel, and eight by the 
fia; jurats and two .fyndiciy each chufing one. Of all 
tfacfe offioen and the forty plebeians confifts the fenate: 
But nothing can be done, unk6 these be twenty nine of 
the plebeians prefent at leaft. There is alfo^ i. a judge 
for criminal cs^ifiss, taken by turns out of the thrc& 
ucna^ and changed vearly. He hath an advocate to- 
a^lfthira, who is change y«irly, but fo tha^ att the 

D d 4 ad* 

4^8 Obs^rv ATtoMs Topogrdpbicaly 

advocates in the city, bave the pl^oe by tunas : and «* 
JiAsufenant criminal taken by lot out of tb« forty plebeians* 
2. A Mujiafa who has the care oif aU kind of vidiiaby 
corn, weigli^ .cpe^Aireisi &c. He is, taken by lot out of 
the three burfes as the. criminal ju4ge is^ and hflth alfo % 
lieutenant puf of .^h^ ^/ty, , Mor^vcr there is a Judge 
for civil caufes taken out of the three burfes, ip^bo las 
an advocate like the criminal judg^^ but he cannot de« 
cide caufes of ^ve fifteen crowns. 

The univerfity is governed by the town» who ewtxf 
third year chufe a Reffar that niuft be a canon. Xhe 
otlier officers are a beadle, a ferjeant» and a puntadore^ 
who is to tak( notice when any pro&flbr fiib to rtad^ 
Ther^ are eight Prafojiti in this univerdty, four for di* 
vinity, two .for the canon law, and two for the civi| 
law ; who have each 500 crowns yearly. There are 
alfo four readers for philofophy, (even for phyfick, odo 
for the Greei, (ongue, one for the Hdnnwj and two 
for the mathematicks. Thefo havp but (mall ftipend% 
but all their fcliolars that come to hear their leduica 
pay fomewhat yearly. If a profoflbr promote three 
rich fcholars, that are able to pay the fees, to any de- 
gree, he may promote a fourth that is poor for nothing. 
The d^rees are the (ame with thofe in our univerfitiea, 
vis^ I. Batfphelor after they ha^ fiaiihed a oourfe in 
pbilofc^hy \ which degree cofts about twdve crowns, 
2. Mafter of arts, which cofls eighty, 3* Batchelor in 
divinity, law, or phyfick, which cofb fu(teen« 4. Docir 
^or, which coils 150. They may be mafter^ of arts; 

f>rerently after they are batchelon if they will, and in 
ike manner doctors. In the market at V^dnK^ vdA ali 
^in over, they divide hens and chickens into 


and (ell them by quarters : they m^ gfeat veifels of 
goats skins to put wine and oil in, and iefler bottk^ 
which they call ^0//$. The women paint, laying it cxi 
fo thick as if one daubed mmum; upon ^ wa^ No 
gsurrifon no^ foldier$ here, 

^tft. 24. ^c ^^^ ^Mt from Vajfncu an4 paiEi^ by M^knalfi^ 
Cataregt^ ^ Salle fodged ^t Mujf^ifis,^ thrae leagues^ 
Coming out of Vakn^e we were (am (0 giv? money ^ 
three places, tQ avoid fearching^ 

M$ral and Pbyjioldgkal ' -^ ' 40^^ 

..We paSkA, CaSara-j wtiue we ferried. over si great 
liver cadkd Xucar^^ anii by at Gandia. There Is a 
oottegp and an univerftty, as appears by this .inicriptioa 
upon the wall of the co]. San£Hts Francifcut a Borgia^ 
JOust Gandia 4, Prapojitus . generaKs Socinatls Jeft§ 
3 hoe Collegium bf baue VuhirJitaUm a^futtdanunus erexii 
A* D. 1546. At CuUira' the wine' firft began to be 
fweet^ and three leagues ofF at Gandia the plantations of 
ftfgar-canes b^n. ^ Whether the native of the foil, 
that was fit to liourA the fugar^canes, did not alfq 
fmtribute to the fweetnefi of the grapes? At Gandia 
we firft found faifins of the fun ^as they are called in 
Et^hnd) in Spain tbey call this kind Panfas^ and they 
feem tt> be the Duratiu^o of the ancients. They are all 
white, round, and have a tougher skin than other 
grapes. They gather theni when fully ripe, and dip i 
them in a boiling Uxivium of water and aihes, juft } 
dipping them in, and taking them out again ; and then 
dry them upon boards in the fun, taking them in by 
night or in foul weather. The name railln comes from 
Racemus. Figs are dried juft as t|iey are gathered, not 
being dipp'd into ^nylAxivium, 

I went to O// v#i, where and at Gandia are the en- , ^^ 
g^nes for fugar-»works, the beft are at OJivif, By the '. 
way we &W the fugar-canes growing in feveral places. 
They are planted in low wet grounds, well mucked 
and drefled, divided into beds or hillocks and furrows. 
They cut the canes clofe to the roots in NivenAer and 
DefembeTy and cutting of the Sender tops, which afford 
no good juice, keep them under gronnd tUl March^ and 
iotok prick them into theie hillocks or beds ; out of every 
iaUa or cut, (hoot four, five, or fix canes, which will 
be zjpe the next Diomber. The knots or joints of the 
cane at the bottom are very clofe together, fcarce an 
inch afunder, but upwards the diflance i& more as the 
cane grows flenderer* Within is a white pu)p or pith,» 
full of fiip, iweet rf homy. They fell them at Gan-^ 
dia to eat, and, cutting tt^em into pieces juft in the mid* 
die between two knots, iiick the pieces at both ends. 
To make fugar, after thf canes are cleanfed from the 
tops and leaves, and cut into pieces, they are firft bnitf* 
fd cither with a pcrpco^icuhr ftone running round, aa 

410 O B s £ > V A T 1 N s . Tofctgrapbical, 

apples to make cyder, or olhresto mabeoil ; or bciw i cm 

two axes flrongly capped witli tion, horizontally pboed 

' and turned contrary ways; and then prefied asgiapea 

^ or olives are. The juice thus preffed out is boikd in 

three feveral cauldrons, one after another. In the thiid 

cauldron it beoomet thick and black, and is then put in« 

/ to conical pots, which at the bottom have a little hole 

I flopped only with ooarie and foul fugar ; Mr. Ligm 

] &ith with plantain leaves. Thefe pots are covered when 

fiill with a cake of pafie, tnade of a kind of earth call'd' 

I in Spani/h Gritif^ and found near Olives^ which is good 

» to take fpoci out of cfethes, which cap or cover links 

as the fugar finks. [Mr. Sw^i toU me, that the day 

! thev ufe with us is tobacco-pipe clay, or very like if, 

and that the water in the clay fervcd to wadh down 

and carry away the Mobffesy at leaft the clay hdps the 

Reparation and precipitation of it.] Thefe coniad pots 

i^e put into other pots, into which by the hole at the 

/ vertex the juice drains down through the coarfe fiigar at 

' the bottom. It drains lb for five or fix months, in which 

time the fi^r in the conical pots grows hard and white, 

all the juice being either drunk up by the lute, or run 

cut by the hole at the virtex. The juice is boiled again 

'fo k>ng as it is good for any thing, but at laft it nukes 

only a foul rod fugar that will never be better. The 

conical loaves of fugar, after they are taken out, aie kt 

to drain over the fame pots for fourteen or fifteen days. 

To make the fugar more white, they muft boil it 

again, but about one fixth is loft every time. A 

pound of Agar of twelve ounces is fold at Oliws for 

three ySitfx and a half; refined for five or Rk fius. 

The fugar-juice is ftrained through ftrainers of linnen, as 

it is put out of one cauldron into another. They take it 

out of the firft and fecond cauUrons fo foon as it begins 

to boil ; but in the third cauUron they let it boil tiU 

the fcum rifcs, and then take off only the fiatm with 

a fcummer, and put it into a long trough to cool^ 

and, when it is cod, put it into the conical pots. One 

fcum riles after another in the third cauldron. The 

fcum, when it is taken off, is white, but turns to a 

black liquor in the trough. They never refine the fa- 

. . gar more than three or four times. They ufe for the 


Morale and Pb^ohgical 411 

ttfining of it whites of eggs, putting in two or three j 
doseen into a cauldron. Thejr ufe but one cauldron / 
fer refining. When it is refined, it grows white and . 
hard in nine or ten days. The juice boiled up is eaten n 
with bread toafted, as honey : the Juice of the refined j 
ftigar is much better than the firft juice. The Duke / 
of Gandia fends prefents of this refined juice to the 1 
Queen of Spain. When they refine it, they put a little / 
water into the cauldrons, to diilblve it the better. But ; 
for a more exzSt deicriptbn of the wl^ole proceg of the j 
fugar- works, I refer to Ps/p in his Natural Hiflory of/ 
Brafiij and JUgpn in his Defcription of Barbadoes. The; \ 
i|^ar of Olives ts better than the fugar of Gandia. At ] 
Moittria in Granada they alio maks a great ded of \\ 

About Vakncij Cfandia^ &c. the earth is always 
wrought, and never lies fallow or idle. They reckon 
five Ra<cclta'$ or crops in one year. i. Of mulberry 
leaves for filk. 2. Wheat and other European grain* 
3. Darfij /. e. Aiaiz or Indian wheat. 4. Grapes. 
5. Olives ; and 6. at Gandia fugar-canes. After the 
wheat is cut they prefently ibw the Indian wheat. They 
complained that lately for a great many years together 
they had very bad Xaccoltd's for want of rain, which 
had almofl ruined Spain. 

We pafled Beneganaj and lay at Cbativer fix leagues 5^^^ 27. 
and a half. Cbativer is an ancient town of the Moorij 
and was once head of one of their little kingdoms* About 
a league from the town began a very remarkable ^uaeduft 
mai^ by the Mmn. It was jufl over a river abng the 
fide of a hill, in moft places not above a yard or two 
under ground, and had a great many fimnds jufl like the 
tops of chimnies to give vent, and let out the water 
when there (hould be too much. The tops of thefe 
fimneb were made of a red day and pd)bie ftones. The 
water came almoft to the top in all of them, but run 
over but in one. 

We pafled in fight of AfM/i/i, a cafUe belonging to die zt. 
kniglitB of Mmuja that wear a red crofs \ Ortenente^ 
and kx^ at Beciert^ fix feagues. 

Near Alicant among the mountains there b a very 99. 
good breed of fillami Ju tiK fluM oa^ AScant grows 


41 2 ObseI V aVion's Topographical^ 

aburtdance of Cramem/p^tum PlmiifiwJ^ortularum Ofil^ 
cinarum J. B. L e. inamced, of ^ich thefndb whero- 
in they put raifins and other fruit are made. Thb in 
Sp0im they odl %r, at Marfnttes A^i. The womeit 
ifereabout gather abundance of tMs, and fleep it in £»• 
water till it be well fofisened. Then they dry it and carry 
It by fen V^MarfdUes^ where they fijl it at eight efcuis tho 
inilliere : every milliere confifts of ten packieres ; every 
packiere of one hundred Monadf^ or handfiils. Of ti» 
they make cables for (hips, baskets, &V. In this day's 
journey we (aw a great many fountains covered with kng 
arches to hinder tibem from being dried up. We pafled 
Elday NcRuUa^ v^, ClaviUme^ MHOa^ and by at 
Orhiolaj eleven leagues. 
$^' y>' W^ came to Murcia^ four leagues. Kear Orivda 
(whidi city b an epifoopal kt) we obifen^ many turpen* 
tinc^trees, ibme in flower, and Ibme with ripe benies« 
Near Elia they dig up a fort of SgUmte^ whkh they bam 
and put into wine to clarify it. About a league from 
Orivola bq^ the kingdom of Mwxia : two ka^ies from 
Orlvola we were &in to give money, to avoid fearchin g , 
fdurcia^ which gives denomination to this kingdom is 
a pitiful deflate town. The fifh-market here is (hut up 
in a cage or grate asat Geme^ the people crowding about 
it, and thnifting in their baskets as there, 
Offoh, I. We travelled through a mifendde d^£)Iate country to 
Mula^ (even leagues. 
2. We paded through CaravMcc€j where thqr drive a 

gieat trade of making little croflis of filver, hraus, woodn 
&r. after that pilgrims, travellers, &r. lutve bought them, 
they carry them to the ca(Ue to touch them fay a famous 
cro(s, which according to their &buk>us kgend defoendecl 
miraculoufly from heaven, which forftoth infufes a won-» 
derful virtue into them. We by this nigjbt at an odd 
houfe four leagues of Caravacca^ biving travdied in all 
ten leagues. 
5* We pa(]^ by Ve»ta n§va^ and came to Htufif^ 

eight leagues. At Hurfca we firft iaw a yeUowifli. 
white wine like iack. The kingdom of Gfioiada be- 
gan about four leagues before we came to JAutfia, 
7he town of HMtJia befongB to die duke of Mua» 
4. W^paiTcd by^^^aoa IciW aj finj^dght karo 

Mtrat, and ]^h;fficiogtcal 4t2 

We tnvdU to Gtiadixj sui cpifcopal. b^ and an* 5. 
tknt RonMm ooloay. Upon the gates we took notice of 
tfab inicripcion« Rtapit Cotenia Accitana Gpnel'tinfo 
frmfimeue caft^ frrnia omnium Hifpamcarwn.fidnn Chrlfti 
^ifii^ rtjiSHs id^Sy iwrngeSzafitHus/an^is farcato f^ficiiu 
jnmofabttis 70^ Pmtijkath S. Petri 37^ in^ii Nironii 
tj^ IMs Accis.patrMofia/aftHiffimo D. D. 1.593. 
Hmrati fimtAmci tui Dius. Colonia Aociiaiia« 
We travelled to Granada fix leagues dtftant from Dty 6« 
fti^ where we lodged the night befere* Kbre we law* ■ 
the caftle called La Lhambra^ the feac of the Kings of 
Grenada. Within the wodls of the cafile live abundance 
of people which dboe ootlive in ihe city for debt or othet 
canfes* Theie is a fair pahce begun by Charles V. and 
yet unfiniflied: the oistfideof it is fquare^ but it is round 
within, having two lows of doiAers one above another 
mund about the court. Acyoining^to this is t)ie antient 
palace of the Kings of Granada : within there is all the 
fiy&e kind of ihdrefco work wrought in mortar and ftone 
with gold and paindng*' The doifters are fupported by 
loif flenfler pillars.. In this pahfleisanodagonal cham^ 
ber vaulted at the top, vrith eight doors, one in every fidie* 
If one Hand in one angle and wfail^r to another that 
flands in the angle diametricaUy oppofite, the voice 
ii coaveml as in & whirring place at GioHcefier { bus 
if you ftand in an an^ tfast is not diametrically oppofite 
you hear nothing. The reafi>n <^ the convqring the 
vokc is the vaidt above, and the comers being ftreightened 
infeoa very fharp angleor channd. ' In Granada axe two 
great marlEet-places, one called Plajfa ncva^ the other di 
mUa Ramth. In die great church are two monuments, 
one for Ferdhumd and IJahella^ with this infcriptlon, 
Jtaiometica feQa frtftratvres^ Haire^£a pervieacia^ er* 
tkUhres^ Pemaitius Aragoman i^ Heli/abetha CaftelUt^ 
vir & turor wtanomSf Catbelici appellati marmoreo clan* 
dummr h$etkmub, iThe* other is of PhiUppus I. and 
yaanmaf daughter and heir of Firdinand and Ifabella 
without an infcription. In the rhrer Dar» that runs 
by Qranada diey find gold among the land. In the 
mountains of Si^nra nmnda near Granada are laid to be 
divers Ibrts of minerals^ which are not at all looked aiter« 
Near Motpil at the Cfps 4' Gatto there is a mine of gra^ 


4i4 OBS^RVATibWs ^opeghaphicati 

nates tov«red, with the bz. They are pointed' as 
amethyfts and chryflal, bat the beftcome from Africa^ 
We (xw that day Alonti facro^^ a [dace within half a (eague 
of the town, of great devotion. In Cq/HUj Granada^ 
(sfc. the greater cities have a Ccrregiiore^ and the lefler 
an Akajde^ who adminifter juftice^ and are appointed and 
lent by the Kmg to govern the towns. All over the 
kingdom of Ca/iile they eat fiefli upon SatwdajSy ant 
obferve only Ridajs. 
OaA, 12. We left Granada^ and, paffing by Santa Etda^ travd^ 
led to Lotta^ eight leagues* 

13- At Lotta we were troubled with ibldiefs that came 

from the frontiers of PwtHgal to take up their winter 
Quarters^ There had been of thb party a6oo, but cha 
(ummer at Jkamara they were reduced to 9004 the 1^ 
being (bin, or dead of difeafes. We pafled this day by 
ArMdwa^ Lalameda^ Lanuda^ and lay at Pednra^ ten 

>4- We paired bv OJfuaa^ La PAla^ and lay at ElazaU^ 

ten leagues. This country was the heft we iaw finoe we 
came into Spain^ the bmd bein^ for the moft part WcO 
planted and cultivated. 

K. We pafled by Gandula^ and anived at 5m/, leven 

leases. Betv^een Gandula and Sevii there are abundance 
of olive-^trees. Here we firft iaw the greater fcrt of 
olives, which are ufually eaten in Etfland for a filler, 
called the great Spartifi olive s all that we had feen in 
Italy or in Spain l)efore being of the lefler fort. Here is 
a brave aqueduA of brick, which conveys water from 
CarTtunoi fix leagues diffamt : under the arches theie arc 
StalaeiiUs^ as at the aquedud of Pifa. The galliona 
bring nothing hom6 from the Weft^Iiidiis but plate, the 
merchants (hips are loaden with leather, C$caoy fugar, 
iMtue di Vigowuiy &c. Of the Cocao nut they make Cb§-* 
eolati thus ; firft they toaft the berries to get off the husk| 
then pound the kernek to powder, aiid to every mlia§^ 
i. e. three pound and a half of powder, thty add and 
mingle two pound of fi^r, twelve VanUUfs^ a little Pi- 
mentom or Guiw^ P^PP^ (which is ufed by the Spaniards 
only^ and a little Acctiote to give a oobur } Kit thefe 
two laft may be omitted. They melt the fugar, and 
then mingle all wdl together, and.wodc it up either in 
rolls or loaves. Stvit 

Mt^aiy and Pby/fologicaL 4i)| 

Sml htth of late decayed very much, and doth con- 
tinually decay more and more, the trading being moft 
lemoved to CaUsj the reaibn whereof is becat& they 
pay about twenty feven per ant. for all merchandifes 
at Sivil^ and but four or five fer cefH^ at Cales. The 
chief places to kc (oui in Sewlm i. The great church. 
31. The King's or affiftants palace. 3. The'archbiftop'a 
pabce. 4. T%e fteeole of the great church, like St. Mark\ 
tower at Vmct^ which you afoend almof^ to the top 
without flairs, by gently inclining plains. 5. The 
Frandfcan cmveut. 6. The Lutgha^ where the merchants 
meiet about the afiain of the flote. 7. The eonveni of 
Nfftndamt del pmifk. 8. The bridge of boats over the 
GuaJahutvirj i. ^. the river pafis. The town on the* 
other ude this river is called Triana. 9. The inquifi-* 
tion or caflle of Triana juft over the bridge. 10. An 
M tower, called Tmrn ifm% where St. Perdinand 
that recovered Sivil kept money made of leather, ii. 
The aqucdu£l. ia« The oU pilace and garden of the 
Mem, Near the bridge along the river fide they 
oone every night with their coaches to take the frefcom 
In the great church between two altars are three mcH 
numents for St. Firdlnand the Wife, his wife Beatrice^ 
ani Uis fon A^hdnfut. The fiime epitaph in Hebrew^ 
ArMcky Grukj arid iMtin. 

Hie jacit ilbtfiriffimkf Rex Firnandus CafteUi i^ To- 
kdf Ligienhj GalKcia^ SibilUtj Corditbrn^ Murcia tS J it-' 
bem^ fm ttiam Hifpaniam cmquifivity fideBJfimuSy vera- 
afimusj conftantiffimusy juftjffimuiy /hrenuiffimusy divotiffi- 
mmsy libiraliffimusy pstUntiJpmtSy fiiffimusy humilRmusy in 
tUmre btfervith Dei effkac^hmis ; qui ccntrivit H exter^ 
mmttwt penitus bofiiumfmrum preterviam ; ftti fubSmavit 
& txakiemt emnes armas fuasy qui civkatem Hijpalem qua 
capmt efi & metrepoUs totius Hifpanla de manibus eriprnt- 
pagamrumy & adtui reftituit ChriJHam\ ubifihens na^^' 
tura debitum ad Ikmkatm tranfinigravit ultima die Maiiy • 
4h«9 ab incamatimi Dmini 1 252. 



kt^ OBStkvATiifVi tv^jig^hicati 



I la the ikme church is Fcmandu$ Cobmibut^ChriJfifbgj^ 
I Cobun6us'9 ibn.boricd, with this qpibiiih« 

A quijaci d nattbq nk^ni/eo figmr Dm liemaMj»C^ 
im. el qml.^^^J /^^, ^^ h ^^ j facgfiia m mu-*^ 
9fuat^ 4i (^ f'^^PV^ J^ ^ juf^tmr p pirftimr mtflacmdad 
H^ Ifsii^cs di tqd4U ks.JcUncms fm.hi Ju tiajfobatif 
y en ridwrhs i inftroi fitr^s figun f^M M fm pmalodv^ 
Fallefciofn ifta ,qvidad « I2itt Julk X532» Jn. dt fm 
gdad SQ^atK IQ mtfis fsT iJ^Ses. .Fm. iifm dtl vaionfi 
tg mmarabUi Sigmr Dm ChryhfhM C&lm* fthukm 
jidmir^itfe* fid 4^Mo las Jndids y tmnm momby jsv. «/• 
da di los CatUbco^ Rjp Dm Femmdo / Dctma J^ 
b/Ua di §j^ofqr;mim9ri0^ a mtu. dt Otkhn tfy wiU fw* 
trocenUi y n^^MMtS^ f tb$ 0nmt^ jr parA M fmrio^ ds 
Paks a dffcubrirkfi tm tftn Ceur^^glas y naoenm pttftmap 

a ires di J^g/U.k*i,^^ iunUs ^ybdU^a C^HUcmlt 

vitlpria -i fyat$ro di Mar%i^ dd aima Jlgtutde^ y. i&rm 

diAu^s ^rvs- j^f vezes .« p$bkr Ufuak /cmh^ y eljb 

fglkfcw a Valla4(did i vmU M$ Mmde miU y 

y.ftys amw, Regad. 4/ Smmr fm iBmh 

CfaDcola;b9 19 V^ at Sml (at foniethine mocc Aaa n 
piece of eight the pound. F^mlks^ whiai thejr vaio^ 
with Cocao to make Chocolate^ for a RmldipldU. Ac^ 
cbbfte^ wbi<;b ^y A^ingie with the Other ingrcrfirnts^ to 
give & colovur, is . qaade of » Utid ef red orth hnwg^ 
bom New Spain^ wyougbt up ioto cakes, k is ibid far at 
£ial di plaio the ounce. AU the oil and wine thgr have 
in the Wejl-Indi^ gpes from SpM^ .they not beiiig per* 
mitted to plant vines or oUvfr-trees^ ttat thqr may al* 
way^ have a depeadance u^mmi Spaitu Atwoi near Samt 
we paid two Reals de quarto a bed ; breads wtne^ fldh^ 
and all other conunodities exoe£vt d«r, excepting only 
olives and pomegranates, which were better here tfaia ixt 
any other part of Spain. There had latdy been a gaett 
plague in Sev'dj which had very much depopdatsd and 
mipoverifh'd, indeed almoft ruin'd the cityi 

I fet out from Sevil towards Madrid : the firft dtf 
^ travelled to Carmenaj where die aquediift femnen-^ 


Morale and Phjifiological. 417 

tbn'd begins, fix leagues ; in all which way we law no 
houfes, but a great many aloe-trees. 

We paiTed Lis forties^ and lay at Euiaf a great town 
of above 20,000 inhabitants. Between Carmona and 
Euia is a very good country, with abundance of corn and 
olive-trees. OjJuna\s within four leagues of fr^/W, where 
the Duke of OJfuna hath a palace. We travelled this 
day nine leagues. 

We pafled over the river Xenil that runs into Guadal- 
quivir^ baited at Arrafiihy and lodg'd at Cordova^ eight 
leagues. About a league from Cordova we paiTed ano* 
ther little river that runs into Guadalquivir, fiefore we 
enter'd Cordova we rode over a great ftone bridge that 
here crofles the Guadalquivir. In the middle of the 
bridge (lands a flatue erected to the ang^ Raphael with 
this inicription. 

Beatiffimo RaphaeU Angelorum proceriy cuftodi fia vi* 
gilanti/JSmOi qui ante annos 300 fub Pafchale an^ 
tifiite^ p&pulum pe/le depopulante Je medicum tanta 
eladis futurum praMxity qui fulinde Anno 1578, 
vemrabili Preskytero Andrea de las Roelas S. S. M. Af. 
ixuvias evulgawtj tst tandem patefecit Corduhenfium 
tutilam fihi u Deo demum datam. ^are ut jufta 
gratitudo diu ftaret S. P. ^ Corduhenfn banc la-- 
pideam Jiatuam cautus &r pius erexity multa procu" 
curatione Domini Jojephi de VaUeanas (sT Herera ^ 
Domini Gundejahi do Cea (2f Rios Senatorum^ 
Pontifice Innocente X^ KJpan, rege Philippo IVy £- 
fifapo Domino Fratre Petro de Tapia^ PrectoreDo^ 
mim Alpbonfo de /lores 1st monte negro: Jbmo 165 1. 

The moft conftderable places in Cordova are i. The 
biflftop's palace. 2. The CmalUnfca^ where the King 
keqis a great many horfes. 3. The ruins of Almanfir^s 
pabce, the laft King of the Moors, 4. Plajfa di Cor-^ 
ridira. 5. The church of the Augju/iim friats. 6. The 
great church, which was anciently a molque. It is large 
but very low, fupported by a great many rows of pillars. 
in a quadrate order, fixteen rows one way and thirty an- 
other. Upon njaoy of the pillars are Moors heads carved 
Ja f^ ftoQCj stod pae or two with turlxuits on. In the 

£ oiiddl» 

4l8 Observations Topographical 

middle of this church is the great chapel, where are 
fcveral biftiops interred. In one of the chapels that is 
now dedicated to St. Petn'^ in the Mwrs time was kept 
a thigh of Mahomet : round about the cornifh of this 
chapel, and that part of the church next it, is an Arabic 
infcription. The people complain grievoufly that Car^ 
dffva is quite ruined and undone by, gabels and taxes. 

^7. We left Coraovay and after a league or two riding 

enter'd the Sierra Morena^ a miferable defolate monu- 
tainous county, and lodged at a little village called Ada-- 
tims ; fix leagues. 

j8. We travelled all day through the Sierra Aforena^ and 

lay at a village called La eonqwjla \ nine Icaguts. 

^9. In this day*s journey we faw abundance of galls upon 

the nicely which were of like bigneis, figure, colour, con- 
Cftency, and other accidents with thofe that grow upon 
oaks. This day we firft met with red wine again, which 
they call Vtno iinto. We got 6fe out of Sierra Mprenay 
and came to Almedovar del campOy a great lougar, nine 
leagues. About the middle or Sierra Merena are the 
bounds of Cajiilia nvua and Andaluzua. 
C^oh. 30. We pafTed by Caraqml^ Cividad real, and lay at 
Malagon, ten leagues. Between Malagon and Cividad 
real we palled over the river Anas, now called Gua* 
diana, which was there but a little brook. In this day's 
journey we met with a great many great flocks of 
fhecp and goats, going towards the Sierra Msrena out 
of Cajlile : it being thecuftom all fummer to feed their 
{hecp upon ihe mountains of Cajiile^ and in winter in the 
Sierra Morcna^ 

51. We pafled by the ruins of an aqusedud, about four 

leagues from Malagon, then Tvenas a good big lougar, 
and lay at Orgas ; ten leagues. 
Krv. I. We paHed through Toledo, and lay at E/quinas,€\evea 
leagues. As foon as ever we pafled the Sierra Morena^ 
wc felt a great change of weather, the warm air that 
comes from Afric and the Mediterranean fca beii^ 
flopped by the interpofition of the mountains. This 
day there was here a hard froft and pretty thick ice. 
The mpft confiderable things in Toledo are, i. The hridgie 
over Tagusy confifting of but two arches, one great one 
and one little one. 2. The fliambles, where^ notwttb- 


Morale and Pbyjiohgtcal. 419 

fbnding the coMtiefi of the day, I law abundance of 
fliesy which confutes the ftory that there is but one great 
fly there all the year. 3. The great church, where 
there are many monuments of biihops, but without in« 
fcriptions ; in the CapiUa maggior lie interred two.Kings» 
and in the Capella debs Res four Kii^. 4. The King's 
palace. 5. The ruins of a famous engine to raife up 
water to the King's palace. There b fo little of it re- 
maining, that it is impoffible thence to find out all 
the contrivance and intrigue of it. 

Between Toledo and Madrid^ the country is very po* j 
pulous, and the foil very good. All along the road J 
from SevilU to Atadrid^ the common fare is rabbets^ I 
led-legg'd partridges, and eggs ; which are fufficientlyj 
dear. * , 

We arrived at Madrid \ (ix lei^es near the town i 
W€ paflcd over the river Xarante. Madrid is very po* | 
pukMjs, well built with good brick houfes, many having \ 
glafi windows ; which is worth the noting, be^fe you 
fliall fcarce fee any in all Spain befides. The ftreets 
are very foul aiid nafty. There is one very fair piazza \ 
or market-place, encompaiTed round with tall and uni- / 
form houies, having five rows of balconies one above { 
another, and underneath porticoes or cloifters quite rdund. 
The chief things to be feen in Madrid are, i. The 
prifon. 2. The piazza jufl now mentioned. 3. The 
King's chapel. 4. The palaces of feveral noblemen, a» 
that of the Duke of jiha^ that of the Duke of Medina 
de Us Torresy Sec. 5. The King's palace, where there 
is the King's Cavallerifca and the Queen's Cavallerifca. 
6. A great piazza before the palace, where are abun-. 
dance of coaches always attending, 7. The EfigH^ 
college of Theatines. 8. // retiro. Out of the town the 
Efcterial and El Par do. 

I fet out from Madrid for port St. Sebajiian, We paf- 5* 
fed within fight of the Efcurial and El Pardo^ and lay that 
night at St. Augiiftin ; fix leagues. 

We pafied Bmrago and lay at Samrfetra^ all the way a 61 
barren, miferable, niountainous country \ eleven leagues^ 

We pafied FrecediBe and lay at Jranda having crofied ?• 
the liver Durius or Dmro ; eleven leagiies. 

4^9. OBSEKVATiaNi9 fTqpogrdpbicaly 

S« We pafled Bahalm* apd Lerma^ > vrfxfb is a convent of 

Dominicat^ friars and a. palace^of iths-Duke of Lirma^s^ and 
came that night to Burgos ; twelve leagues. Tiie noir 
confiderable things ia &trg05zxt^ i. The bddgjs ovcrtbe 
river Rikrzon. %, The gate at the end oC the brk^ 
where are the BoitaescS Charhs V ; o£ ^^jua Calvut ; of 
Dv^l'^ Porcellero : of Rmandex GcnfaUt : of JViar/9 A^ 
rfij oi Don Carlotte^ att famous men of Burgos. 3, The- 
niatket*place. 4. The great chqrchin which area great 
many monuments of bilhops and canons^ two great mo- 
numentS) c£^F€dro Femnndo diVtlafcoj awAatiic of Caf- 
tiU^ and his wife Moncia di A&tuhza countefi of iiAw^ 
This night we lodged at ^hstora^vUUo ; £ve Jeagucst. 

so. We pafled by- Pancorva^ a place very famous for good 

water, Miranda a great town, where there is a good- 
bricks over the river Iborus^ and after that we pafied over 
two other riven Baias and Sadurra^ and lay dt-Ermi^ 
man ; eleven leagues* At Aftranda thexe is a great mar* 
Icet for wheat, 

1 1, We travelled to Vittoria. Over one of the gatei is Ae 

ftatue of King Bamba^ and inferibed in gold letten^ H^c 
ift viSioria qua vincit; four leagues, Vktma h the 
chief city of a little country called Mih^, We paAed 
this day by Salines the firft town of Guipufcoa and lay at 
Mfcurias \ nine leagues* In Guipufcoa they pay no taxes 
or other duties to the King, without the confent of the 
country. The whole province is more commonly called 
Provincia than Guipufcoa ; it is cantoned out into a great 
many corporations and villages, every one of which iond 
one, two, or three repreientatives to the general raeecfng 
when there is any public builnefs. All offices are annual^ 
and chofen diverfly, according to the difiering cuAoms 
of the towns. The chief officer in each town to determine 
all civil and criminal caufes is the Akalda \ but from 
him they may appeal to the governor of die province, ient 
by the King every third year ; and from the governor 
to the King^s council at Valhdolid. Next to the Al- 
calda are two Regidores to look after the prices of all com- 
modities ; a Boljir for the treafury ; a Medim for the 
priibn, Argozils or ferjeants, ^c. They boaA that they 
^re the walls of Spain^ and therefore have many privi* 
k^. Gwpujcoa is under the biibop of Pampdtna. In 
f Gmpuf* 

M^ral^ and Pbyjiologtcal. 42 1 . 

Cmptijiia and' Bijiay they have a peculiar language of 
their owo» and therefore fend their children to fchool to 
learn Spauifi^ f which they call Romance) as we do purs / 
to learn Latim, The fearcliers having hinder'd us, we 
were forced to tnurel a great way in the night. Wq 
were lighted by Tias or Teas^ which burnt as well, and 
gave as good a light as torches. When they went out 
tliey toftd them up and down in their hands, which 
Idndkd them again* Theie l^eas (ib called, doubtle(s 
ftona the Latin word tada) are very commonly uicd in 
this country, and are notlung elfe but baftons of wood 
hacked and cleft (hot (b as the pieces hang together) 
and afterwards foundly dried in an oven or chimney. 
Along the jniddle they ufe to cleave them almoft quite 
afiinder. They are made t>f ieveral ibrts of wood, of 
RfiUaf i. e. oak, jUga^ i. e. hut the 

heft of AveUana^ i. e. hazel. / wonder much at this^ 
weUJi th^ benefami way of preparing the wood^ hJ^^^^V 
it in nlj or other inflammable matter. The txdae of the 
ancients were made only rf the trtmh rf old and fappy 

We pafled by Mondragone^ where there is ^fahrica of I2« 
arms for the King, Ornate^ ^^^fpoj Villa realy and lay 
^ Villa franca^ feven leagues. We left St. jfdrian^ which 
is the ordinary road, a little on our left hand. Thb 
country is very populous and well wooded, all the 
hills being covered with oaks. They ufe no ploughs, 
but tium over the ground with tridents of iron ; four 
or five of them working together, and thrufting in 
their tridents all together, turn up a yard or two of 
earth at a time, which they afterwards dreis and level 
like beds in a garden. The people are ibmcthing bet- 
ter oonditbn'd than the Spaniards^ richer, and far more 
populous. I. Becaufe there is a better government 
aod greater liberty. 2. There is abundance of wood 
and iron. 3. More rain than in the other parts of 

We pafled Tolofa^ and arrived , this night at St, &* 1 3, 
baftian^ having travelled eight leagues. The moft ob- 
fervabk things in St. Sebajlian are, i. The walls and 
guns, 2. A great convent of Dominican friars, in which 
there is a famous pair of ftone ftairs, each fiep being 


422 Observations Topographicalj 

of one intire ftone; and (i2]>porteil only on one fide. 

3. The haven. The government of St. Stbafiian oon- 

Afts . of a great^ council of all that have one or more 

houfes and are married, but none can bear office unlefc he 

have two houfes ; of thefe there are not above 150 or 

20O) though the town be very populous, containing about 

24/)00 fouls. Once in a year all the names of diis 

150, or 200, are put into an urn, and a child takes 

out eight to be eledors. Every one of thefe eight 

chufes his man. The old magiftrates, that are juft t&n 

going our, divide thefe eight that the eledon liave 

chofen into four pairs, fitting them as well as th^ 

cai^ V. g. an old nun and a young together, istc. 

Thefe four pairs are put into an urn. The firft pair 

that are drawn out are the two Jkeldas for that 

year ; the fecond pair the two deputy Akaldas ; the 

third pair the two Regidores ; the fourth pair, the 

two deputy Regtdores. In much the fimie manner they 

chufe two j'lrats, one fyndick or attomey^neral, one 

treafurer, ^c, all thefe officers make a lefler fenate, 

but in bufinefTes of importance the whole number 

meets. There is no diftmdion of Nehiles and PleMiy 

but all that are defeended from GuipM/coanty that are 

married and have one houfe, are in a capacity to be 

eleflors; all that have two houfes, to be magiftzatcs. 

The jurats places are moft defired, there being a 

great mapy ecclefiaftical preferments bdonging to the 

town, the difpofition whereof, when they come to be 

vacant, is in them, who ufualiy beftow them upon 

their relations and friends. 

I Every winter there are feveral whales caught upon 

1 this coaft, they coming hither in winter and frequent- 

j ing here, as they do upon the coaft of Greenland in 

I fummer. I'hey catch them by ftriking them with 

\ a harping iron,' after the fame manner as they do 

. fword-fifh upon the coaft of Calabria and Sicily. A- 

bundancc of cyder made about St. Sebajiian aiKl Bap' 


H- From St. Sebajiian I travelled through Orogna^ Inm^ on 

the left hand of which is Foniarabiay a ftrong fort /uft 

on the frontiers of Spain. About half a league from irim 

k the river that parts France and Spain. In the middle 


Moralj and PbyJiologicaL 423 

of this river is an ifland, where the kings of France and 
Spam met, when Lewis XIV. the prcfent King mar- 
ried Philip IVth*s daughter. The ifland was divided 
juft in tlie middle, and a houie built, fo that, at the 
table where they fit to cat, the King of France fit 
in France^ and the King of Spain in Spain. 

Spain is in many places, not to fiy moft, very thin 
of people, and almoft defolate. The caufes are. i. A 
bad religion. 2. The tyrannical inquifltion, 3. The 
multitude of whores. 4. The barrennefi of the foil. > 
5. The wretched lazinefi of the people, very like the { 
Wel/h and Irijhy walking flowlv, and always cumber'd ] 
with a great cloak and long (word, 6. The expulfion |. 
of the Jews and Mwrsy the firft of which v^rc planted j 
there by the Emperor Adrian^ and the latter by the \ 
Caliphs after the conqueft of Spain. 7. Wars and ) 
plantations. In all the towns, efpecially in the ibuth 
and weft parts of Spain^ a great many ruins of houfes i 
to be ieen. Within a quarter of a league of a 1 
town you begin to fee ground ploughed, elfe all a wild ] 
country, and nothing but roiemary, ciftus, juniper, I 
lavender, broom, lentifcus, CsTr. growing in the fields f 
, 'and on the hills. Little or no hay any where in Spain^ 
thev feeding their mules and horfb with ftraw. At 
leaft one half of Spain is mountainous. 

The Spaniards are not (b abftinent as moft people 
take them to be, eating the beft they can get, and freely ^ 
enough if it be at another man's coft : and in inns never 
refuting partridges, quails, &r. for the dearnefs if they 
have but money. Lazineis and floth makes them poor, 
and poverty makes them pinch their bellies and fire 
hardly. They fddom mingle water with their wine, it 
being a conmion fiying among them Vino p^co & puro^ 
though aU over Spain the wine is very hot and ftrong. 
They delight much in Pimentom^ i. e. Gmny pepper and 
mingle it with all their fiuces. In roafting of meat they 
never ufe dripping pans but draw the coals juft under the 
meat, which though it be not ib cleanly yet is the quicker 
and more thrifty way for fiving of fewel. They tear 
rabbets in funder with their hands when they are almoft 
lOfi^fted, and ftcw them in a pot with water ^nd Pimentcke, 
To io^ bread they throw it upon the coals. They' 


4?4 Observations Topographical^ 

long and ask for every thing they iee, to avoid which 
a merchant that travelled with mc was wont to put in 
foniething into his viduals which they did not love. 
They take tobacco much in fnuiF, and if one take out 
a box of fnufF he muft give fome to all the oompany. 
The bed peribn in the company at tjible cuts and tears 
the meat in pieces, and gives to every one hb (hare* 

They are mod impertinently inouiiitive, whence you 
come ? whither you go ? what buuneis you have,^ CsTr. 
moft horribly rude, infoient, and imperious; uncivil to 
Grangers, asking them, what do you come into our 
country for ? we do not go into yours. [This is to be uti- 
derftood of the middle and inferior fort of people, many 
of the gentry being very civil and wcU-bicd.] XJieir 
I children are tlie moft immannerly and ill-bred oi any in 
^ world. The fons of French fathers and Spanijh women 
* when they are grown up often turn their Others out of 
doors, having many privileges above tliem for being 
born in Spain. They are extremely given to lying. 
AbmxzAS and fuch kind of fellows xiot to be believed or 
trufted in any thing they promife. 

They ride altogether upon mules, and carry their port- 
manteau's before them, for fear they (hould be loft or 
ftolen from behind them; they lie between a high pum- 
mel of the faddle and an iron hopk. Inftead of fiirropi 
perfons cf quality ufe great dogs of wood of the fhape of 
fhoes without heels. They cut away the mules hair 
clofe to the skin under the iaddles and portmanteau's, to 
avoid galling. Of this baftard breed of animals the males 
are ufually bigger than the females. ^ Whether the 
reafon be that they are always bred of a mare and an 
he a(s ? 2. They pifi very often; ^. Whether the reafon 
\ be the fharpnefs of their urine or the fii|allne(s of their 
/ bladder? 3. They pifs alpioft always when they go 
{ through water. 4. They Ihoetlicm with (hoes a great deal 
\ bro?uler than their feet, to prevent I fuppofe the break- 
ing of their hoofs, tinder the naouths of their mules 
; of burthen they ufually hang a net with provender in it. 
Tlicfe beafts are better at climbing of mountains than 
horfes, have a greater courage to endure long and hard 
travel, and hMs:^ are maintained with leis charge. 


Mora! J and Pbyjiologtcal 41^ 

The Spaniards feldom ride ^lone, but ftay for a troppas 
as they do for a caravan in Arabia. The common 
phraTes or forms of ialutation^ when they meet or pals by 
one another, are Garda Dios vo/!eSj i. e. vous autrts 
J God defend you ] A Dlos'l adieu ] Faga C9n Dios [ God 
go alohg with you. ] When they are angry Comtih, i. e. | 
cuckold, is the firft word, and fomefirties Corftutijfitrco. \ 
"When they fpeak to their mules or boys they fend oF \ 
err^ds, they fay, Anda CcrnutOy [ go cuckold. ] When 
they, refufe a courtefy, or coiiipliment to drink firft, go 
firft or the like, they fay, Non per vita mea^ [no by my 
Jife. ] At any thing ftrange or ridiculous they cry out, 
Cturpo di Dies or di Crijio [b^dy of God or body of 
Chrift. ] When they call to one to make him hear, In* 
ftcad pf Efcouies in French^ ^r ^enti in Italiafi^ they cr^ 
O-yei juft as our criers do in England, When they pii 
off a beggar not giving him in alms, they {ay,^ Vojfes per- 
dsfmi, [ Good friend, pardon or exctife me.J 

As for their religion the Spaniards ^rc the hioft orlho- j 
dox and rigid Romanijfs in the World, it being a fiiyiti^ | 
among theni FaUando in unopunio a Dios, T If yda Ifeavc * 
the church. ih one pundllio, God be with you, you* 
ihuft needs be damned. ] All over Spain there are abun-\ 
dance of pitiful wooden croflcs fet up in the middle of 
heaps of ftone. tinder all the piftures of the Virgin Mary '' 
is written * Cortcebidajinpeccado originak. At the Ave- \ 
JUdry b^ll they atl fall down upon tlieir kilees j whereajs \ 
ih bthec courit fies they are contfented only t6 pluck off I 
thcii; hats. Wjkn thev have done thfeir devotions, as : 
alfo aftcir their meals when they take awiy, and wheti 
they go to bed, they fiy Sia lodato ilfantijftmo ^acramentoy 
[pralfcd be the moft holy ifacrament.J 

For fornicatipn and impurity they arc the iXrorft of 
all nations, at tea{^ in Europe ; almoft all the inns in j 
Andaiuziaj Cajiile^ Gran&da^ Murcia^ &'c. havin| iVhories ^ 
whodreis the meat, and do all the bufmefs. They are 
to be hir'd at a very cheap rate. It were a fliame to 
mention their impudence, lewdnefs, and immodeft beha- 
viours ^d practices. In Catalonia^ Guipujlsa and fome 
Other places tliey are- not fo bad. 

* Conceived withoot original fin. 


4^6^ Observations Topograpbicaf^ 

They are fo lazy that in their (bops they will (ay they 
: have not a commodity rather than take pains to look 
I for it : not to be hir'd to carry a portmanteau, go of an 
/ errand, ^c, but at an exceffive rate. Mercers never tie 
/ up any thing they fell, and. If they allow paper^ they 
only rudely mumble up the commodities in it. Of 
their fantaftical and ridiculous pride, and that too in the 
extremeft poverty, all the world rings. If there be any 
Imployment that you would fet them about which they 
think themfelves too good for, they prefently lay. Send 
for a Prenchman, Indeed the French do almoft all the 
work In Spain. All the beft (hops are kept by French^ 
nten^ the beft workmen in evenr kind are French^ and 
I believe near one fourth or one fifth part of the people in 
Spain are of that nation, t have heard (bme travellers 
fay, that, fhouM the King of France recall all his fub- 
jecb out of Spainy the Spaniards would hazard to be 
all ftarved to death.' 
' Bread is very fcarce and very dear in many places 
of Spain^ becaufe of the barrennefs of the foil and want 
/ of rain, but chiefly becaufe of the floth of the people in 
; letting a groat deal of ground lie untitled, and in not 
taking the pains to fetch corn and bread from thole pla-^ 
\. ces where there is plentv. So that In a day's journey 
the price of bread will be trebled, and in another day's 
journey fall as much again. This fuminer there was 
a tumult at Madrid : the poor people gathering about the 
King's palacexried out. Let the King live, but let the ill 
government die ; let exa£h)rs die, (fc. jufl as they did 
at Naples in die rebellion under Mafamello, Upon 
which the King ient to all the towns about tet bread* 
corn, and in two or three days bread Was ytsy plenti- 
ful and cheap. All over Catalonia bread was very cheap. 
The Spanijb bread is commended for the beft of the 
world, and well it may be, if, as we have heard, they 
pick their wheat grain by grain. 

At my b^ing at Madrid there waS an engineer there 
fent by the emperor, that had invented a plow, called 
by the Spaniards^ a Sembradory to fbw corn at equal dif- 
tances, and one grain in a hole ; the defcription whereof 
hath been fuicc publUbed in the Philofiphical Tran/aifim, 


Morale and PhyfioIogicaL 427 

In all kind of good learning the Spaniards are behind 
Jie reft of Eurtpey underflanding nothing at all but a 
little of the old wrangling philofophy and fchool -divinity. 
The people are much difcontented all over Spairij com- 
plaining of taxes, evil counfelkrs, btc, but they have a 
good opinion of, and are generaOy well^iiieded to their 
Kang, ivhofe intentions they fay are very good. - 

As for their htbit and dreis in that they are td be com-^ 
mended that they are.conftantlo the- fiune&fliions, tho* 
they be not the moft convenient that might be devifed. 
To change for the better I think it rather commend- 
able than blame* worthy.; but to change .out of meer 
levity or an apifh imitation of others is fooliih and un* 
reaibnable. They wear great hats with broad crowns, 
and the top broaaer than the bottom. Their hair moft 
commonly, but efpecially when they travel, they tie up 
in a knot behind, and Ibmetimes braid like wo- 
jnens. Their bands lie upon black collars juft of the 
lame bignefs or a little bigger. They are joined to 
the colhur and they put on collar and band together. 
They wear very mucli cambrick half-(hirts, and have 
their fleeves open before and behind both winter and 
fummer ; they have great skirts upon their doublets. 
Their breeches are very ftrait and clofe to their thighs^ 
and button'd down on each fide, and reach a little lower 
than the knee. They wear very flight-wrought black 
fdk flockings, that the white linnen ftockings which they 
wear underneath may be feen through them. Their 
Ihoes juft fit fer their feet, very light and thin, with low 
heels. Over their doublets they wear a clofe coat, or 
jerkin with open fleeves like the doublet, and, for the 
moft part, with hanging fleeves like childrens, yet never 
reaching lower than their skirts: a very long fword, 
and a fliort dagger hanging juft behind them ; and at 
hft, over aU, a cloak with a great cape. 

The women wear great vardingales, flanding fo fiir 
out on each fide, that to enter in at an ordinary door 
they are fain to go fide-ways : when they go abroad are 
cover'd with a vail of black, having only a hole left for 
one eye. The poor people wear fhoes made of pack- 


4^8 Ob5eiIvati6»8 7opograpbicaiy 

The ntod noble fport in Spabt a \\)aJtudeTmirtau, 
or bull-fighting, [>ni^led at Valentin^ Madrid^ &c. At 
Mo^rid tlu«e awacs in the year, where in the ourfcct- 
place a brave don on hoHeback, uid a gnat many pa- 
ges on bM fight with a wild buU : w^beo one bull k 
iiiU'd or miich v'ounded they turn in another. ScMom 
but fbme of the pages arc Ititl'd. And with thefe and 
and bloody .fpeSadei ^ people are much deKgfated, ai 
were the. JSwmtof cdd in the time of hcatbenifin. 

Hty that J^es te htm mart if tht gtcd ^Uiia tf 
At Spaniard^ may r$id Mr, UaUitid'f chari&a' tf 

f 1 N IS. 



I N 

Exteris Hegionibm 

A nobis Obferratarum, 

Qux vel non oronino vel parce admoducn 

I N 

A N G L I A 

Sponte proveniunt. 

LO N D I NI ! 
Anno Domini Moccxxxriii. 



plus minus ahbinc annis plan- 
um indaganddrum fiuiio in tranf- 
rinas regimes profeSus Germania: 
iufque^ Italix, GalliEe bonam farlem 
peragravi. Cuius itineris quis fruc- 
tus fuerit, quern nunc exbiheo Stirpium exoticarum 
Catalt^us, Amice Leftor, te cerlierem faciet. 
jin tibi titulos 6? nomina Ttuda perlegere jucundum 
futurum Jit nefcig ; mibi certe Plantas ipfas libe- 
ras fc? fpentis fua quales eas alma tellus i he^ ' 
nigno fm Jinu effundit, centemphnti incredihilis 
qu^edam vot&pas ehorta eft : nee minus gaudebam 
(k/ cum CluHo lequar) nova aliqua ftirpe pri~ 
miim invenla quam fi ampliffimum ihefaurum of- 
fendiffm : Cumq\ plurimas qitotidie vel mibi antea 
inct^laSj vel Britannije »^r^ bofpites obvias ba~ 
berem, magnum me opera pretium perigrinanda 
fecijfe ratuSt in Hifpaniam quoque profeSlionem 
meditabar : verum pratextu belli, Anglis omnibus 
publico prcgrammate Regis Gallix e finibus fills' 
excedere jujjis, Hifpanicum iter minus tutum fore 
ratuSf in patriam reverfits fum. Liceat jam mibi 
pSMca qu^dam de Plantis in genere a me obfer- 
zatu Pr<efatifmis bco Catalogo pr^mittere. 

I. ^0 ad meridiem y Soils curfum propius ac- 
cedes td plures plantarum /pedes fponte oriri anU 
a 2 madvertes. 


mad^ertes. ^uamvis enim Regimes frigid^ (3 
Septentrionales fuas quoqyftirpes peculiares obtin^nt^ 
pauctffima tamen ea funt Ji cum earum muuiiu- 
dine confer antur qua in temper atis 6f calidieribus 
tantum proveniunt. Cut accedit quid juga^ ver^ 
tices aut eiiam latera mmtium in Regitmihus cali^ 
disy cum frigidiorum depr^Sj planis fe? fyhqfis 
aeris temperamento quodammodo canvenianiy quo jit 
ut eafdem fere ftirpes producant^ adcoq\ ni plant ^e 
quidem Septentrionales Meridionalibus defint. 

IL Hue etiamfacit quod fecundo in loco a no- 
bis obfervatum fuit : Montes fcilicet excelfos quo- 
tum vertices maximam anni partem nivibus ope- 
riuntur varietate fpecierum pracipui ahundare. 
Alpes certi qua Italiam a Gallia & Germania 
dividunt inexbaufto plantarum penu Botanicorum 
firutiniis in bunc ufq\ diem fufficiunt^ magna ad^ 
hue nondum proditarum rejidua multitudine. ^ubd 
tanta foli fertilitas dicam an luxuria nivibus de- 
beatur extra controverjiam efi^ feu quia vebtt vejie 
impqfita radices foveat fcf ab injuriis ceeli 13 
frigoris vebementid defendat^ Jive quod fale ni- 
trofoj quo abt(ndare creditur^ terram Utificet & 

III. Arbores nonnulU in aliis regionibus bumiles 
perpetuh & puJilU fruticum menfuram non exce^ 
dunt ; in aliis eximiam magnitudinem & ftaturam 
ajfequuntury cum utrobiq\ fpontis fua Jini. HujuJ- 
modi funt Lentifcus, Arbutus, Juaiperus, Buxus, 
(3c. Praterea funt qua apud nos fata & in 
bortis culta tenera & molles perpetub manentj 
adeb ut ad berbarum genus pertinere videantur \ 
qua tamen ubi fponte exeunt in frutices fatis craf 
Jos 13 lignofos adolefcunt^ quod in Ridno (3 Tra* 
^ip obfervavimus^ 

PR-ffiFATIO. 5 

IV. Ejufdem generis arbores aut etiam herhte in 
eUiis Regionibus vel fuccos fundunty vel fruSlus 
fpurios edunt^ in aliis minimi. Sic Fraxinus v. g. 
in Calabria Manna exudate cUm alibi ne in Italia 
quidem id faciat. Lentifcus in fola infula Chio 
Mafiicben fundit^ ut Bcllonius ^ Hermolaus af^ 
firmant : certc in Italia &f Gallia Narbonenfi, ubi 
iamen copiofijfima efij vel nullam vel pauciffimam 
pr^bet. Idem obfervatur in Ferula, Panace Hc^ 
lacleo. Aloe aliifque. ^od ad fruEtus ffurioi 
sttinet^ Quercus in Italia, lUyrico, Hifpania ali^ 
ifp temperatioribus GaUas editj dm in Britannia 
6r frigidioribus nullus unquam auditus Jit Galla* 
rum frtyoentus^ 

Difficilis quaftio eftj an Plants qu^iam nulla 
fenUne pravio fftmte c terra criantur : (i.) ^od 
ad imperfeBas vulgb diSas^ Fungos, Tubera &f 
id genus attinety manifeftum eft eas exfemine non 
nafci cum nullum gignant. (2.) Ob eandem ra^ 
tianem fubmarina omnes Algae, Fuci, G>ralia, Al- 
cyonia, Csfr. Jptmte oriri cenfenda funtj cum nuU 
lum in iis femen ha£lenus animadverjum fuerit % 
quod tamen imprimis mirum videtur^ ckm earum 
imtumera fere fpecies & ingens ubique prcventus 
fit. (%.) PerfeSiores quoque quamvis plerunq*^ 
Semini ortum debeanty nonnunquam tamen fpontis 
fua ejfe magnum nobis argumentum fuppeditat vif- 
cus arborthis innatusy etiam in prana feu averfa 
ramorum parte. Unde omnino fabulofum eJfe 
imftat quod de ejus ertu Veteres prodiderunt^ 
quadqi Proverbio illiy Turdus malum ipfe fiU 
cacat, originem dediffe perbibetun 

Ntc minus anceps & difficilis quaftio ^, An 
Plants aliqu^ degenerent Q fpeciem mutent f Cui 

a 3 «^* 


^t aliqua in parte fatisfaciam^ dko primb^ pro 
4 'verfis fpeciebus minime habendas ejfe qu^cunque ex 
ejufdem planta femine vulgb ariuntuTj qu^equefpe- 
(iem fuam iterum non propagant^ quantumvis ac- 
cidentibus nonnulUs^ v. g, ficris colore^ petalorum 
gemina aut multiplici ferie^ aliifve accidentibus i 
nobis in Pruefatione Catalog! Plantarum Anglis 
recenfitis differant. Cum enim numerus fpecierum 
in natura certus Jit fc? determinatus^ fioris autem 
colore^ multiplicitatej &r. variantium multi/ud^ 
novis quotannis exorientibus infinita^ merito eas a 
fpecierum gradu fcf dignitate removemus. Namji fufficerent ad fpec^cam dijUnSionem inducen- 
damj certi ^thiops quoq^ ab Europaeo, JuvencuM 
niger ab albo^ rubro variove fpecie differret ^ 
quod nemoj ut opinor^ fan^e mentis un^am con- 
cejferit. Hinc Tuliparum, Anemonarum, Caryo- 
phyllomm, Auricularum, 6fr. inexplicabilis vari-^ 
etas ad tres ' quatudrve fpecies facile reducitur^ cim 
reliqua diverjitas qu^e irifloris colore^ plenitudine^ 
^eminatione^ &c. confiftitj mere accidentalisms mi- 
nimeque fpecifica^ cceli aut foli^ alimentive diffe- 
rentiis imputanda. ^lid quod Plant ^e bx in eodem 
toco (ut alibi monuimus) diutius reliSla &f neg^ 
leEla paulatim degenerenty florum gratia^ feu qua 
in colorum pulcbritudinCy feu qua in petalorum 
numero fpe£fatury pereunte^ 6? ad fylveflrium tan^ 
dem for mam &? ingenium redeant, 

Ob eafdem rationes nee figura^ color faporve 
fruEtus feu pericarpii in Pomis &? Pyris ejfentialen^ 
£5? fpecificam differentiam arguunt . ^od fcilicet 
fruhus bis accidentibus diverft ex eodem femine 
erianturj qu6dq\ conftanti natura lege fpeciem 
fuam femine iterum non propvgent, Atquc hie cbi^ 
ter monere convenit^ varietates feu fpecies novas 
vulgo creditas Ppmorum &? Pyrorum ab injitione 


.- . L 


(quanfUm^is magna curn fiiutia id affirtnent arca^ 
yurum jaSatares) fruftra ffirari^ cUtn^ Fniftiua 
perpetoo furculi naturahi Kqiii, mihf pro certo 
-fe? infaUibili in HdrticUUura aximate femperfii- 
eritj verum fuas babemus differ entias femini de-^ 
beri 6? ex femine novas indies oblineri poffe, ^od 
ikko verum Ifft^ ut varietates etiam in jCoribus^ fo- 
liiSy caulibus fuperiiis memoratas {quamvis vel tran- 
ftatidtie iterdtdde toco in bcum\ velirrigando aqud 
eoldre aliquoimbuta nonnutiquSm ^ci poffe^ Lau* 
temburgid, ih Us . qu^ ipfe expertus efty^ Autbori 
A^n^i'tf aliiffi, affirmantibusfidem non denegave^ 
rim) frequenhUs tamen fdciMfque ex femine in ter- 
•ram pinguem .& opulentam au't alio quovis modo 
A naturati 6? folitd divhfam projeSo oriri minimi 
dubium Jit. S^ariiam aUteik' vim & efficaciam 
babeat ad bac effeEla prqducenda alimentorum 
diverfitas in domefticis &? manfuetis animdlibus pd-^ 
Uf. Ciith eHim feri in plerifqy fpeciebus eofdem 
eolores fervent in univerfum omniaj mMJueta G? 
dome/tied eoloribtts ififinitum variant^ nee coloribus 
tdntbm fed '&• barHis fapore aliifqi dccidentihus* 
Cieli foliq\ dtver/iids quid in bpc gener'e p^t 
pluribus exeniplis facile effet demonftrare. nine 
in Septentrionalibus frigidis &? montibus aliiffimis 
maximam anni partem nivibus obteSis Urfi^ VulpeSy 
Leparesy PerdiceSj Corvi albi non pauci reperiun- 
tury qua in temperatioribus rariffimi occurrunt £s? 
pro monftris fere babentur. Hinc in Anglia nof 
tra boves Lsmcaftreufes v. g. mirum quantum i 
Sui&xianis comuum pulcbritudine totdq\ fpecie ex^ 
temdy a Wallids & Scoticis magnitudine differant. 
Idem eji iS de ovibus^ qua in montojis (^fterili^ 
cribus adeo parum magnitudifte pr^ciunt ut pro 
quinque folidis Jingula veneant ; in pinguibus 
^erp & temper atis in earn molem excrefcunt^ ut 

a 4 duas 


duas etiam lihrds nq/tr^ monehe- vtdeant. ^uod 
J% animalia i/ibac mutuo transfef^Uy Septentruma- 
lia fci. aut tutmUffa in locum Meridi^iMum cam- 
peftriumve^ &f vice verfa^ prrfapiam Juam nm diu 
retinenty verum pauUtim degemnint (S ad ind^c- 
narum menfuram & indolem auediM. 

Dico fecundo^ Dari interim in pUntis veram 
fpecierum tranfmutationem ^m^ino concedendum ^t^ 
ni t^ibus auil^laa £«? gravibus « if^imis fcfiptth 
ribus omnem fidem deragare velimus. Nam W<m-- 
mius Mufei lib. 2. cap. 7. po^. 150. afferii fa 
habere hordeum fuod Hermapbr^iicmn vocat^ pcia 
in una /pica 6f hcrdeum & fie ale cmuinet^ cufus 
defcriptionem vidifis loco citato. Johnfomis fua-^ 
^«^ ^/im/ Gerardum lib. i. cap. 46. pag, 6s.Jl6i 
q/ienfum refirt i D. Goodyer fpicam uritici aJbi^ 
circa cujus mediam partem tria aut quatuar grama 
avenacea undiq\ perfeSa enata Jimt. Et biemtia 
abbinc affirmavit mibi, ciim Oxonii ejfem^ Jacobus 
Bobertus///ff/, e famine Primula veris majorisfibi 
£Xortas primulam vulgarem^ Cff Primulam praten^ 
fern inodoram luteam. Objervandum autem ^» 
iranfmutationem banc dari tanium inter fpecies cog- 
nates &f ejufikm generis participes^ 


Biesfixmina, five 'Exc/th ^i\ML "J^B. Abkt 
Park, Abies k Abies mas Ger. Nos' enim has 
non diilingmxnus, qoamvis C Bauhiniu quo^; 
Biibnium i^ Dithnaum fectttas praeter Piceam 
duas hcbx Abietis fpecies, nuniram Ij; i. e. conis 
furfiun fpedandbos^ five marem, & 11, i. e. albam five 
faminaiii. Hac de re fbfiilks diflerentem vide J, Bau- 
hinmm qui nee Bellonium nee Dothutum Abietem difUnfli 
' novifle demonftrat.. The Female Fir-Tree, In Sueviae & 
Bavariae fylvis primiim obfervavimoSy poftea in Alpibus co- 
piosi. Q^ de Abiete annotavimus vide in Cat, Ang, 

i* Abies mas Tbeopbr, Picea Larinornm, ^vrt Abies mas Theo* 
phrafti y, B. FiooiPari. Picea major Ger, P. major I, five 
Abies rubra C. B. Haec eft quam vulgd in Anglia The Fir* 
tree vocant, inque hortis Sc areis colonc. Cum priore, fed 
oopiofi&s multo. 

Abrotanum fcrmina vnlgare P«ri. fcem. fbliis teretibus C. B. 
Chaxnaecyparifibs y. B. Ger, Common Lavender Cotton. 
Circa copidum S. Cyriad in Etruria copxosi, atq; inde 
incipienao ad Statum ufq; Ecclefiafticum feu territorium 
Rapae fecus vias. 

N. Ventris Inmbrioos fumptum interimit, quotidiano ex* 
perimento muliercukrum, tum femen, turn etiam herba. 
Folia ficca ad •fiften& alba foeminarum profluvia conferre 
icribic Matthioltts. 

Abrocamun ibnnina villofis tc incanis fbliis C. B. Seriphium 
Diofcoridis Abrotani foem. hat Ad. Loh, In Gallo-pro- 
•vindn, mentis celfi D. Magdalene crypti Celebris accfi- 
vfi>iis Lobelio Sc nobis obfervatum. Fragrantius mlbi vifum 
eft Tulgari Abrotano firm, alioqain ei perfimile. 

Abrotanum fonnina fbliis Ericae C. B, Park, Chamaecyparifius 
anguentaria y» B. In coUibus faxofis circa molendlna 

f Abiotanam inodorum Lo6. campeftre C. B, Ger. Parh 
Artemifia tenuifolia five leptophyllos, aliis Abrotanum 
fylvefbe y. B, In Germania, Italia & Gallia Narbo- 
aenfi ad vias & in fterilioribus ubiq; feri. Hanc fpecicm 
^ in Anglia nuper obfeiVavimus^ v. Cat, Ang. 

Ab£nt&ium arborclcens L^, Park, aiborefcens Lobelii J. B. 
Abrotaaaa fonn. arbor^ccns Ger* Abr. latifoliam arboref- 



eens C.J?. Italis Sc Stculis Hiria tianca, Tne-mtrin* 
'iuood. In Sidlia, Regno Neapolitano, $c inAdarom adja- 
centium mpibus maritimis* 

Abfinthium Ponticum & Romadiiin qaibufdam J. B. Alt Cae- 
ialpinus in oollibus argillofis agio Senenfi freqoens die: 
quod & SOS vcnim comperiiinis dim f lorentii Romam 

Abfinthiam Seriphiam Narbonenfe Pari, Seriph. tenoifbliiim 
snaritimum Narboh. y. B, Seriph. Gallicum C. B. Prope 
Poitum Libornum in Italia atqne etiam juxta Monfpeliom 
ad maris litus k alibi. 

Abfinthiiuii tenuifblium Anftriacmn Ger, Pari. Aoftr. tenuis 
folium y. B. Ponticum tenuifolium Anflriacum C. B, Ad 
vias non longe i Vienna Auftrise qui ad Neaix)liu Anibi'* 
acam itur. l)e Abfinthii Eicultatibus oonfule Cat. Aifg. 

Acada altera triiblia G^r. II, five tri£^ C. B, fccimdlL, fca 
altera Diofcoridis Pari, altera Diofcoridis notior Europaeay 
folio Cytifi, Bide 8c filiquis GtmStat-fyatfj (pinofi LoS. 
Aipalathus fecunda trifolia, qux Acai^a fecunda MattKiolo 
trifolia^"^: In Sicilia prope Meilanam ; Italia dircaNea'* 
polin, & Gallo-jprovinda drcaTolonam portum. 

Acanthus fativus LoL Gen Pari, fativus vel molUa Virgilii 
C B, Carduus Acanthus, five Branca uriina J. B, Brkui^ 
urfine^ or Bear's-breecb. In Italia: meridionalibiis drca 
Baias Sc Neapoliii, itemqae in Sicilia copiose. 

N. £f{ e 5 herbis emoUientibus. Ulus potiffimiUtt . gc- 
temus eft in dyileribus aliifq; paregorids quarumcunque 
fbrmulanim Sc ut plurimum in. catapla&iatis. Scbrod. 
Prodeft etiam, audlore Dodonsco, tabidis, fangotnem fpuen- 
tibus, ex alto delapfis, iflu aliquo aur cookta fapra vires 
Isefisy non minilis quam Symphytr major^ xadices, ^uas £Eib- 
Hantia, lento fnccd, Sc qualitate p^xim^ . reftrf. 

2. Acanthi folia ob figune vennjftat»m it dcganttam've^ 
teres Archite£U columnarum oapitulis infculpere fbldiant. 
Froiidibus Acanthi (inquit Vitruvius, lib. 4. cap. i.) Co^ 

. lumnas CorinU^iacas coronabant. 

Acanthium lUyricum Pari. Illyric. pqrpnreum Ger. Spna 
tomentofa altera fpinoiior C. B. Carduus quibuSdaxn dkhis 
Acanthium Illyricum, aliis vero Onopofdon 7- ^* Inltalis» 
Sicilia & Gallia Narbonenfi frequens .occurrit. 

Acarna flore puroureo rubentepatulp.C.-p. Park. Acant&oides 
parva Apula Col. In Sicilia prope M€^Ianam# Italia piope 

Florentianu Sc Gallia Narbonfinfif prppe Monfpeliam, in 
arenofis. . . 

Acarna major caule foliofp C. B.Pari. Acanx £nulxs flore 

purpureo, Chamaslcon Salm^ticcnfis Clu£o J. B. Propi 


tn Exterh Regioniius. il 

kemqiie jixta viat non longi ab oppidnlo Fic in valle 

Acer .actttioribiis Aliis Cr^. ifort. III. five moiitaniun tana-" 
ii&iiiis Sc aaidft fotiit C. B, Acerismajorbvarietas altera 
y. B. In raontibos Stiriae U in AlpSbiis Si^iidicis propi 

*)* Acer majus Ger, imac. ma. latifblium, Sycomorus faIsS 

. didtaia i'/Krl. mat. vraltifrfds^ Platanos J. J9..I, feumoA'^ 
> taaum cahdidom'C. B.-Tht Syatm&rt-iree^ txgrtatir Maple* 
' In montihtM prope-'Genevam. 

Acer majus folio fOttmdiortf mliiiirq; ladnlato. An Acer II« 
i. e. montanom flaTuaoNSTe cri^om C, Bf Obfervaviinuii 
prim6 iii Hetrurias fyiiHs nlm longe i Viterbo, poftea edam mnntihiiB Genevae Ticinis. 

Aoeil trifbliam C. B. Cfedcmi trifbtmrn- P^riF. Monfpeira- 
lanum Lugd, J, B. In fylva Valena prope montem S. Lupi ; 
it^rnqoBin oollibiu juxta^ Cajlebteuf^paa Monfpelio pro- 
pinqaam. Invenimtfi etlam prope GratianqDolin, in ru- 
pibtts. juxta poniiem qaem tmnfimns eimdo a lafiimtaiM 

fue brujlt, . 

N.'-RadiXy prodsnte Plihio^ contnfa 2- Tino jecinoris do- 
loribiis utiliflnn^ imp^tor/ 
AoeCD& ^nootana maxihia v. Oxalis masrima. 
Acetofa Ocymi facie Neapolitana C. B, Neapolitana Ocy- 
ml folio Park. Dcymi fiicie Neapolitana ^uMfi^npi^^ 
C0L In Sidlia & Regno Neapolitano, in Vineis & are- 
Dolis: fraqaenciffima. 
Achillea 1;. Millefolium. 

Acitti polcbhi fpedet^*':^* Cl&ppodimn IV, fivemontanom 
Ci B„ Aoftriacbm Cia/. Park. In* afcenfa montls June 
. variia in lods. Stmt Bafil. 
Aoonitum lycoAonom Nopello fimile Nenbergenfe, fbliis k- 
* dorfbwy fibre pnrpitreo y. B. An Aconitnm Napello fi- 
aiile led minis, caemlenmy pnecocins ejufdim? Hanc 
plantam in fepibus non longe a Memminga Suevise urbe 
. obfervavimas. 
^ Acoakam fblJo Platani, flore Inteo pallefcente 7- -^^ I^» 
five lycoAomtln lutenm C. B. Ibt. Ponticum ferotinum Park. 
luteiun Ponticum Get, Yelkw Wo^-ktne, In colle La 
Bafti9t aliUqufr montibus Genevse vicinis copio^i. 

rl. Facoltate eft hominibie aliifque anlmalibus exitiali 
A f«ndtio824 Semen ejus aut radix in pulverem redadb, 
& oleo tempdrata iit unguentum Ind^ fiat, illim pedicu* 
Jte ac 'ftfrfiuts enccat & abftergit. ^rag. 




Acoiutum hycmak Grr.Pari: hytm.Bdgufam Ld.l, fite 
nnifolium lutemn bulboTiim C. B, Rannncnlus cam floK in 
medio fblioy radice tuberosa J, B. Anemone Bommicn- 
fium nonnnllb dicitoTy qiiamam dicn Ronnnwm Sc per 
totam cdam Lombaidiam copiofiffimi piovcntt» menfis Fc- 
bruarii initio florens. 

Aconitam pardalianches a;. Thora. 

Aoonitam lacemofum <d. Cinriftopiioriaiia. 

f Adianthum duch^X^ ^^ nitcacam TMSfi. Filixiiua* 
dlis 7r4^i. 7. ^. i>ari. fiuot. V, ivt oonucobta C. B. In 
rupium fifluris propi Rbenwa Fl. invenimtis cdam in 
Italia. Thp. Willifdlni nnper in Sooda. «. Cat. Aug. 

Adianthuro five Capillus Veneris J. B. veram» five Capilli^ 
Veneris venis Park. I, fea foim Coriandri C. B. Ckpillas 
Veneris verus Ger, Black Maidnhimir* In bnmidis&iuli* 
brofis rnpibtts Sc puteis^ in Gallia Naibooenfi it Italia 

N. Pulmonum renumqi vitiis nudetur ; hepatis h Eenis 
obftnidiones referat ; Urinam & mcnfes det. Scbr»d» Ve* 
Am ^ de ejus virtutibns Sc ofii intnram libdiom feripfit 
GalliCe Petrus Fonnius M. D. Mooipelienfis. 

^gilops Narbonoifis L$k. Feftaca five JEg. Narbonenfis 
Park, Feftuca Italica Ger, Gtamen Feftncs XIV, five Fef- 
tuca altera capitalis dnris C.B* laSicilia, Italia^ ifirGal* 
lia Narbonenu vulgatiffima. 

Aga^atiun purpurenm Dalechampii y* B, porpnreom Park. 
{erratum Alpinum C. B. In nipibai ad radioes moods 
Salevae & in afcenfu monds Jone prope Gencvam ; Utro- 
biq; copiosi. 

Aseratum SeptentrionaHnm £•&. volnre^ five^ Coftos bar* 
torum minor Park, fbliis ferrads C. B, Ager plerxfo;, 
Herba Julia quibufdam y. B, Baliamita fismina ^vc A- 
geratum Gir, MaadHa Taajf, In Etruria dita .LSno^. 
Hum, Florentiam, &c. itemq; circa Monfpelittm in Gallia 
Narbonenfi abunde. Trago & Matth. EafaiariaM Mefiut 


N. I . Sublbndx tenuis eft, faporis aromadd, atbenvat, 
exterget, putredini refiftit ; Hepaticum eft, laxat alvimi qyam 
blandiinme. Extrinfeciis det urinam* uter&mqs emoUit 
(fuffittt) Schrod. 

2, E foliis buius k Ophiogloffi oontofis uique oleo <^iva- 
rum bollitis, addito cerac, refinae ficcac & 


pneftandffimum, Gerardo faepiito probatom. 
Agnus caftus Ofic. As, fi»lio aon ferrato 7. B. Vitot fiiliis 
anguftioribtts Cannabis modo diipofitii C. B. Vitcac five 


in Ekteris Regionilus. 13 

Agnus caftus G«r. Vitex five Agnos caftas folio angtiHo 
Fork, The Cba/hTm. In Sicilia te Regno Neapolitano 
fatis ficqnou. Agnam caftqm Officinae inqpte appellant, 
nan advcrtentes caShun nihil aliud effe qtubn expofitxonexn 

N. 1. Calef. k ficcat, infigniter difcudt, menfes ciet, 
appedtns Venereot oohibet, femen imminuic. Schrtd, Pla* 
rimas d virtntes afcribunt Veteres, quos confolat qui 

2. Athenis Thefmophoriis Ceicris iacro mulieres caftita- 
tern cuil«dientes foli||i Viticis cubitus fibi fternere folebant. 
node ei "'Aypt nomcn. / 

Abuernus major feu prior /ori. ^«fyj^i;/^# Mbnfpelieniium, 
Alaconus Plioii Qufio & Anguillane Loh. ^pina Bum 
Monfjpdienfium 7. B. Philyca ebuior C. B, In Italm 
pneapue ad mare inlcmm, necnon circa MonTpdinm in 
collibos iaxofis. Folionim iigara U inctTuris multi^m va- 

Alcea pmtaphvUea Park. Pentaphylli folio vd cannabina 
y, B. V, nve cannabina C. B, fruttcofa cannabina Ger. 
In agpribus fbilamm drca Monfpdium. 

Alcea ^o(a 7. B. VIII, five birTuta C. B. minor viUola 
Park. In vinetis drca Monfpdium, k in fepibus non 
procul Geneva. 

Alchimiik minor quinquefblia C« J?. <v. Pcntapbyllum. 

Alcyonium 4 Diofcoridis <v. Burfa marina. 

Alcyonium 5 Diofcoridis, five Auricula marina Car/. Fun- 
gus auricularis Caefidpini C.B. In rupibus aqua marina 
teftis propi Portom Libumum Be alibi joxa Italiam k Si- 

AOcekengi Lm, Halicacabom five Alkakengi vulgare Ptfr)(. 
Solaniun bacdfiamm II, five vcficarium, quod fbliiculi 
veficse infiatae fimlles; vd ut PHuA. z\. c. 3i.quoniam 
veficie k calculis profit, C.B. balicacabum G#r. hal. vul* 
gaty.B. Primo in fylvofis in infulaDanubii juxtaVi- 
conam Auftrise 1 deinde in Italia propi Romam in fcrobi* 
bus invcnimu8« 

N. Hujus baccae nepbritics, diureticse ac litbontripticae 
Infignes funt. Ufus praedp« in calculo renum k veficae, 
in j^tcro (baccae k Mbi) in (anguine coagulato. $chr9d. 
Sumi antem poflhnt vd vino infuiae, vd in fero la^ aut 
Zythogalo decoOaB, vd in pulverem reda&e in quovis 

AUium Alpinum "V* ViftorUUi. 



AUiom rpkaerooepUaiii purpiiKiim fylvefttc J. B, AlHum 
fen Moly montannni pttrpureom elcgantiflimo flore Chtf. 
f4m» An Alliuxn IV, five rphaeiiceiim folio latiore C B, f 
In Gcrmania. 

Alliom fylv. bicorae purpnreum prolifenim J, B. «bt ic* 
conua ejus liabetar U fignia JU deTcripdo. Al. raaDta- 
nam II, £ve mont. biconie angnftifblkun %kx^ porpunf-* 
cente C B. Moly. montanum 2 Cluili G«r. In- GcrnMi^ 
nia inter Lodeihemium U Bafileam. 

Allium fylv. bicoiiie flore obfolcco C. B. bicome proliAnun 
flore intus albefcente, ciun flna pnrpurafccnte cxteme 
y. B. Genevae inter fegetes freq. 

Allium fylv. perpufillum v. Moly mofchatum. 

Aloe vnlgsixis C. B. J. B. vulg. five femper vhmm mnnnum 
Ger. Park, In Sicilia Se Melica inlulis, in murb & 

N. I. Suocus hujos plantK> Aloe didbis, vim praeter 
pufgantem obtinet & exiccantem, cak&dentemqae ; pro- 
ritat haemorrhoidas & menfes, roborat ventriculom, ene- 
cat & expellit lombricosy arcet putFodinem, aftringit, con* 
folidat, exterget, adedque vulneiarium eft infigne. Scbr$d. 

2. Aloe pene Tola medicamentomra quae alvum fol* 
vunt.; confirmat etiam ftomacham, adeo non infeftat vi 
aliqua contraria. Plin, GaUu. Sec, 

3. Quod frequens Aloes ufus haemorrboidum ipenasape-* 
natj ego (inquit Fuchflus) millies obfervavi ; & vo6 ex 
100 eorum qui Aloe ad excemendas faeces utuntor vide* 
bitb 90 baemorrhoidamm fluxum pad ; omiflb v«r& Aloct 
ufii venas illas daudi. 

.4. Caeterum tria Aloes genera in Officinis habentur, 
(i.) Socotrifta, omnium opdma & puriflima, ab infula ^ 
<ot0ra onde advehitur dida. (2.) Hetatka^ odiorem be- 
pads referensy priore imporior. (3.) CaiaMdug^ qme eft 
Aloes craflkmentum, feu pan imporior, arenofa Sc ibrdi* 
bus confpurcata, ideoq; cabalUs feu equit exhibeoda. Hb 
addit Schroderus (4.) Lucidam, adeo depomtam ot trafifpl- 
lens fit : Alii non diftinguont Socotriaaffl ab Hepauca, 
ut neque Lucidam a Socotrini ; adedq; duo tandim genem 
faciunt, Hepaticam fdlioec & Caliallinam. 

Alopecuros Ger. g^noina Park. Gramen Alopecnroides 
fpica rotundiore C. B. Gr. Alopecuros fpica brevi y. B. 
Fax-tail. In Sicilia, Italia & Gallia Narbonienfi, prsefer- 
dm in arenofls, ut v. g. prope oppidum PnmdnianiiMa, 
circa Baias, 8cc. 

Alfine baccifcra Ger. fcandens baccifera C. B. repeat btfc* 
cifera Park. Cacubalum quibtj/dam vel Alfine baccifera 

tn Exteris Reponibus^ , 15. 

y.B. In fejJiboSy primo Qon Ipng^ i Franeofuito ad 
J4ccmm, poftea in Italja quoq; & Gallia Narbonenfi ob- 

Alfin^ folio craijby an Alfine fbedda Fabii Goliiionae Dio* 
fpoiid^ 7.* B. ? Primo & nobis obtolit in Ligoria circa 
Portam Veneris, deinde alibi ctiam turn in Italia, tam 

•f: Ayine foliis hederaceia Rutae modo divifia Lob, xeBtSL tri-» 
phyllo8» five laciniata Park. IV. five tripbyUos caeruka 

. C. B. folio profonde fedo, fiore porpureo feu violaoeo 
y,B. Inter fegetes prope Lovanium. Hanc nnpqr in An-* 
dia invenit T. WiffiTellaSy ^. Cat, Aug, 

Alfine folio obloogD ieirato, flore csemleo J, B, item Eri- 
n08 Cblnnuue minor ejufiUm, Raponcukis minor foliis ia-> 
cifis C B, In maris & ficcioribus Mefianac & Monfpeli]. 
Noa cilm primihn banc vidimus ad fpecolum Veneris 

Alfine maxima Li^J. max. Hifl. Lugdnneniis J.B. AlC 
oUongo folio C. ^. In fylvofis ad latent montium Jurae 
ic Salev^B prope Genevam. 

Alfine mufcoia qoibufdam J, B. tenaifi)lia mufoofii C. B, 
Locis bomidis ad fontes Sc aquanim fcacorigines in mon<^ 
tibos SdrisBy itemque; in Jura & Saleva mox diGds, Plot 
bnjus tetrapetalos eft. 

Altbxa irutex Clufii Gir, Altb. frutefeens folio rotondiore 
incano C. B. Altb. arborefcens y, B. Haec eadem non 
eft com Althasa GShai Jd, lic^t Lobelius velit, fed divenrfay 
ut re^ Citrus; qnamvis Sc banc quoqs fpedem circa 
Olbinm Gallo-provmciae obfervaverimus fpontaneam. Foliis 
eft Malvac vulgaris rotundis, at incanis ; flore majore incar- 
Qato. In mpibus mm longei fpecu Frontignana^ prope 

Alypum montis Ceti, (m Heiba terribilis Narbonenfium 
M, Al. Monfpelienfium five Herba terribilis Park, Al. 
MonTpdianum, five Frutex terribilis y,B. Tbymelaea 
foliis acutis, capitulo SoccifaCy five Alypum MonTpdien- 
fiom C. B, Titulus locum defignat v. g. Promontorium 
Ced prope Frondgnanam. Invenimns etiam non miniii 
copiosc in collibus faxofis juxta S. Chanuu Gallo-provin-» 
cias oppidom. 

Alyfliim minus m. Thlafpi minus. 

Amaiantus luteus v. Stcecbas dtrina. 

Ambfofia Ger, maridnu C. B. hortenfis Park. Ambrofia 
qiiibnidam y. B. In maridmis Etruriip arenofis. 

A^fjaqcbio' i^.<^. PioTpyros. 


xd Catalogue Stirpium 

Anuui yulgsre Ger. Tulgados Lot. Park, majus C,B, val- 
gare majos latioribus fbliis, femine miniks odoro y. B. 
In Sidlia Sc Italia in hoitis, vineis & pingaioribas arvit 
intcrdam niinis freqnens. Hajos difierentiamobiervavimas 
foliis magis incxiis. 

N. I . Semen Ammeos veri (qaod ab hoc diverlbm eft) 
pardom eftteniiiuni, inddity aperit» difc. Hinc convenit 
in dolore colioo & aterino, in meniibus Be orina obftra^is, 
in inflatione ventriculi, uAfq; pnedpo^ intemi eft, hinc & 
extemi. Scbrod, 

2. MIrifici prodeft malienun fterilitati, fi in pnlTerem 
contritom propinetor man^ drachmae pondere ex vino me- 
raco vel carniam jare, tribus ante dbum horis, &c. Re- 
medium eft praeftsmtiin U pluries expeitum. Maiih, 
Amyg;4^1us Ger, Park, Am. dolds & amara J. B. fiitiva 
C,B, Tbt Almond-tree, In Italia & Gallia Naxboanfi in 
agrisy non tamen at pvto fponte. 

N. 1. Amygdalx dolces mnltikm nutriunt, corpos pin* 
guefaciun% humorum acrimoniam leniont, femen ^qiitale 
augenty onde tabidis k macilentis conveniunt. Adhibentor 
autem pnedpue in emuliionibos. 

2. Amygdalae (inquit Galenus ic experientia confinnat) 
nihil prorfus habent &cu]tatis adftringentis ; onde non 
audiendi funt qui in febribus lafUs Amygdalini di<% oTum 
ideo vetant» ne fc. alvum aftringat. 

). Sunt qui fibi perfuadent non tntum efle oemorit 
Amygdalini ufum febridtantibos U iis qui ftomachum bi- 
liofum habent, quia ob unduofitatem fuam fitcile inflam- 
matory choleram aoget & vapores ad caput mittit. Nob 
m cremore undhioutatem iflam non obfervavimus, ncc 
quicquam nocumentorum jam didlorumy licet in icbribns 
ie calidis morbis faepe nfi fumoS) & ntamur ipfi indies 
etiam in noftro corpore. J, B. quem adi. Bauhino nos- 
tra quoq; experientia fuffiagatur. 

4. Oleum Amygdalarum duldum puhnoni & peftori 
ntiliflimum efle noftra cxperientii mnltomm commodo fae-r 
piflime exploratum : J, B. 8c paulo poft» Eft (ane me- 
dicamentum vere luritACOVy & ad multa efficax, Man- 
dum, gratum Sc veluti quidam typos alioram oleoram 
ejufdem generis ; fcimus quid poffit in colico dolore ab 
indoratis faecibos, ab homore acri, in quibus totd & max- 
imo focceftli moltoties exhiboimus. Sed rooenter oportet 
efle expreflum. Dof. a ^iij. ad jkR. vd per fe, vd in 
jure carnium. In confUpata alvo mite, tntum Se probatom 
medicamentum etiam renom dolore divexatis. Eft etiam in- 
iigne anodynum k qnicom propemodom infimtioni mfidi^ 


in Exteris Regionibus. Ij^ 

camen : quibus etiam recens natis exhibetar ad tormina ven- 
tris compeToenda cum Saccharo penidiato ad 5ij. 

5. Magma reliqaom poft expreffioncm olei ad exterfionem 
iiiaiiaum k fitdd^ & cuds IxvigatioDem qnovis iapone 
pneftandns eft. 

6. Am/gdalae amarx calidae font & ficcacy atten. aper. 
cxterg. diuredcae funt, obftraAioni jecoris, lienisy mcfen- 
terii, otenq; conferunt. Extrinfedis lendgines toUont fi 
mafticatae ilUnantor, capitis dolori fobveniunt (in frontalibus.) 

7. Am. amane ebrietatem aroere dicontur. Novimus 
tamen (inquit J. B.) qui amuletum illud in ufu habentes 
nihilo fecius a fiaccho vincuntuTy &c. 

8. Amygdalas amaras vulpeculis fi comedantor lethales 
eflfe tradunt. Marcellus Virgilius in fele pdUfoam eanun 
Tim expertus eft : Jo. Lutzius in gallinis, quae ex ufu mag- 
matis poft olei expreffionem projeAi mortuae funt. J, B. 

Anagyris Ldt. foetida C. B. Park. Ger, vera fcedda J. B. 
In montibns prope Meflknam ic alibi turn in Italia, cum 
ctiam in Sicilia. 

Aoagyris Ger. non fadda major vel Alpina C. B. non fisdda 
five Laburnum majus Park. Laburnum, arbor trifi)lia Ana- 
gyridi fimilis J. B. In montibus Jura k Saleva prope Ge- 
nevam ic alibi in Alpibus Sabaudicis. 

N. I . Folia Anag. foddac trita U impofita tumores re- 
priminit: ficca in (oftb pota menfes & fecundas movent, 
fcstum mortuum ejidunt. Semen commanducatum vomitus 
movet. HsK ex Veteribus, nam Officinis noftris in ufu non 
eft. Quod vomidones fiiciant tum femen, tum folia omnes 

2. Accidit interdnm, ut caprae & oves in Creta fame 
vexatae, hujus folia depafcant, licet odoris fit ingradffimiy & 
poftea ex hanim la6le cafeus conficiatur : quo fi forte ignarus 
aliquis veicatur, aut lac bibat, ftadm excitentur tum vehe- 
mentifiimi vomitus, tum fluxus ventris ; & dim hoc faepiffi- 
me accidat, muld in difcrimen vitae veniunt : quam ob 
caufiun fnicez hie omnibus fit exofiis. Bellas. 

3. Quod Labumi flores apes non atdngant, Pliniuseiimq; 
fecud recendores Botanici affirmant. Saepenumero autem 
Laburnum ob ligni duridem Sc nigrorem pro Ebeno vaenic 
ex quo pulchrae fiunt pedUnum thecae. J. B. 

Anchufa angufdlblia C. B. lignoGor anguftifolia Lot. Park. 
minor lignofior y. B. Libanoddis fpecies Rondeledo ejufdem : 
bis enim defcri^t banc pUntam. In collibus fterilioribus 
agri MonfpelienfiSy auxGarigutt^ propi Caftelaerf^ kc. 


i8 Catalogus Stirmum 

Anchafa lutea J, B. Gtr. major fbribus luteis C. B. lacea 
major Pari. In agris ftenlioribos non longe i Lugduno qui 
Genevam iter eft. 

Anchufa Monrpeliaca y. B, itemq; minor fen Aldbiadion k 
Onochiles eju/dem. IV, five poniceis fioribus C. B. Anchafa 
Aldbiadion Ger, minor purpurea Park. In coUe arenofb 
inter Gramontiam fylvam & Caftrum novum, non longe a 

N. Plurimas virtutes Andiufae tribuont Veteres, qoos 
confule. Radix oleo foluta rubro colore dngit: pecroleo 
infufa 6c illita pneftaas eft ad vulnera reoentia & pon^loras. 

Androface Matthioli Ger, Androfaces Matthioli five Fungus 
petraeus marinus, five Umbilicus marinus J. B. And. Matth. 
five Cotyledon marina, & Umbilicus marinas ParJk. Andro- 
faces Chamae conchas innafcens vd minor C. B. In fundo 
ftagni marini Volcaruxn, inter Promontorium Ceti & BaUe^ 
ruch copiofiifimc 6c alibi in eodem ft&gno. 

Androfaemum foetidum Park, capitulis longiftimis filamends 
donatis C. B. Ruta hypericoides quibufdam, Sicilianae a£- 
nis five Tragiam J.H. In Sicilia & Calabria ad aquarum 
rivos 6c fcaturigines, ubi in fatis magnum fruticem adolefiat. 

Anemone fylv. alba major C. B. magna alba, plurima parte 
anni florens J. B. fylv. latifolia alba, five tenia Matthioli 
Park. In Germania fuperiore« 

Anemone tubcrosa radice Ger. tenuifblia fimplid (lore terda, 
five Oenanthes folii^, flore violaceo hexaphyllo C. B. An 
Italica latiufculis fpinofis foliis 3 Clufii J.B? Itinere a Le- 
ricio ad Maflam Liguriae copiofam vidimus, poftea 6c alibi in 

Anifam Lolf. Ger. Park. J. B. An. herbariis C. B. In infida 
Melitenli magno proventu feritur. 

N. I. Semen attenuat, difcutit, commanducatum hah'tum 
oris emendat; diureticum eft, calculos pellit; lac auget, 
pulmonicum ac ftomachicum imprimis audit. Hinc ufus 

. prascip. in tufli & orthopncea ; in ruflu & inftatione vcntri- 
culi, torminibus inteftinorum, &c. Oleum ejus aut Quin^- 
fentiam ad phrenefin & morbum comitialem commendat 

2. Nos indoloribus ventriculi aflatibus 6c pituitofis hu* 
moribus ortis oleum Anifi magni fadmus, exhibitum cum. 
jufculo, modo paucae dentar guttuls, tres fc. aut quatuor^ 
quod turn in nobifmet ipfis turn in aliis fumus experti. 
Colicos cniciatos quos non potoit ianare [aliis lemcdiis] 
oleo Chymico Anifi fiuiavit Hcionius. J. B. 

3. Infantibiis 

in iRiXteris RtgionihuL 19 

3. Infantibas 3i. exhibitum blande per fuperlora ac in- 
feriora faburram ventrical! inteftinorumque ejicit. Schrod, 

4. Caeteris flatum difcutientibus medicamentis gratius eft 
ventriailo, minus habet acrimoniae & plus fuavitads. 

5. Pinfunt hoc in panem ex quo BifcoAum parant: 
quin Sc fpiritibus illis tenuibus, e quibus generofiores Sc 
aquas vitse didlas eliciunt, leviter contufum ante deftilla- 
tionem infunditur, ad gratum faporem iis iterata deililla- 
tione exaltandis conciliandum. 

6. Anifum Melitenfes Cuminum dulce appellant, unde 
C. Bauhinus deceptus Cuminum dulce Meliten£um pro 
diilin£U fpecic Cumini habuit. 

Anonis vifcofa fpinis carens lutea major C.B, lutea non fpl- 

nofa, Dalechampio natrlx J, B. Natrix Plinii five Anonis 

non rpinoia lutea major Park. Prinio illam obfervavimus 

in arenofis infulx iftius exiguae Promontorio Siciliae Pachyno 

di£lo nuper impetu maris abruptae ; deinde ad fluvium Jrve 

prope Genevam ; tandem circa Monfpelium copiose. 
Anonis non fpinofa parva procumbens lutea. In arenofis maris 

litoribus jprope Cataniam Siciliae copios^. 
Anonis non (pinofa purpurea fiipina minima.In llerilioilbusCala'' 

briae juxta mare/Has duasplantasnondum defcriptas putamus« 
Anonis pufilla fruticatis Cherleri J. B. Trifoliis afHnis. In 

collibus fterilioribus Narbonenfis Galliae inter Ilices, Thymos 

ab'dfq; ^tices multa. 
Anonymus flore Colutea? Cluf. Chamaebuxus flore Coluteafe 

Get, C. B. Chamaebuxus five Chamaepyxos quibufdam y. B. 

Pfeudo-chamoebuxus Park. Primo obfervavimus in fylvis 

Conftantiam inter k Scaphufiam, deinde in planitie quadam 

prope Auguflam Vindelicorum^ tandem non longe aTiguro 

Helvetix plurimam, menfe Maio florentem. 
Anthyllis leguminofa purpurafcente Hore C/uf. Loto affinis flore 

fubrubente C. B. In agrorum marginibus circa Libumum 

portum & alibi in pafcuis Italic. 
Anthyllis altera herbariorum Park *u. Chamxpitys mofchata. 

marina incana, &c. *v. Paronychia. 

leguminofa Hifpanica v. Trifolium Halicacabum, & Am* 

ricula muris. 
Antirrhinum lutcum Ger. lutco flore C. B. floffe luteo grandi 

Cam. flore fubluteo Dod. Circa MeflTanam in muris : unde 

Pctrus CaHellus in Catalogo fuo Meflanenfe illud appellat. 

Inveninuis infuper in rupibus non procal a Petra fanShi 

Hetniriae oppido. 
Antirrhinum purpureum Ger. majus alterum folio longiore C.B. 

vulgare J^ B. In aggeribus foflarum & ad fepesprop^ 

Monfpelium abonde. 

b 2 Antinhinum 

20 CaTalogus Stirpium 

Antirrhinuin minus fbre cameo, ridln ilriato. In Italia & 

Antithora flore luteo Aconlti y, B, Anthora Park. Aconitwii 
falutiferum feu Anthora C. B. Anthora five Aconitum falad- 
ferum Ger. In monte Jura circa verticem Thmri, 8c alibi 
in iftius montie jugi3. 

N.I. Radix infigniter amara eft : venenb omnibus adver- 
fari dicitur, & pecuJiariter radici Thorx. Addic Guainerius 
magnx etiam effe adverius peftem efiicacis:, cui fubfciibit 
Matth. Solerius non modo per inferiorem vencrera, fed 
& per fuperiora largas ait Anthone radices cxpurgationes 
moHri; modum efTe ad quantitatem Phafeoli in jufculo 
aut vino. 

2. Conftderent le^res (inquit J, S.) an radix pnrgan% 
conveniat commoriis a viperis & cane rabido, itemq; pefle 
laborantibus. Quis tandem credat radicem purgantem auxi- 
liari omnibus coidis affeflibus ? 

Aparine femine Coriandri faccharati Pari. In infula ad Prom. 
Pachynum Sc alibi in Sicilia. 

Aphyllanthcs Monfpelienfium y, B. Lob. Caryophyllus caeni- 
leus Monfpelienfium C. B. Park. In collibus juxta Cafichuuf^ 
aliifq; ilerilioribus Monfpelio vicinis. 

Aphyllanti afiinis, &c. a/. Scabiofa. 

Apium montanum nigrum y . B. VI, five montanum folio am- 
pliore C. B. ejufdem Ap. VIII, feu montanum nigrum : 
ejufdem Daucus VI, feu montanus Apii folio minor, ex fen- 
tentia fratris J. fiauhini ; adedq; ex una plantatres facit. 
Apium montanum vulgatius & Apium montanum Parifienfium 
Pfirk. Oreofelinum Ger. In Germanix montofis, &ad 
latera montis Jurx non procul Geneva. 

Apium percgrinum a;. Daucus tertius Diofcoridis. 

Apocynum latifolium amplexicaule y .B. <v. Scammonea MonT- 

Arbor Judae Lob. Ger. Park, Judaica arbor y. B. Siliqua 
fylv. rotundifolia C. B. Primo obfervavimus in coUibus 
Romas vicinis, Tyberi fluvio imminentibus ; deinde in Ap- 
penninis montibus. 

Arbutus Ger. Park. Arb. Comarus Theophrafti 7- B. Arb. 
five Unedo Lob. Arb. folio fcrrato C. B. In Siciliar, lulix 
& Gallix Narbonenfis fylvofis plurima. 

N.I. Arbuti fruftus, memscylum Gnecb didlus, vcntri- 
culo incommodus eft Sc capitis dolorcm inducit. Mihi lane 
quoties comedi (inquit J.Bauhinus) dolorem caufaruntvcn- 
triculi hi fruflus. Ego fine ulla noxa multos edi. Clu/. U 
revera fapore funt non ingrato. 

2. Amatus 

k. M ^ 

in Ex tens Regionibus. 2 1 

2. Amatus ex Arbuti foliis k, floribus aquam vitreis or- 
gaols elici tradit» eamque fenrari tanquam facratiflunuxn 
adverius peilem k venena antidotum. Matthiolus pulverem 
oflis de corde cervi ei admifcet. 

3. Scribic Bellonius in xnontis Athos, tantopere prifcis 
cdebrati, vallibus Arbutos (qui uc plurimum aliis locis 
fruticent] in vaflas magnitudinis arbores evadcre. Juba au- 
thor eil quinquagenum cubitorum altitudine in Arabia nafci. 

Arifarum latifolium Park. Gen latifolium quibufdam J. B, 
latifolium alterum C, B, In aggeribus fepium & umbrofis, 
itinere inter MaiTam & Lucam copiofum vidimus : poflea 
etiam in Gallo-provincia non longe ,a Tolona portu, ad 
montium latera. 

Ariftolochia rotunda Lob, Ger. J . B. rotunda vulgatior Park, 
rotundo flore ex purpura nigro C. B, In Italia paffim ad 
fepes & in aggeribus fbiTarum. 

Ariltolochia polyrrhizos J, B. Arid. Piflolochia di^a C B. 
Pifto!ochia Ger, Piflolochia vulgatior Park. In arvis prope 
Seliam novam agri MonfpelienfiSy Tub oleis. 

Ariilolochia Saracenica Ger, Ar. clematitis Park, Ar. clemati- 
tis re^ C. B. clematitis vulgaris y, B. Circa Monfpelium 
in vineis, foflls Sc aggeribus plus fatis luxuriat. 

N. Ariilolochia utraq; cephalica, hepatica & pulmonica 
inprimis efl ; attenuate aperit. Hinc podeH ad tirtaream 
snucilaginem refolvendam expedorandamque ; ad menfes 
ciendos, tumores intemos rumpendos, venena difcutienda. 
Infuper longae infufio ad fcabiem exiccandam vel vulgo bic 
ufitatiilimaefl. Extrinfecus adhibetur ufu creberrimoad ex- 
iccanda Sc mundi£canda vulnera. Rotunda tenuiorum efl 
partium quam longa, adedq; efficacior, Sc in primis meniibus 
ac fecunoinis ciendis celeb«rrinui. Schrod, Aiunt Sc radici 
haic vim purgatricem inefTe. 

Armeria prolifera Ger. Caryophyllus prolifcr Park, fylveflris 
prolifer C. B, Betonica coronaria fquamofa fylv. J, B, la 
Italia, Sicilia. Germaniay Gallia (atis frequens. 

Armeria rubra Ger. Betonica coronaria five Caryophyllus fylv. 
vulgatiiTimus y. B, Caryophyllus fylv. vulgaris latifolius 
C B, Cum priore Sc magis etiam vulgaris. 

Artemida tenuifolia *v. Abrotanum inodorum. 

Arum venis albis C B. magnum» rotundiore folio Park, majoa 
Veronenfe Lot. Primo in infulis circa Venetias nobis con- 
fpe^um, etiam Nov^mbri menfe virens, foliis viridibus, 
vulgaris duplo majoribus, venis albis i vidimus Sc alibi in 

b 3 Afarum 


Afarum Lob, Ger. C, B,y, B. vulgare Pari. In fylvis ad la- 
tent montis Jurze, qua afcenditur ad verticem Dole difhun 
copiose. Vidimus & in Bavaria. 

N. Crailam pituitam & utraxnq; bilem per vomitum ac 
nonnunquam per feceflUm violenter expurgat. Diuredcom 
eft 8c emmenagogum infigne. Epar, lienem, veficamq; fellis 
aperit. Hinc utile eft in arthritide, hydrope, febribus, 
praecipue tertiana ac quartana, idero. Sec. Folia exhiben* 
tur n. 6, 7y 8, vd 9, infufa aut cofta $e expreftk. 
Afclepias Lob. flore albo Ger, Park. C. B. Aid. five Vincc- 
toxicuxn multis, floribus albicantibus y. B. Per Genna- 
Dianiy Italianiy Galliam Narbonenfem in dumetis & ad 
fcpes ubiq; fere. 

N. Alexipharmaca eft ac fudorifera in£gnis. Ufus pne« 
cip. in peftealiifq; venenofis afteftibus, in obftruftionibus 
menfium, in torminibus inteftinoniniy in palpitatione cordis 
ac lipothymia, in hydrope. Semen commoidatur ad cal- 
culum. Extrinfecus ufus tarn ftorum quim radicum & fe- 
minis eft in ulceribus fordidis ac malignis parificaodis, ad 
idlusinfeftorumvenenatorum, in tamoribus mammarum, kc, 
Schrod. Facultatibus cum Ariftolochia longa conveoit ex 
fententia Tragi. De vi ejus ad hydropem vide J. B. & 
Afpalathus 2 Monfpelienfis y. B. alter Monfpdienfis Park. 
G^fta-fpartium fpinofum majus I, flore luteo C. B. In 
aridis & fterilibus faxofis collibus circa Monfpeliumy Ne- 
maufum & alibi in Gallia Narbonenii. 
Afparagos marinus y. B. marinus crafliore folio Park, marit. 
crai&ore folio C. B. paluftris Ger. ?xg/©- five paluftrisGa- 
leno. In paluftribus prop^ marinum Volcanim ftagnum» 
non longe a Monfpelio. Hxc planta mihi non vifa eft 
fpecic difterre ab Afparago fativo, ficut nee fylveftris ab eo 
differt aliter quam cultura. Quae ad Afparagum annocavi- 
mus vide in Cat. Jfig. 
Afparagus petrasos five Corruda Ger. "petrseus, five Corruda 
aculeata Park. Afparagus foliis acutis C. B. Corruda y. B, 
In Italia ad fepes & in dumetis frequens. Provcnit quoq^; circa 
Monfpelium jn Lingaadocia. 
Afparagus fylv.'aculeatus Ger. aculeaius, fpinis borridus C.B, 
fpinofus, five Corruda fpinis horrida Park. In infula Pro- 
montorio Pachyno adjacente, & alibi in maritimis Sicilian. 
Afparagus fylv. fpinofus Clufii Ger. aculeatus tribusaut quatuor 
fpinis ad eundem cxortum C. B. Ad mare propc Taurome- 
nium in Sicilia. Harum fpecitnim mrminit J. Bauhinus 
|n capite de Comida. 


in Exteris Regicnibus. 23 

Afperub flore c^nileo Ger, Park, cserulea arvenfis C. B, Rabra 
cxrulea eredior elatidrve J, B, In monte Saleva inter fe- 
getes I itemqj prope Neapolin Auftriae ic Monfpelium. 

•\ Afphodelus bolbouis Dodonasi, five Ornithogalum fpicatum 
ilore virente J. B> Ornithogalum ai^uftifolium majos, 
floribus ex albo virefcentibus C. B. Ai'phodelus bulbofus 
Ger. Inter fegetes una circiter leuca a Geneva verfus Sale- 
vam montem. Hanc T. Willifellus in Anglia invepit. 
vide Cat, Jng, 

-f- Afphoddus luteus Ger. J, B. lut. minor Park, luteus 8c 
flore & radicc C B, In inTttla ad Promont. Pachynum ic 
alibi in Sicilia. 

N. I. Afphodeli Veteribos frequens in medicina ofus 
fuit. Videfis Diorcoridemy Plinium & Galenum, qui pluri- 
mas ei facultates afiigoant, Recentioribus nunc dlerum fer^ 
negle^us eft : funt camen qui radices ejus ad idlerum com- 

8. Haftttls legiae caulis feu icapos totus Grsecis amthe- 
ri0s dioebatur, uti Latinis, tefte Plinio, alhuau. Sunt Sc 
qui eo nomine femen Afphodeli flgiificari voluerint. 

Afphodelus major ramofus flore albo j, B, major albus ramo- 
fus Park, albos ramofus mas C B, ramofus Ger, In mon- 
tibus MeflknjB immioentibus^ atq; etiam in coUibus iaxofis 
agri Monfpeltenils. 

Afpnodfilus minor Cluf, albus non ramofus C. B^ non ramo- 
fas Ger. In Sicilia circa S)rracufas U alibi. 

Afphodelus minor Ibliis Mulofis v, Phalangtust Cretae Salo- 

Lancafbnae vems Gsr, emac. *o. Pfeudo-afphoddus. 

After Atticus Itaiorum fiore purpureo Park, Italorum Loh, 
Ger, Atticus cseruleos vulgaris C. B. Att. purpureo & albo 
flore J,B, la afpent Germaniae coUibus fecus Rhenum & 
alibi CQpia(c. 

After Atticus Ger, Caf, Atticus luteus v«rus Park, luteus folio- 
lis ad florem rigidis C, B, In Italia, Sicilia U. Gallia Nar- 
booenfl ufatq; obvins. 

After Biontanus luteus Salids glabra folio. C B. montanus 
ibliis &lids Park, Ger, Conyza media Monijpelienfts, qui- 
buUam Aficns Attki genus, folio glabro rigido J, S, In 
ooUibus juxta CaJUlaetf & aUbi in vicinia MonfpelH. £un- 
dem. obfenravimus in Gcrmania jaxta Rhenum ex adverfo 
Manhemii ; k in fylvis fupra Neapolim Italix, verfus Ca- 
caaid uIcnunBi ooenounim. 

After purpureas aumtanos J, M, AlpinaB caeruleo magnofloro 
Park, Atticus oerulens III, Ave montanus oemleus magno 
itere, foliis oblongis C j9. After 7 Gn£i Gtr» In fnmmis 

b 4 jugis 

24 Catalogus Stirpium 

jugb monds Jvaex, itemqne in montibas maximo Caithnfi* 
anorum ccsnobio imminentibos. 

Aileri montano purpureo fimilis y. B. Videtor J. Baohiniis 
defcribere plantam qaam inveni in montibus fylvofis max. 
Carthufianorum ccsnobio vidnis, quaxnvis per omnia non 
refpondeat Figura aut Defcriptio ; Sc quid mirom ? ctan 
ficca jam ddineata & defcripta fuerit. 
■ After Tripolii ilore C B. minor anguiUfblios ParJt. Atdcas 
Monfpelienfis purporeas, anguftioribus - fbliis y. B. minor 
Narboneniis Tripolii flore, Linariae folio Loi. In pratojoxta 
molendinnm Cajiri novip inq; fylva Valena k alibi prope 

After fupinus Park, luteus fupinos Gufii Gir, Aft. luteus fa- 
pinns fpinofus y. B. perperim fpinofom appeliat. AR, 
luteus XII9 five fupmus C. B. Circa MafSliam ad maris 

After montanus X, five luteo magno fiore C. B. montanus 
3 Ger. Britannica conyzoides, quibnfdam After Paunonicus 
Qttfio y. B, In Gcnnania ad Rhenum ; inq; Italia ad 
margines fbflarum inter Libumom Sc Pi£u. Semper in 

After Iuteu$ lanuginofus Park, fairfutus Gcr. Inteos V» five 
hirfutoSalicis folio C. B. An After luteus XI, five luteus 
montanus villofus magno flore C. B, f After montanus ftore 
luteo magno hirfutus, quibuTdam Oculus Chrifti y.B,? In 
montofis medio circiter itinere inter Genevam 3c Lugdunum. 
Huic non adeo diftimilis eft figuia Afteris anguftimlii lutei 
apud J. Bauhinum. 

Aftragalus MonTpelianus y. B. Securidacally fivelntea minor 
comiculis recurvis C. B, f An potii!ks Afbragalus V, feu vil- 
lofus floribus globofb ejufdem T Certe Aftra^us Monfpelia- 
nns y. B> diverfus en ab Hedyfaro feu Securidaca minoiey 
proinde reprehendit Lobelium, quod non advertent Aftnga- 
lum Monfpelienfium diverfum efte sL Securidaca minore. 
Verum Monfpelienfes, cum ibi efiemus Anno 1665. often- 
derunt nobis Securidacam minorem pro foo Aftragalo i 
Afbagalum autem MonfpelTulanum y. B. nondum vidimus. 

Aibagalus Monfpeliano candidior, & Onobrychis quomndam 
y.B. An Aftrag. V, feu villofus floribus g^xsfis C. B,f 
qui Aifaragalum Monfpeliannm Clufii hue reficrt. pnrpureiis 
tugd. In rupibns montis Salevae Genevam fpeflantibas 

Af^galus quidam montanus vel Onobrychis aliis y. B. Ono- 
brychis X, feu floribus Viciae majoribus caeruleo-purpora- 
fcentibus, vel foliis Tragacanthae C, B. In altiffimo vcrtice 
montis J urse nuin di&). 


in Exteris Regionibus. 25 

Aftngalos major Fuchfio v, Orobus fylvaticus. 

Aftrantia nigra 2jo6. nigra, five Veratrom nigrum Diofcoridis 

DoJ, Ger, Helleborus nim Saniculae folio major ParL C,B. 

' Sanicula fopmina qaiboioamy aliis Helleborus niger J. B* 

In fylvis quibufdam non longe a Monachio Bavarije ; necnon 

in Salevae prads montofis urbi Genevae vicinis. 

N. Hujus radici vim per alvum purgatricem HcUeboro 
albo fimilem fedmitiorem multo ine£fe Gefnenu/primikm fe 
expertum refert. 

Atradlylis Lob, Ger, latea C. B. flore luteo ParL vera flore 
luteo y. B. In Italia & Gallia Narbonenfi ad vias & in 
agrornm mamnibus ubiq; ier^. 

N« Hujus £>lia fnccum fanguineom pncjjenty quemad- 
modum Theophrafhis de Atraftylide refert, qui tamen tuiis 
Sc expreffis non elicitury fed avulfis dum adhuc tenera funt 
Se fucco pr«gnantia» fponte e veni^effluit ; quo modo' etiam 
ex Aloes plants folUs fe Aloen puriffimam & optimam Ne- 
apoli oollegifle faibic F. Columna. . 

Atriplex marina Ger. maritima y. B, maritima laciniata C. B. 
marina repens FarA. In litoribusarenoiis maris Mediterra- 
nd nufquam non occurrit. A noifaati a. maritima omnino 
diveria eft. 

Avicularia Sylvii 7. B, v. Speculum Veneris. 

Avicnlaria muris Camerarii J. B. Anthyllis leguminoia ma- 
rina fiaetica vel Cretica, five Auricula muris Camerarii 
Park. Loto affinis IV, five hirfutis circinatis filiquis C.B. 
In infula ad Promont. Pachynum, nbi arx praeiidio Hifpa- 
nico tenetur, Sc alibi in SiciUa. 

Auricula -muris pulchro flore, folio tenuiilimo y. B. In 
monte Tbuiri non procul a Geneva. 

Auricula Urfi flore purpureo Gtr. A. U. five Primula verit 
Alpina flore rubente y. B. Sanicula Alpina purpurea C. B* 
Prtmo invenimus in Alpibus non longe a Pontitba vico qui 
ab ea parte Limes efl Ditionis Venetianae : pofte^ etiam in 
divis maritimis Regni Neapolitani; tandem in Alpibus, 
Cbmnhify inter & max. Cartnijiiianonuii ccenobium. 

Auricula leporis v. Bupleuron. 



26 Catalogus Stirpium 


BAfba capri 7. B^ Ger. imac, B. capne floribns oUongis, 
MeUndryon Plinii C. 3, Ulmaria major five altera Pmrk. 

Prppe Gcnevam a la Baftie. Invenimus & in HdvecU non 

longi i Scaphnfia. 
Haifa mita v. Agaaiuui* 
Barba Jovis frutex C. B, Cimf. Park. &c. Jovis baiba pidchre 

Ittceos J, B, In divis maritiinis EtnzriaB k Rcgni Neapoli- 

tani oopioB^. 
Bellis fylvadca 7. B. media fylvefl. Cfr. VI, five CyW. me- 

dia, audecarens C. J^. Inmondbos circa Gcnevam. 
Bellia Alpina major folio rigido C. B. Fmri. In fommis jagis 

montis June copiofe. BeUidia ntriufq; faoiltatn quaere in 

Cat, Aug. 
9dli« caendea Monfpeliaca Gtr. caendea II» five canle felioro 

C. B. Aphyllantes AngmUarae, five Giobdaria Bellidi fi- 

milis J, B. Glpbolaria MonfpeUenfiam, Bellis caerelea Park. 

Circa Monfpdium plurimis in locis ; qoin & ad radices 

mondom Jnrae ic Sakva? prop^ Genevam, ic alibi com ia 

Italia, tomedam inGermania. 
iBcUis caeralea 'caide nudo C. B. In fylvis & mondbos max, 

Carthafianorom coenobio vicinit. Haec priore dador eft, 

foliis angaftioribas longxorib6fq; & ommno fpecie ab ea di- 

verfiiy qnioqoid repngnat J. Banbinusy ccd oeite nniqaam 

confpefba fiiit. 
Beta Credca fpindfa Park, Oetka femioe fpinofe J. B^ 

femine acdeato Ger, minor V, (e« Cretica femine acnkato 

C. B. In infida ad Promont. PachvfRim Sidliae. 
Biftorta minima J. B. IV, five Alpina media C. B. minor 

Alpina Park. In fapremis herbidis jam monds Jure copiofe. 

Puto kanc non efie fpecie diverfami nolbate, qnamvis C. 

Baohinos diftingoat. 
Blattaria lutea J, B. lotoa minor feu vulgaris Park. Intea folio 

longo laciniatD C. B. flore luteo Ger. Variis in locis banc 

oUoravimus tarn in Germaiua qoam in Italia & Gallia 

Narbonenfi. Solo fioris cdore ab hac difiert Blattaria flore 

albo, fiquidem ex eodcm femine oritory ut in bortulo noftro 

Cantabrigix ali^nando experd fumos. 
Bitom rubnnn majus C. B. Ger. pulchnim reftom, magnum 

rubrom J. B. In hortis oleraceis circa Monfpelivm. 


in Exteris Regionibus. 47 

Kitum nibnim mmus J, B.C. B. Ger. minus fylr. rabmm 
Pari. Invineisy hortis & fimetis circai Monfpelram & alibi. 
Qaomodo k an omnino fpedfice inter fe oifibnmt aUnim 
zninus 8c rabram mintts, mihi non iatis confbt. Quod tn 
Germania circa Bafileam 8c alibi tarn copiofe prorenit vide- 
tor efle Blitum minus album J. B. 

Botrys Ger. vulgaris Park, ambroiioides vulgaris C.S. Bolrys 
plerifq; Botanicis y. B. In arenods circa Rhegittm in Ga- 
labria, Florentiam in Etruriay Monfpelium tt Ncmaofimi in 
Narbonenfi Gallia. 

N. I. Herba in pulverem redaflty mcU^; inEfeAuarO 
foroa excepta praeftat contra pulmonum vomicaSy quo rt^ 
medio multos ego curavi qui pus fereabant. Maith. Vakre 
dicitur 8c ad d^ores uteri, ad menfes ckndos Ac cmortuot 
fetus cjiciendos. 

2. NonnuUi inter veftes earn veponunt ad tineas ab^poidas, 
8c odoris fuavitatem communicandam. 

Botrys vertidllata J.B.v, Chamacdrys Miis ladmatit. 

Branca uriina v. Acanthus fativus. 

firiza monococcos Ger. Zea Briza diAa, v€i moiiocoocot Ger- 
manica C. B, Zea monococcos, five 6mpkXt five Briza 
Park. Zea monococcos, Briza quibufdam y. B. in Ger- 
mania Argentoratum inter ic fttfileaih qas fegetes vidimos. 

Bttj^flum anguftifolium Lnh. angaftifblium minus C. B. ml- 
gare anguflafeiium minus J. B. minus fadvttm Park. Ad 
vias 8c a^mm margines in Italia, Gallia, Gennama fab* 
inde occurrit. An hoc i iativo aliter quam cultudL dilferat 
confideraudum. Vulgare larifi>1inm circa Meflanam tnve* 

N. Viribas cum Boragxne oonvenit. Plores inter quatnor 
illos cordialcs famofos recenfentur. Omnibus affedibns ex 
' atra bile oriondis conducunt, nt 8t radist 8c folia. In oleri- ' 
bus ufurpantur, valentque ad iedandos dolores varios. 

Bugula *u. ConfoUda. 

Buphthalmum vulgare Ger. Diofcoridb C. B, Matthidi, five 
vulgare Millefelii foliis Park. Chamaemelum chryfanthemum 
quonmdam y, B. Variis Germaniae in locis, v. g. in 
muris oppidi Botm^ propi Coloniam, 8cc, In Italia ^ca 
Florentiam in alveis torrentum. 

N. Ufus Turn hac herba in vino decodla advenus inve- 
tetatam fellis fufiufionem, pota illam decodionem calidam 
hoc morbo laborancibus tanqoam concoqvens 8c diicutiens 
remedinm exhibni, certoq; deprehendi earn extennandi, 
difcutiendiq; 8c edaoeadi citra ddorem ^ periculvm vi 
prsditam. Tn^. 


28 Catalogus Stirpium 

Baphthalmum Cotalae folio C. B, alteram Cotobe folio ParL 
tenaifbliam folio Milldblii fere 7. B, In agris circa Li- 
bummn portam. Vel eadem eft haec planta, vel certe ii- 
miUima Chryfanthemo Valentino Clufii. Chryfanth. tc- 
naifoltttm Bseticam Boelii. Ger, 

Bupleurum angaftiiblium ; AnBnpleanim IN, five angaftiiH- 
mo folio C^.^ Figura Bupieuri angaftifolii Monfpelieniis 
Gfr, opcime convenit hnic plantae quam circa Monfpeliam 
inveniniiD. Eft a. fpecie diftin^ a noftrate Auricola leporis 
fea minimi y, B» 

BnpIenronlatifoliomMonrpelienfeG^. I, fen folio rigidoC P, 
latifbliam Park, Auricala leporis altera five rigidior y, B. 
In fylvis Sc dumetis circa Monfpeliam. 

Baplenrom folio fubrotmido five vulgatiffimnm C. B, An B. 
anguftifoliam Ptfri^ Aaricula leporis ambella latea y. B. 
In Germaniae Sc Italix montofis, ad fepes Sc in dameds. 

Burfa marina & Alcyonii genus 4 Dioicoridi Caf. Arancio 
rnxnaoi Imper, Algae ppmum Monfpelienfium y.B. Alcy- 
onium XII, five Buria marina Caefalpini C. B. Apud Scrip- 
tores noftroft Anglicos nulla hujas mentio, qaod fdam. In 
litoribns maris arenofis ad Sicilian Pwi3um Cerckban didbim 

-f- Barfae paftoriae localo fablongoaffinis palchra planta 7. B, 
B. p. major folio non finoato C. B, Thlafpi Verom*cx folio 
Park. Medio circiter itinere inter Lacam & Pifas ad fepes. 
Hanc nuper in Anglia noftra invenimas fpontaneam, v. 
Cat. Ai^. 

Bar& paflioris minor foUis Peifeliatae; y, B. %f, Thlafpi ole** 


CAcalia quibofdam y. B, III, five fbliis cataneis acoti- 
tioribus k glabris C. B, folio glabro Ger, glabro foHo 
acuminato Park. In fylvofis montium Jars & Salevae prope 
Cacubalum Plinii nf. Alfine baccifera. 

Calamintha montana praeftantior Loh. Ger. Park, montana 
flore ms^noy ex calice longo y. B. magno flore C. B. In 
montibtts prope maximum Carthufianomm ccenobiom. In- 
venimus & in montofis Etrariae fylvis. 


in Exteris Regionibus. 29 

Calcha arveniis C. B, fimplici flore J, B, Calendala fimplici 
ilore Ger, Circa Monfpeliam, Liburnuniy &c. An C^tha 
jninima y, B. t Small luild MarygoU, 

N. Flores cardiaci cenfentur, June k heptiad k Alexi- 
phannaci, fudores movent, variolas expellnnty i^tero me- 
dentar, menfes cient, partum promovent (fumus fubditus 
parturienti.) Aqua deftillata oculorum rabedini & inflam- 
mationi medetar. Folia in olere fumpta alvum leniont. 

2. Deco£liim fiorum Calendulx in Zythogalo fen liqoore 
pofled vulgo praercribitur ad variolas expellendas; ejufq; 
ufus a longo tempore fere inter omnes increbuit. 

3. Planta haec Solfequia & Solis fponfa dicitar, quodflos 
ejus ortu Solis aperiatur & occafu daadator. 

Campanula rotundifolia minima C. ^. J.B. Park, An Camp. 

glabra XXII, five minor rotmidifolia Alpina C.B.f Forte 

enim hx duae non difienint fpecie. In Alpibns Stiriacis Sc 

Carinthiads. Folia hujus ex rotunditate oblonga funt Sc 

ferrata eo fere modo quo Saniculx Alpinse guttatas. 
Campanula minor folio rotundo, fiore cxruleo pentagono gran- 

di. In divis maritimis Regni Neapolitani. An a quoquam 

defcripta fit nefdo. 
Campanula Periidfolia Ger, Pari, anguftifblia caendea & alba 

y. B. Ranunculus glaber X, feu Perficifblius magno flore 

C. B, Obfervavimus banc prope Spadam urbeculam addulis 

celebrem flore albo : in montibus & coUibus Genevas vicinis 

flore caernleo. 
Campanula repens flore minore caemleo y, 2?. An Trachelinm 

five Campanula hirfuta VIII, i. e. Urticse foliis oblongis, 

mnhs afperis C. B. F Hujus meminit Guflus in Hift. cap. 

de Trachelio, qnem adi. In arvis inter fegetes prope Gene- 

vam Sc alibi. 
Camphorata hirfuta C. B. Monfpd. y. B, major Monfpelien- 

iium Park. Monfpelienfium, an Chamacpeuce PHnii LoL 

Circa Monfpelium, Nemadfum, Avenionem Sc alibi in 

Gallia Narbonenfi. 
Camphoratae congener C. B. Camph. Monfpelienfium quoad 

figuram y. B. Antbyllis altera Italorum Ger. Camphoratae . 

congener, five Anthyllis altera Italorum Park. In Germa- 

nia, Italia Sc Gallia Narbonenfi in arvis Sc verva^ fre- 

Capparis fpinofa folio potundo ParA. rotundlore folio Ger. fpi- 

nofa frudu minore folio rotundo C. B, Cap. fpinofa 7- B. 

qui fpedes hafce non diftinguit. In m'uris Sc rudenbus 

Komae, Senanim, Florentise, Sc alibi in Italia. Circa To- 

lonam in Gallo-provinpia colitur. 

N. FloruA 

jO CataUogus Stirpium 

N. Florum gemniae anteqnam expliomtur dceerptae S& 

maria conditae ad nos tranfportantur, & intin^As fac 

loco ad carnes & pifces afiatos adhibentur: appedtum 

ailgent, hcpad Sf lieni ccmfenint obftroAiones conim refe- 

lando. Mcmorabile eft (fi modo venun) qaod fcribit 

Plinitts. Ferunt eos (inqqit) qui quoddie Gipparin lu- 

licam eduDt Pkralyfi non periditariy nee Lienis doloribus. 

CoiteXy radicis imprimis* lienes induratos juvat, tam in- 

tOB aflumptuSy tum foras impofitns ; menfes cdacit, ulcera 

cxterect 3c deficcat, ad dolorem ifchiadicum valere dici^ 

tar* Jc afiedui Aithriticos. 

Cardamine Alpina v. Nafturtjolam Alpinum. 

'f- C^damine impatiens vulgo. Sium minus impatiens Ger^ 

minimum Aifini: minimum. Noli me tangere didhun, 

five impatiens Naflurtii fylv. fblio Park, An Sifymbrii 

Cardamines fpecies quaedam infipida J. B»? Certe 8c icon 

Sc defcripdo huic ad amuflim quadrant. In Germania 

juxta Rhenum, locis glariofis ubi aquae fcaturiunt. 

Carduus chryfanthemus Narbonenfis Ger. Scolymos chry- 

ianthemus C. B. Spina lutea 7. B. Scolymus Theophrafti, 

five Eryngium luteum Monipelienfium Park. In Italia* 

Sicilia & Gallia Narbonenfi* ad mare pracferdm freqoen- 


Carduus chryfanthemus DoJ. Scolymus Theophrafti Hi/pa- 

nicus C/u/. Prope oppidulum S. Lupiani* eundo ad Pe- 

denadum, & alibi circa Monfpelium. Haec planta reveri 

fpede difiert i preecedente* quicquid contradicit C. Bau- 


N. Salmandcenfes tenellam adhuc plantam k prim^m 
germinantem* cum ipfa radice elotam crudam aut edam 
codam cum camibus edunt : ipfios ladteo facoo omne 
ladis genus ooagolant; edamque ejus flore. Crocum 
adulterant* ut quaedam nationes Cnid flore. Hujus aatem 
radice Sues non miniUs libcnter vefcuntur quam Eryngii 
Carduus chryfanthemus procerus caule eduli. Ad radices 
montis i£tna: 8. mil. fupra Cataniam, ubi vulgos cnni 
aceto Sc pipere caules ipfius crudos acetarii loco comedit. 
Haec planta an a praecedente fpecie diverfa fit fabdu- 
bito* quamvis duplo altiiis affurgat. At forte illud folo 
Carduus caeruleus fphzrocephalus minor C. B. Crocodilinm 
Monfpelienilum LugJ. Card, globofus minor Ger. Echi- 
nopus minor y.B, In Gallia Narbonenfi vulgadfEraos. 
Carduus galadites J. B. Apod alios Botanicos hunc non 
invc^o. In Sicilia & Melita infulis, itemque in Italia 


in Exteris Regiombus. 31 

prope phamm Genuenfem, necnon circa Monfpelittm in 
locis rudoratis & inculds. 

Cardans la£leus peregrinus Camerarii J. B. albis maculis 
notatns cxodcus C. B. Silybuxn minus Baeuami Park. In 
Melita & Sicilia infulis. Color feminis in hoc fufcos eft 
Sc minime albas, at in pcregrino Camerarii^ Sc pro- 

' inde forte rediib lefertur ad Silybum majos annuuoi 

Carduus lanceolatus ferocior y. B. Primo invenimas earn 

Sroximi finiem qaem vocant ardeniim^ a Gratianopoli 
oabos circiter leads remotaniy deinde in itinere ab Aa- 

rantia ad Nemaafam \ tandem prope montem S. Lapi, 

tribas Monfpelio leads dillantem. Ed ei flos albus & 

major quam Lanceolati valgaris. 
Carduus parvus J* B. In Sialise agrit non longe a caftello 

PusexaUu ex adverfo Melitse. 
Carduus Cirfium di^his folio ladniato nigrius J. B, In- 

montibus prop^ Genevam. Hie an ab aliis defcriptus 

fit video J. Bauhinum dubitare, proinde Sc ego iTriyjv. 
Carduus pratenfis Afphodeli radice latifolius C. B. bulbo* 

fas Monfpdienfium Park, bulbofus Monfpdienfis, five 

Acanthus fylv. quibufdam, foliis laciniatis y, B, In pra- 

tis Monfpdio vidnis. 
Carduus pratenfis latifolius C. S. Park, pratenfis Trojgi.. 

mollis lapachi folio J. B. In pratis Rheno vicinis drca 

Argentoratum, Bafileam, &c. 

N. Hujus folia in dbis ut reliqua olera expetuntor, 

unde a mulierculis Braffica pratenfis, nominatur. y. B. 

Carduus folftitialis Ger. fieUatusIV, five luteus foliis Cy- 

ani C B. Cardui flellati varietas, Jacea lotea Clufii Lob. 

Spina folfUtialis J. B. In Italia 6c Gallia Narbonenfi 

ubique fere. 
N. Herba hxc .in morbo reeio efficaciifima eft expe* 

riencia Fontanoni ; valet & ad cachexiam, hydropem, 

febres diutumas, virginum decolorem faciem, &C< y. B. 
Carduus fphaerocephalus latifolius vulgaris C. B, globofus 

Ger. Echinopus major J. B. In montofis fylvis prope 

Vicerbum qua ind^ Romam itur. 
Carlina herbariorum Lob. humilis Park. Carlina» five 

Chamzleon albus Diofcoridis Gir» acaulos magno flore 

C. B. caulifera & acaulis J. B. nam has dus fpecie 

non difllerunt. In Germaniae pafcuis fterilioribus & du^ 

metis freqoens; nee minus in Italia, Gallia Narbonenfit 

& circa Genevam. De hujus viribus, v. Cai> Ang. 

N.I. Re* 

32 Cataiogus Stirpium 

N. I. Refert Gefnerns, hajus floris calicem turn re- 
ctntem, turn ctiam flccum nodu daudi, ad Solem tcio 
aperiri. Gerraanis Eherwurtz Hatwr, i.e. Apri HoIm^ 
quia nimirum Apri ejus radices appetunt ; non (ut volt 
Fachfius) quod ivies, fi in polenta exhibeatur^ perimat; 
hoc enim experientis rq)ugnat. 

2. Hujus capitula carnoUy calice, floribos ac femine 
refedUsy ex aqua cum butyro, fale & pipere foave ednlittni 
praebent. Ge/k. 

3. Chamzleonem album ideo Ixiam appellatom ait 
Diofcoridesy quod quibufdam in locis Vifcum ad ipfios 
ladices inveniatur, quo edam pro Maftiche utuntor ma- 
lieres. Haec appellatio ab aJiis Chamaeleoni edam m'gro 
TC&h tribui dicitur : quin & plants cuidam venenatae a.b 
utroque Chamseleonte diftindbe, cujus meminit Dio^corides 
lib. o. compedCy autore Guillandino, quern pmfule alidrque 
herbariosy qui plura de hac voce habent. 

Carthamus *v. Cnicus. 

Carlina fylyeft. vulgaris C/u/. Cnicus fylv. fpinofior C, B. 
An fylv. fpinofior polycephalos ejujdem t Hujus plant2e 
radix eft diutuma, cum vulgaris noffarads annua fere fit ; 
plures quoque ab eadem radice caules ei exeunt, com 
vulgari unus tanti!lm : Denique iloru color in hac flavus 
eily in noflrate pallide luteos. v. Cat, Aug. 

Caryophyllata montana Fork, Ger. montana flore magoo 
luteo y, B. VI, five Alpina lutea C. B. In montibus 
altifltmis maximo Carthufianorum ccenobio imminent3bus« 

Caryophillus arvenfis umbelliferus y.B. arvenfis umbellatus 
ParA, holofteus arvenfis Ger, holofleus arvenf. V, (ivc arv. 
umbellatus folio glabro C. B, Inter fegetes prope Lovaniom. 

Caryophyllus gramineo folio minimus feu fajufraga C^/. 
Caryoph. faxat. IX, {ive minimus muralis C. B. Beto- 
nica coronaria dvt Tunica minima y, B, Circa Genevan^ 
Plorentiam, Lansbergum & alibi tarn in Italia, quam in 
Germania copiofum vidimus. 

•)• Caryophyllus fylv. humilis flore unico C. B, &c. Hunc 
in Anglia variis in locis fponte natum vidimus, v. Cat* 

Caryopliyllus fimplex laciniatus I, feu flore tenuiflimc difledo 
C B, fietonica coronaria tenuiflimc difieda, fi\'e Caryo- 
phyllea fuperba clarior vulgaris y. B. In montibus Ge- 
nevan propinquis, minus tamen frequens ; invenirous Sc in 
Germania, non longe a WciflTenberg Franconiae oppido. 

Caryophyllus montanus major flore globofo C. B. Caryo- 
phylleus flos aphyllocaulos, vel junceus major y- B, Ca- 
ryophyllus meditcrrancos Ger. In coUibus prope Mo- 


tn Ex fens Regiohibus, 3 ^ 

gantiam. Non alia ifi re quam magnitudine omnium 
paitium i vulgari Ave maridmo nodrate dliFerre videtur. 

N. Mirum alicui videri poffit, plantam hanc, que 
nullibi apud nos quam in maxitimis oritur, in regionibas 
tranfmarinis tarn procul a mari provenire. Ver^m nos 
alias praeter banc maritimas in medit^rraneis nafcentes 
obfervavimus, v. g. Tragon Matthibli five Kali fpinofum 
in arenofis prope Viennam Aullrix ; Rhamnum fecunduin 
Qufii non long^ ab Augufla Vindelicoruni ; Altha-am 
vulgarem variis Germanise in locis. Quin & Tragus 
lib. I. cap. 39, fcribit fe InveniiTe magna copia in agro 
Vangionum inter fegetes Papaver corhiculatum luteum, 
quod in Anglia nufquam niii in arenofis Ocean! litoribus 
Caryophyllus holofteus Alpinus tenuifolius Lini flore albo. 
tn afcenfu montis Jurae prope fuprenium verticcm Thuiri. 

N. Aqua florum fylveftris Caryophylli delHlIata fm- 
golari experimento ad pellendum calculum menfura trium 
aut quatuor cochlearium bibitur. y, B. 
^ Caryophyllus fylv. vulgatiflimus & Car. fylv. prolifcr if. 
Cafia poetica Lobelli Ger, poedca Monfpelienilum Pari: 
Ofyris frutefcens baccifera C. B, Caflia lignea Monfpe- 
lieniium y. B, In Italia ad mate inferum, itemque circa 
Monfpelium plurima. 
Catanance Dalechampii ilore cyani, folio coronopi y, B. 
Chondrilla cxrulea cyani cipitulis C. B, Chondrilla Se« 
famoides di^a Park. Scfamoides parvum Matthioli Ger, 
In aridis Sc faxoiis collibus agri Narbonenfts pafTim obvia, 
invenimus etiam prope Gratianopolin eundo ad max. 
Carthuf. co^nobium. 
Caucalis albis floribus Ger, vulgaris albis flofibus Park, IV, 
£ve arvenfis ecbinata magno flore C. B. Lappula canaria 
flore pulchro magno albo y, B. Inter fegetes in Gcr- 
mania pafiim, itemque circa Genevam 8c Monfpelium. 
Caucalis maritima fupina echinata magno fru6lu. Lappula 
6uiaria five Caucalis maritima y, B. XI, five pumila 
maritima C, B. In arenofis Sicilian litoribus prope Mefla- 
tiSLm & alibi. 
Caucalis minor pulchro femine five Bellonii y, B. Sefeli. 
Creticum minus C. B, Ger. Tordylium, five Sefeli Cre- 
ticom minus Park, In Sicilia intra ipfa urbis Meflaca^ 
Caucalis Peucedani folio Ger. XII, five folio Feucedani 
t!. S' Park. Ss^ragiae tenoifoliae affinis, quibufdam Cau- 

38 Catalogus Stirpivm 

ter fegetes non longe ab oppido Ja^ Genevam verAs. 
Hsec planta (me judice) ad Glycyrrhizam fylv. piopiftg 
accedit quam ad Cicer. 
Cicer fativom Ger, C. B. arietinam y. B. fadimin, five 
arietinum rubrum, nigrum vd album Park, Cicera in 
Italia, Sicilia & Melita in agris feruntur, ubi Rullici ea 
cruda comedunt, viridia fcilicet Sc adhuc inunatura. 

N. Quod cicera urinam & menfes cieant, calculos pel* 
lanty ad Venerem flimulent, flatus gignant, fere onmes 
tum Veteres, turn Recentiores confentiont. Extrinicci^ 
adhibetur ^uina in cataplafmatis. 
Cichorium fpinofum Ger, J, B. C. B. fpinoftim Credcum 
Park, In mfula fseplus memorata ad Promont. Pachynani 
in Sicilia. 
Cichorium pratenfe veficarium Park, Col. prat. iurTotain ve- 
ficarium C. B. In fepibus & agrorum marginibus a Li* 
. bumo porta non longe. 
Cichorium verrucarium five Zacintha Ger, Park. v en u c o fian< 
five Zacyntha hieraciis adnumerandum y. B. CbondriI]a 
verrucaria fbliis intybaceis viridibus C, B, Ad oftia ly- 
bridis copiofe : itemque circa Libumum portum, & Fb- 
Cicutaria latifolia hiriuta y, B, palollris alba Park, pala- 
firis latifolia alba C. B, paluftris latifolia rubra ijufiUm 
ab Kac forte non difiert fpecie. In pafcuis montt>fi$ Jorac 
Zt Salevae montium prope Genevam, prsecipucad rivulos. 
Cinara fylveftris Ger, fylv. latifolia C. B, Scolymus Dio- 
fcoridis Park. Carduus Scolymus fylvcftris 7. A Wild 
Artichoke, In Sicilia & Italia, necnon Gallia Narboaenfi ; 
ttbi floribus ejus coaguli vice ad lac condenfandom utonCiir. 

N. I. Apponuntur capita [fadvx] aqua decoda; eo- 
rumque pulpa eflur xum butyro & pipere ; nee tantikin 
<Sapita noncium florefcentia, fed & caules teneriores eli> 
xatos & cum butyro conditos comedunt Germani & GalU. 
Itali raro decoquunt, fed cruda cum fale, oleo & pipere 
vorant. Venerem in utroque fexu iiritant, ut ouod maxime ^ 
unde nil minim fi in tanto predo fint, at fine dbo hoc, 
nifi tempus anni neget, vix uUa opipara fit aut adjicialis 
cccna. Scolymus quoque urinam ciere praedpab traditor. 
y. B. PUn. 

2. Cinane [fativse] folia in liquore pofled [2 laAe 8c 
vino albo] deco^ ad i^erum imprimis cannncndantiy, 
ut medicamentum i^i fecundum. 
Cirqa^aLutedana minoi* Park, minima Col, Solanifblia CSrcMl 
Alplna C, B, la fylyis montofi^ iuas« Gtftbnfianoraxa 
cpci^io viciois. 


in Exferis Regiontbui. 39 

Cirfiom nt, Ckrduus Grfium didlus J, B, 

Cirfium foliis non hirfutis, floribos compafUs C. B* tnonta- 
num capitolis compadis Park, Card^aus Cirfium Monfpe^ 
lianiun> folio glabra longo Matthioli J, B. Ad Ladiua 
amnem k alibi prope Moufpelimn. 

Cirfium foliis non laciniatis virore firafllcac J, B, Hujos 
iconi valde iimile fuit quod invenimus prope Plombinum in 

Ciftos annous 2 Clufii Ger» annuus llore guttato ParA. flore 
pallido, punicante macula infignito C. B, annuus 2 Qufio, 
^ore pallidoy punicante macula infignito y. B, Ad radic^ 
Vefuvii montisy ubi tamen maculam non habet. Vide 
Cdumnam. Suipicatur J. Bauhinus plantam hanceasdem 
eile CiHo annuo ilore guttato Poiut & Tuberarix Myconi ; 
sec iine ratione. 

Ciffais fbemina Ger, fom. Monfpeliaca J. B. foem. vulgaris 
J'ari, fcem. folio Salvias C. B. Per Siciliam, Italiam 4c 
Galliam Narbonenfem in fterilioribus & faxofis collibus & 
fylvis. Duplex habetur, elatior &liumilior^ utredlenotat 
C. Baubinus. 

■Ciftus ladanifera Monfpelienfium C, B. ladanifera, five Le* 
Aaaa Moni^Deli^cum angufto folio nigricans J, B. Ciflua 
ledon c Qufii Cer. An Cifhis Ledon IX, i. e. foliis 
Olcae fed angullioribus C. B. ? In iifdem cum priore lo< 
cisy 8c multo etiam copiofior. 

Ciihis mas folio oblongo incano C. B. mas 4, folio oblongo 
albido 7". B, mas cum HypociAide Ger. mas vulgaris 
Park. Cum prioribus. Cum Clufius in Hifpania tot Cifli 
fpecies invenerit, mirum nos neque in Italia, neque in 
Sidlia, neque in Gallia Narbonemiy alias obfervafTe fpe« 
des quam tres proxime fcriptas. 

N. I. Hujus folia k tenella eennina, fed prsc^ue 
flores deAccant & afbingunt flrenue» unde Sc dyfentericis 
k folutionibus ventris profunt, 8c ulcera fanant. 

2. CiiU radicibus adnafcitur Hypocifiis di6ta» quensid^ 
nodum Rapum Genifbe ; Hax xnagis adflridloria dd quam 
Cifti folia, unde ad omnes fiuxiones, hsemonhagiam, pro* 
fluvia muliebria, cceliacos, dyfentericdfque aftedus pro* 
defl. Succus ejus in ufu e(l. Casteriim Hypociflin, quy 
paflim utuntur Offidnae, ex Hirci barbx radicibus im- 
poftores confldunt, fuccum inde expripientes, ac ut oon- 
crcfcat infolantes. Errandi caufam dederunt Arabes, quod 
Ciftum Hird barbulam appellent. J, H. 

3. E foliis Cifti (Ledon appellati) exudat liquor quidam, 
Ladanum di^us, in mafias graves ex purpura fu/cas 
CQflCiftuSj odore i^dQ f^d fuavi, inflammabilis, accenfi^fque 

c 4 grattto 

56 Catalogus Stirpium 

Chamclsa tricoccos J. B. C. B, Bark. Anbom trioocool 
Ger. Wid(n»''wail. Inter Monfpelium & FrontignaDain 
in collibus faxofis plurimam vidimus. 

Chamelxa Gerraanica 1;. Mezereon. 

Chamxmelum'vulgare leucanthemum Diofooridis C. ^. ml- 
gare amarum J , B. Inter fegetes circa Genevam. 

Chamsemelum chryfanthemum <u, Bupthalmum vulgare Ger. 

Chamacmefpilus Ger, *v. Q)toneaftcr. 

Chamxmefpilus J. B. Cotoneafler folio oblongo ferrate C. B. 
Cotonafler Gefneri Ger. emac, in Append. In fummitate 
montis Jurae« 

Chamarnerion Gefneri Loh. alterum anguftifolium Ger. hy^ 
fimachia Chamaencrion didta angufUfolia C B. Lyf. filiquo^ 
anguftifolia, Chamaenerion Gelnero di£b ParL Lyf. filiq, 
fpeciofa angullifolia y. B. In alveis torrentum & Buvio- 
lum in Foro Julii Italix & alibi variis in locis, v. g* 
Gcnevse ad fluv. Ati-e & Rhodanum. 

Chamarpitys mofchata foliis ferratis C. B. Cham, five Iva 
mofchata Monfpelieniium J. B. Iva mofchata Monfpe- 
liaca Ger. Anthyllis altera herbariorum Park. In faxofis 
collibus circa Monfpelium & alibi in Gallia Narbonenfi ; 
itcmque in infula ad Promont. Pachynum. 

Cliamxrrhiphes Doi. Loh. Palma minor C. B. Palma ha* 
milis fpiuofa J. B. Palmites five Chamxrrhiphes Ger. 
Palma humilis, five Chamaerrhiphes, vel Palmites Park. 
In infula ad Promont. Pachynum Sidliae, itcmque in ra- 
pibus maritimis Hetrurise. 

N. I. Species ilia quam nos obfervavimus' fpinofa fuit, 
prout refle earn defcribit Matthiolus, diverfa ergo a Pal- 
ma humili Hiipanica non fpinoia. Figurse a. apnd Par- 
kinfonum tranipofitse funt. 

2. Pars tuberofa juxta radicem, tenerrimay fapida & 
ori gratiffima (Encephalum vocant) eftur fecundis menfis 
pro bellariis, cardai efculenti modo, cum pipcre & (alls 
momento ; adflringenti facultate poller. Matih. Ad Ve-* 
nerem excitandam hand parum prxflare creditur. £ fo- 
liis Hifpanicae fportulx, tegetes Sc fcopos £unt. 

Chamifyce Dod. Lob. C. B. J. B. Ger. Park. In vinds & 
agris Italix, Siciliae & Galliae Narbonenfis. 

Chondrille vel Chondrilla caerulea J. B. Ch. caemlea five 
purpurea Park, caerulea Ger. cxrulea altera Cichord fylv. 
Iblio C. B. In Germania fuperiore inter Confliientes & 
Moffuntiam fecus Rhenum flumen. 

Choiidrilla lutea J. B. Coronopi aut Cyan! fiidc, tenui- 
folia lutea vinearum Lob. In aggeribus & viocis circa 


in Exteris Regionibus. 37 

MonTpelium & ad muros ipfius urbis. Ad Sonchum Ix- 
vem vulgarvm proxime accedlt. 
Chondrilla rare purpurea, Crupina Belgarum didla Park. 
rara, purpurante fiore, femine nitido deciduo LoL Hi- 
fpanica Ger, fbliis laciniatisy ferratisy purpurafcente flore 
C. B. Cyanus pulchro femine Centaurii majoris J, B, 
Circa Monfpclium in coUe Caftri ttovi, necnon prope 
Scaleam in Regno Neapolitano. 

Chondrilla foliis non difleflis, caule nudo J. B. Ad ra- 
dices montis Salevx, &c in arenofls ad flu v. jirve prope 

Chondrilla juncea Ger. juncca vifcofa arvenfis, quae prima 
Diofcoridis C. B. viminea^.^. viminalibus virgis Park, lx\ 
Germania, Italia Sc Gallia Narbonenfiy in arcnofis co- 

Chondrilla vifcofa, caule foliis obduvlo C. B, vlfcofa faxatilis 
caule Kfmyui^o^ift^ Co/. In Sicilia circa MeiTanam, 8c ia 
Gallia Narbooenii circa Monfpel. 

Chondrilla bulbofa, conyzx hclc, foliis anguflioribus C. B. 
Convza marina LugJ. J. B, In planitie quadara noi^ 
longe a monte Lupi. Hsec planta Conyza aut After 
redlius dicitur quam Chondrilla. 

Chondrilla cserulea cyani capitulis C, B. nr. Catanance. 

-f Chriflophoriana Lob. Ger, vulgaris Park, Aconitum ra- 
cemofum, A^lsea quibufdam J, B, Aeon, racemofum, an 
AAaea Plinii ? C. j?. In fylvis montofis circa Genevam, 
& in Germania ad Rhenum copiofe, Nuperrime & hsec 
quoque in Anglia fponte orta )iobis oilenla fuit. 

Chryfanthemum Bellidis folio bort. Pat, latifolium J, B, 
Hifpanicum rotundioribus foliis Park, Qellis lutea III, 
five foliis fubrotundis C.B. Inter fegetes circa Libumum 
portum copio(e. 

Chryfanthemum Creticum Ger* J. B, Park, majus, folio 
in minores lacinias divifo C, B. In vineis & hortis ok- 
raceis circa MefLnam & alibi. 

Chryiknthemum Valentinum Cluf, v. Buphthalmum Co* 
tul2s folio. 

Chryfocome n;, Stcechas citrina. 

Chryfocome cacpitulis conglobatis Ger, Helichryfum IX, fivq 
fylveftre anguftifolium capitulis conglobatis C. B, Sttccha^ 
citrina altera odora Park, Stcechadi citrinae alteri inodone 
Lobelii affinis capitulis brevioribus 7- ^' ^^ muris & 
nipibus circa Meuanam in Sicilia, Tolonam in Gallo* 
provincial &c. 

Ciccr fylveftre Matth, Ger, fylv. multifolium y, B, fylv, 
ibllis oblongis hlfpidii majos C. B, fylv. majus Park, In-% 

9 } wr 

34 Catalogus Stirpium 

calls y.B. In planitie quadam prope Auguftam Vinde- 
licorum in Gennania. 

Cednis Lycia retufa Bellonio didta J, B, baccifeni I, iiiea 
folio Cupreffi major, fru^a flavefcente C. B. Cedrus Phoe* 
nicca folio cupreffi Park, Oxycednis Lycia Ger, Ab 
hac non diverfam exiHimamns fecandam fpeciem Cedri 
baccifene C j9. tit neque tertiam, c^m ipfe ailerat eas 
magnitudine Tola difFerre. Forte etiam S2i)ina bacciiera 
di^ ab hac non fuerit diverfa : certe h;ec nobis Mod£' 
pelii oftenfa fixit pro Sabina baccifera. £t nos qaoqme 
in eadem planta obfervavimas inferlores & primos in te« 
nellis plantis ramulos foliis pungentibixs Sc acatis, fuperio* 
res vero 8c in adultioribas obtufis & rotundis vefUtos. 

Centaurium luteam pafillum'C B, minimnsi Ititeum Park* 
Inteom novum Col. Ccntaurli lutei varietas Ger. emac. 
In te£to veteris sedificii Baiani Pifcina mirabiUt d&6U. Sola 
floris colore a minore purpureo difierre videtur. 

Centaurium minus fpicatum album C. B. Park. In agro 
Monfpelienfi & alibi in Narbonenfi Gallia Sore purpo^ 
reo frequens. 

Orinthe afperior flavo flore Ger. major flavo Aotk Park. 
Cer. ouorundam major fpinofo folio, flavo flore y. B* 
flore flavo afperior C. B^ In Italia (c Sicilia admodma 

Cerinthe major Ger. major flore luteo & nxbro Park, qno^ 
mndam major, vcrficolore flore J. B. Cerinthe, feu Cyno- 
gloflum montanum majus C.B. In montibus fylvofis 
max. Carthuf. coenobio imminentibos. Perennis mini viia 
eft haec planta : femina a. ei minora funt quam vel por^ 
pares vel flavae. 

Gerafus fylv. amara Mahaleh putata J. B. Cerafos XV, 
five Cerafo affinis C. B. Macalcb Gefiieri Ger. N^uJialeb 
Gcrmanicum Park, qui C. Bauhinum reprehendxt, qnod 
conflindat Machaleb Matthioli & Geiheri. In fepibos 
prope Gratianopolin qua itur a la grand Cbartrufe. Nu- 
clei hujus fru^us caleracitmt & emolliunt, faponarios glo« 
hulos ingrediuntur, pildfque horridiores & dnriorcs emol- 
liunt af&i£lu crebro Matth. Ex iis etiam oleom ocmflcitoc 
jucundi odoris, quo ad illinendas mamcas utuntor. Lmgd. 

Ceratia <v. Siliqua. 

Cerrus minore glande Cfr. Haliphlaeos, five Germs foemina 
minore glande Park. Quercus Burgundica calice hifpido 
J.B. VI, five calice hifpido, glande minore C. j5. In 

J Etrurja ad lacum Volfiniaifem. Vidimus Venctiis Cerri 
^landium calices maximos, quos Valkma ibi appellant, 
9)> Apollonia Dalmatian wbe vulgo hqdc Fallma £CbU 


$n Exteris Regionibin. 3^5 

tmde adieruntur. His coriarii utuntur ad coria foa den- 
£uida. J. Bauhinus horum ufum efle ad iniiciendos atro 
colore pannos Gallarum vice fcribit. 
Chamxbalanus leguminora J, B. Lathy nis arvenfis repens 
Cuberofus C. B. Lathjrrus arvenfis, five Terrae glandes 
Park. Terrae glandes DoJ. Lot. Ger. In arvis juxta Ge- 
nevam k alibi. 

N. I. Httjus radices taberofae fapore funt fubdulci 
Clandis aut Cafbuxeae, aftringente, Ratulentuniy fuavem 
tamen faccom oeant : Sanguinis, uteri, -renum, ventris 
fluores compefcunt. Lob. 

2.' Ex hujus floribus aqoam diftillant quidam, qui ita 
roiaceam ementitur, ut pro ilia nonniipq